five terms to describe the types of insect pupae, but for some insects, more than one term may apply to its pupal form. A pupa may be both exarate and decticous, for example.
In obtect pupae, the insect's appendages are fused or "glued" to the body wall as the exoskeleton hardens. Many obtect pupae are enclosed within a cocoon.
Obtect pupae occur in many of the Diptera (midges, mosquitoes, crane flies, and other members of the suborder Nematocera), in most Lepidoptera, and in a few of the Hymenoptera and Coleoptera.
2. Exarate Pupae:
Exarate pupae are just the opposite of obtect pupae; the appendages are free, and they can move (though usually remain inactive). Movement is usually limited to the abdominal segments, but some can also move their appendages. An exarate pupa usually lacks a cocoon, and looks like a pale, mummified adult, Most pupae fall into this category.
Nearly all insects that undergo complete metamorphosis have exarate pupae.
Decticous pupae have articulated mandibles, which they may use to chew through the pupal cell. Decticous pupae tend to be active, and are always also exarate, with free appendages.
Decticous, exarate pupae include members of the following insect groups:
Mecoptera, Neuroptera, Trichoptera, and some primitive Lepidoptera
Adecticous pupae lack functional mandibles, and cannot chew their way out of the pupal case or bite in defense. The mandibles are attached to the head in such a way as to render them immobile. Adecticous pupae may also be either obtect or exarate.
Adecticous, obtect pupae include members of the following insect groups:Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera etc.
Adecticous, exarate pupae include members of the following insect groups: Siphonaptera, Strepsiptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera etc.
Coarctate pupae are covered in a membrane called a puparium, which is actually the hardened cuticle of the final larval instar. Because these pupae have free appendages, they are also considered exarate in form. Coarctate pupae are found in many families of Diptera (suborder Brachycera).