Eye Glasses in History Submitted by Abdul Nasser Kaadan, md, Phd ayman Foad Bankasly Contents



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Submitted by

Abdul Nasser Kaadan, MD, PhD*

** Ayman Foad Bankasly

Contents

Introdaction

1

History of eyeglasses

2

Precursors

2

2

  • Lenses in ancient Greece

2

  • Lenses in ancient Roman

2

3

  • Lenses in the 10 th century

4

  • Lenses in the 11 th century

5

  • Lenses in the 12 th century

6

  • Lenses in the 13 th century

7

Invention of eyeglasses

8

Later developments

10

  • Monocle

10

  • Pince-nez

12

  • Lorgnette

13

15

Types

17

  • Corrective

17

  • Safety

22

  • Sunglasses

25

  • 3D glasses

27

  • Reading glasses

28

  • Bifocals, trifocals, and progressive lenses

29

  • Extreme magnification (bioptics)

31

Fashion

32

  • Personal image

32

  • Rimless style

34

Abstract

35

Arabic Abstract

36

References

37

Books

41

Directory of Persons

42

Directory of Figures

44

Introduction

Glasses - also called eyeglasses (formal) , spectacles, or specs (informal) - are frames Bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes, normally for vision correction or eye Protection.

Safety glasses are a kind of eye protection against flying debris or against Visible and near visible light or radiation.

Sunglasses allow better vision in bright Daylight, and may protect against damage from high levels of ultraviolet light. Other Types of glasses may be used for viewing visual information (such as stereoscopy) or Simply just for aesthetic or fashion values.

The word lens comes from the Latin name of the lentil , because a double-convex Lens is lentil-shaped. The genus of the lentil plant is lens .and the most commonly Eaten species is lens culinaris. The lentil plant also gives its name to a geometric figure.

History of eyeglasses

Precursors

-Lenses in ancient Egypt

The earliest historical reference to magnification dates back to ancient

Egyptian hieroglyphs in the 5th century BC, which depict “simple glass

Meniscal lenses”. [1]



-Lenses in ancient Greece

The earliest written records of lenses data to Ancient Greece, with

Aristophanes’ play The Clouds (424 BC) mentioning a burning-glass

(a biconvex lens used to focus the sun’s rays to produce fire). [1]



-Lenses in ancient Roman

The earliest written record of magnification dates back to the 1 st centuries AD, when Seneca the Younger, a tutor of Emperor Nero of Rome, wrote: "Letters, however small and indistinct, are seen enlarged and more clearly through a globe or glass filled with water”. [1] Nero (reigned 54 – 68 AD) is also said to have watched the gladiatorial games using an emerald as a corrective lens. [2]



Figure 1: Emerald Ring Figure 2: Emerald % 2520 Clarity.



Figure 3: Emerald % 255C Gallery Figure 4: Emerald stone



Figure 5: Crude Emerald. Figure 6: Emerald Marine



Figure 7: Emerald 300X300


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