A form of glasses with extreme magnification to improve the distance vision of those with severe eyesight impairment, especially people with albinism, are known as bioptics or a bioptic telescope. They may take the form of self-contained glasses that resemble goggles or binoculars, or may be attached to existing glasses.
United States senator Barry Goldwater in horn-rimmed glasses
Glasses can be a major part of personal image and expression, from Groucho Marx and Buddy Holly to the extravagance of Elton John and Dame Edna Everage.
Figure 87: Barry Goldwater. Figure 88: Groucho Marx.
Figure 89: Buddy Holly. P 31. Figure 90: Elton John. P 31.
Eyewear became a fashion accessory in the 1950s. Browline glasses were the standard for men in the 1950s and 1960s.
Figure 91: Browline glasses.
For some celebrities, glasses form part of their identity. United States Senator Barry Goldwater continued to wear lensless horn-rimmed glasses after being fitted with contact lenses because he was not recognizable without his trademark glasses. British soap star Anne Kirkbride had the same problem: her character on Coronation Street, Deirdre Barlow, became so well-known for her big frames that she was expected to wear them at social gatherings and in international tours, even though Kirkbride has always worn contact lenses. Comedian Drew Carey continued to wear glasses for the same reason after getting corrective laser eye surgery. British comedic actor Eric Sykes, who became profoundly deaf as an adult, wears glasses that contain no lenses; they are actually a bone-conducting hearing aid. Masaharu Morimoto wears glasses to separate his professional persona as a chef from his stage persona as Iron Chef Japanese. John Lennon wore his round-lens 'Windsor' spectacles from some of his time with the Beatles to his murder in 1980. The rock band Weezer is known for some of the members wearing thick-rimmed glasses, as well as actor Jeff Goldblum who is often seen in the Browline glasses style. Singer Anastacia, who dominated the European charts in the early 21st century, is noted for wearing odd coloured glasses.
In popular culture, glasses were all the disguise Superman and Wonder Woman needed to hide in plain view as alter egos Clark Kent and Diana Prince, respectively.
Three-piece rimless and semi-rimless glasses are common variations that differ from regular glasses in that their frames do not completely encircle the lenses. Three-piece rimless glasses have no frame around the lenses, and the bridge and temples are mounted directly onto the lenses. Semi-rimless (or half-rimless) glasses have a frame that only partially encircles the lenses (commonly the top portion). When the style was first introduced in the 1930s, lenses were screwed directly to the front of the frame; most modern variations feature the lenses held inside of the frame by high strength nylon wire, although the semi-rimless style has been around since at least the 1940s. A rare and currently noncommercial variation are rimless and frameless glasses attached to a piercing at the bridge of a wearer's nose. Such glasses have the visual look of the pince-nez.
Figure 92: Rimless Style.
The discovery of the stone and glass lenses throughout the ancient history was the chance that inspired the peoples of ancient Egypt, Greeks and Romans in illustrating and magnifying what the mere eye couldn’t see. Afterwards, the inventions which were based on the needs of humanity started going ahead and the permanent development that led to the advance of those lenses and studied them scientifically.
The development of sciences in the Islamic Age led to the developing of the Arabs scientists to this science and explaining the mechanism of these lenses and that led to establish the theories and rules that explain the mechanism and make more use of them in correcting sight.
In The Middle Ages, and after the flourishing of sciences in Europe, the science of optics flourished and developed . The lenses had started to take the formal original shapes where they put in front of the eyes in different shapes , and at the time, the name of medical spectacles had appeared at the beginning of the modern age , in their familiar shapes that we know nowadays.
The advance of the modern science led to a raise of human need to various and new kinds of these glasses because they aren’t used only for correcting sight , but also to protect the eye from any external effects that may hurt it , and also in other fields .
Web site: Wekipedia 1-^ ab Kriss, Timothy C.; Kriss, Vesna Martich (April 1998). "History of the Operating Microscope: From Magnifying Glass to Microneurosurgery". Neurosurgery42 (4): 899–907. doi:10.1097/00006123-199804000-00116. PMID9574655.
2- ^ Pliny the Elder. "Natural History". http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Plin.+Nat.+37.16. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
3-^ Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992). Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B. Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0-911119-43-4.
4- ^ « Ibn Firnas ('Abbâs) » by Ahmed Djebbar, Dictionnaire culturel des science, by Collective under the direction of Nicolas Witkowski, Du Regard Editions, 2003, ISBN 2-84105-128-5.
5- ^ abLynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture2 (2), p. 97-111 :
"Ibn Firnas was a polymath: a physician, a rather bad poet, the first to make glass from stones (quartz), a student of music, and inventor of some sort of metronome."
6- ^ abcdef "'Abbas Ibn Firnas". John H. Lienhard. The Engines of Our Ingenuity. NPR. KUHF-FM Houston. 2004. No. 1910. Transcript. Retrieved on 2009-08-31.
7- ^ abcdefghLynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture2 (2), p. 97-111 [100f.]
8-Rashed, R. (1990). "A pioneer in anaclastics: Ibn Sahl on burning mirrors and lenses." Isis, 81, 464–491.
9- ^ K. B. Wolf, "Geometry and dynamics in refracting systems", European Journal of Physics16, p. 14-20, 1995.
10- ^ ab R. Rashed, "A pioneer in anaclastics: Ibn Sahl on burning mirrors and lenses", Isis81, p. 464–491, 1990.-
11^ ab Kriss, Timothy C.; Kriss, Vesna Martich (April 1998). "History of the Operating Microscope: From Magnifying Glass to Microneurosurgery". Neurosurgery42 (4): 899–907. doi:10.1097/00006123-199804000-00116. PMID95746551-
12- ^ (Child, Shuter & Taylor 1992, p. 70)
(Dessel, Nehrich & Voran 1973, p. 164)
(Samuelson Crookes, p. 497)
Understanding History by John Child, Paul Shuter, David Taylor - Page 70. "Alhazen, a Persian scientist, showed that the eye saw light from other objects. This started optics, the science of light. The Arabs also studied astronomy, the study of the stars. "
13- ^ (Smith 1992)
Paul Lagasse (2007), "Ibn al-Haytham", Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth ed.), Columbia, ISBN0-7876-5075-7, http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-IbnalHay.html, retrieved 2008-01-23
14- ^Review of Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, Kirkus Reviews, December 1, 2006:
a devout, brilliant polymath
A great man and a universal genius, long neglected even by his own people.
Ibn ai-Haytham provides us with the historical personage of a versatile universal genius.
15- ^ abcdefgh (O'Connor & Robertson 1999)
16- ^ abcd (Corbin 1993, p. 149)
17- ^ (Lindberg 1967, p. 331)
18- ^ "The rainbow bridge: rainbows in art, myth, and science". Raymond L. Lee, Alistair B. Fraser (2001). Penn State Press. p.142. ISBN 0271019778
19^ abcde (Sabra 2003)-
20-^ abcdef (Lorch 2008)
21-^ Ament, Phil (2006-12-04). "Sunglasses History - The Invention of Sunglasses". The Great Idea Finder. Vaunt Design Group. http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/sunglasses.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
22- ^ "....Optics Highlights: II. Spectacles". University of Maryland, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering. http://www.ece.umd.edu/~taylor/optics2.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-01.
23- ^ ab The Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. "Ophthalmic Heritage & Museum of Vision: The History of Spectacles". http://faao.org/what/heritage/exhibits/online/spectacles. Retrieved September 17, 2010.
24- ^ The Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. "Ophthalmic Heritage & Museum of Vision: Spectacular Chinese Spectacles". http://faao.org/what/heritage/exhibits/online/ChineseSpectacles.cfm. Retrieved September 17, 2010
25- ^ "Famous Historical Statements up to 1600". Antique Spectacles. http://www.antiquespectacles.com/statements/1600.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-01.
26- ^ James, Peter; Nick Thorpe (November 1995). Ancient Inventions. New York: The Random House Publishing Group. pp. 292. ISBN0-345-40102-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=VmJLd3sSYecC.
27- ^ Bellis, Mary. "The History of Eye Glasses or Spectacles". About.com:Inventors. http://inventors.about.com/od/gstartinventions/a/glass_3.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-01.
28- ^ "Church of Santa Maria Maggiore". http://www.yourwaytoflorence.com/db/chiese/maggiore.htm. Retrieved September 17, 2010.
29- ^ ab Bellis, Mary. "The Inventions and Scientific Achievements of Benjamin Franklin". http://inventors.about.com/od/fstartinventors/ss/Franklin_invent_4.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-01.
30- ^ "Eyeglass Lenses and Visual Aids from Industrial Production". Zeiss.com. http://www.zeiss.com/C12567A100537AB9/Contents-Frame/6B49EEA709EAE719C1256919003DAE2B. Retrieved 2007-09-02.
31- ^ "What are Corrective Lenses?". http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-corrective-lenses.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
40- ^ Pauline Weston Thomas. "1950s Glamour with Fifties Accessories - Fashion History". http://www.fashion-era.com/1950s/1950s_2_fashion_accessories.htm. Retrieved September 17, 2010.
41 ^ O'Keefe, Jackie (July/August 2003). "The Newest Technologies in Rimless Eyewear". Vision Care Product News. Archived from the original on 2005-12-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20051219152145/http://www.visioncareproducts.com/CE-old/frames_newest.html. Retrieved 2006-01-09.