Eight paired bones (bilateral) a parietal



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Quiz 5
1) a) Parietal

- pterion parietal and squamous part of temporal bone

- there are eight paired bones (bilateral) a. parietal - top of the skull

- sagittal suture - between the parietal bones



- coronal suture - between frontal and parietal bones

- lambdoid suture - separates occipital bone from parietal & temporal bones
b) Temporal

-pterion parietal and squamous part of temporal bone



- there are eight paired bones (bilateral) b. temporal - below parietal on the side of the skull

- lambdoid suture - separates occipital bone from parietal & temporal bones0-

- temporal bone

(2) mandibular fossa - articulates with the head of the condylar process

(3) articular tubercle - at the anterior part of the mandibular fossa

c. styloid part - has styloid process

d. mastoid part - mastoid process

(3) stylomastoid foramen - between styloid process and mastoid process

(a) transmits facial nerve - Cr.N. VII

e. petrous part - the following are seen in its inferior surface

(1) jugular foramen - between petrous temporal and occipital bone

(a) transmits Cr.N. IX, X, XI and the internal jugular vein

(2) carotid canal - medial to styloid process & anterior to jugular foramen

(a) transmits internal carotid artery & sympathetic nerve plexus

(3) foramen lacerum - petrous temporal, sphenoid and occipital bones

2. temporal bone

(1) arcuate eminence - a rounded elevation caused by the projection

projection of the superior (anterior) semicircular canal

(4) hiatus and canal for the greater petrosal nerve - branch of the nervus intermedius (in association with Cr.N. VII) carrying preganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers to the pterygoid (Vidian) canal

(5) hiatus and canal for the lesser petrosal nerve carrying preganglionic

parasympathetic nerve fibers (its association is with Cr.N. IX)

2. petrous temporal

a. internal auditory meatus - transmits Cr.Ns. VII, VIII, & nervus intermedius

c) Zygomatic

-there are eight paired bones (bilateral) zygomatic - forms the prominence of cheek

- zygomatic bone - forms the prominence of the cheek

2,3,4 have the same answers

a) foramen ovale

-Infratemporal fossa boundaries- communicates with cranial cavity through the foramen ovale and foramen spinosum

- Mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve leaves the middle cranial fossa to


enter the infratemporal fossa through the foramen ovale

- foramen ovale - posterior to lateral pterygoid plate (mandibular n.)

- foramen spinosum - posterolateral to foramen ovale

- foramen ovale - posterior to foramen rotundum (transmits the

mandibular (V3) division of Cr.N. V and accessory meningeal artery)

b )incisive foramen

- in the incisive foramen are two incisive canals (for terminal branch of the sphenopalatine artery and nasopalatine nerve)

c) Superior Orbital Fissure

- superior orbital fissure (posterior) - transmits cranial nerves III, IV, V (ophthalmic



division), VI, and ophthalmic vein

­-(1) superior orbital fissure - between the lesser and greater wings of the sphenoid

- superior orbital fissure - between greater and lesser wings of sphenoid

(a) transmits Cr.Ns. III, IV, ophthalmic (V1) division of V, VI, and the superior ophthalmic vein

d) Foramen Rotundum

foramen rotundum - immediately below the medial end of the superior

orbital fissure (transmits the maxillary (V2) division of Cr.N. V)

-) foramen ovale - posterior to foramen rotundum (transmits the



mandibular (V3) division of Cr.N. V and accessory meningeal artery)

5)

a) angle

- submandibular gland – major salivary gland

a. almost fills the triangle



b. lays below and in front of the angle of the mandible

- mandible

1. body

2. angle

3. oblique line

4. ramus

5. head and neck



- masseter muscle

  1. superficially placed

  2. origin: the zygomatic arch and bone

  3. insertion: the lateral surface of ramus and angle of the mandible

  4. closes the mouth

- medial pterygoid muscle

  1. origin: medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate & tuberosity of maxilla

  2. insertion: on the medial surface of the ramus and angle of mandible

  3. closes the mouth

  • angle - the junction of the posterior and inferior borders of the mandible

b) lingula

- sphenomandibular ligament – from the spine of the sphenoid to the lingula of the mandible

- lingula - spine at mandibular foramen for sphenomandibular ligament

c) coronoid process

-temporalis muscle

  1. origin: the temporal fossa and stout temporalis fascia

  2. insertion: apex & anterior part of the coronoid process of the mandible

  3. closes the mouth


- coronoid process - anterior to notch
6)

a) b/w frontal and parietal

-coronal suture - between frontal and parietal bones

b) b/w parietal temporal bones and the occiput

-lambdoid suture - separates occipital bone from parietal & temporal bones
7)

a) superior orbital fissure see questions 2-4

b) anterior and posterior clinoid process

-sphenoid bone

a. body of the sphenoid

anterior clinoid processes - medial continuation of the lesser wings

posterior clinoid processes - tubercles at the superior, lateral ends ends of the dorsum sellae

c) inferior orbital fissure

- Infratemporal fossa boundaries


  1. communicates with

  1. orbit through the inferior orbital fissure

- inferior orbital fissure (posterior, lateral, and inferior) - transmits the infraorbital

and zygomatic nerves and vessels

- inferior orbital fissure



passageway for the maxillary nerve, its zygomatic branch, and infraorbital vessels

- inferior orbital fissure - between the greater wing of the sphenoid above and maxilla and palatine bones below


8)

a) Foramen lacerum

- foramen lacerum - lateral to this basilar part (nothing goes through it)



b) stylomastoid foramen

- Facial nerve – nerve to muscles of facial expression



A. after emerging from stylomastoid foramen it supplies

1. the posterior belly of the digastric and stylohyoid muscles

2. and gives off the posterior auricular nerve

- stylomastoid foramen - between styloid process and mastoid process

(a) transmits facial nerve - Cr.N. VII

c) sphenopalatine foramen

- sphenopalatine foram

a. passageway into the nasal cavity for the sphenopalatine artery

b. passageway also for the nasopalatine and posterior superior nasal nerves to supply the nasal mucosa



-pterygopalatine fossa - located below the apex of the orbit,

communications d. sphenopalatine foramen to the nasal cavity, medially
9)

a) inion

- inion - the center of the external occipital



b)pterion

- circular area formed by the junction of the



(1) frontal bone

(2) sphenoid bone

(3) parietal and squamous part of temporal bone

- pterion - area where these bones approximate each other



(a) anterior branch of middle meningeal artery is beneath here

c)glabella

-superciliary arches - extend laterally from glabella

- nasion – depression below glabella and commencement of nose

- glabella - median elevation between the eyebrows (superciliary arches)



- on frontal bone
10)

a) facial nerve

- stylomastoid foramen - between styloid process and mastoid process



(a) transmits facial nerve - Cr.N. VII

- taste

a. anterior 2/3: facial nerve through the chorda tympani nerve

- posterior belly



(1) originates from medial aspect of the mastoid bone

(2) innervation – facial nerve (Cr. N. VII)

- stylohyoid muscle #2



a. arises from the styloid process

b. inserts into the body of the hyoid bone

c. draws the hyoid bone posteriorly and superiorly

d. innervation – a branch of the facial nerve (Cr. N. VII)

-facial nerve (Cr. N. 7 / Cr. N. VII) – the cervical branch of the facial nerve

supplies the platysma muscle. The main trunk of the of the facial nerve also gives fibers to the stylohyoid and posterior belly of the digastric muscles.

- Muscles of facial expression – all are innervated by the facial nerve

- structures passing through the parotid gland

a. facial nerve and its branches

- pterygoid canal

a. nerve of the pterygoid canal (Vidian nerve)

(1) entryway for the greater petrosal branch of the facial nerve carrying preganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers

- pterygopalatine ganglion

a. parasympathetic ganglion receiving preganglionic fibers from the facial nerve



b) hypoglossal nerve

- hypoglossal nerve - CN 12



1. exits the hypoglossal canal

2. passes lateral to both carotids

3. passes behind, under and lateral to the occipital artery on the way to the tongue

4. enters the tongue between the mylohyoid and hyoglossus muscles

5. motor nerve to the tongue

- thyrohyoid muscle #3



a. arises from the oblique line of the lamina of the thyroid cartilage

b. inserts on the inferior border of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone

c. draws the hyoid bone inferiorly or thyroid cartilage superiorly



d. innervation – branches of C1 & 2 via hypoglossal nerve

- geniohyoid muscle #4

a. arises from inferior mental spine on inner surface of the symphysis menti directly above the mylohyoid in the midline

b. inserts into the anterior surface of the hyoid bone

c. draws the hyoid bone and tongue forward



d. innervation – a branch of C1 via the hypoglossal nerve

- hypoglossal nerve (Cr. N. XII) runs forward on the hyoglossus muscle and

deep to the submandibular gland

(1) passes between the mylohyoid and hyoglossus muscles

- hypoglossal nerve (Cr. N 12 / Cr. N. XII)

a. crosses external to both carotid arteries

c. goes deep to the mylohyoid muscles



c. carries branches from C1& 2 to the ansa cervicalis in the cervical plexus

- descendens hypoglossi or superior root



(1) fibers from C1 & 2 run with the hypoglossal nerve

-innervation

1. motor innervation: all muscle of the tongue (except palatoglossus) are supplied by the hypoglossal nerve



c) cervical sympathetic trunk

- sympathetic trunk

1. postganglionic fibers in gray communicating rami to cervical nerves

2. postganglionic fibers in communicating rami to cranial nerves



3. postganglionic fibers in internal carotid nerve or plexus follow the internal

carotid artery into head

-pharyngeal plexus formed by fibers from

1. glossopharyngeal nerve - CN 9

2. vagus nerve - CN 10

3. sympathetic trunk

-goes through carotid canal


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