1. Meaning of chemistry
2. Career prospects tied to chemistry
3. Applications (Hospital, Military, Teaching, Chemical and Petrochemical Industries, Space Science, Agriculture etc).
- Defines chemistry, gives examples and illustrations.
- Guide students to identify career prospect in chemistry.
- Uses posters and charts to guide class discussion.
- Pictures of chemical industries and laboratories.
- Posters and charts.
Instructional Resources: locally available, chemical industries.
1. Adverse effects of chemicals, drug abuse, poisoning, corrosion, pollution.
2. Scientific method.
i. Application of chemistry and adverse effect on chemicals.
ii. Take students to visit chemical industries e.g. paints, tie and dye, vegetable oil, petrochemical industries.
iii. Explain the scientific methods of enquiry using specific examples.
1. Types of chemical industries
- to the individual
- to the nation.
- Uses pictures of some local industries to guide students to identify chemical industries in Nigeria.
- Initiates and guide discussion on the economic importance of the chemical industries.
Excursion to chemical industries
- Takes students on field trips to chemical industries.
- Guides students to observe:
i. the processes going on in the industries
ii. the various ways these industries degrade the environment.
iii. Suggest ways of reducing environmental problems.
Chemical industries in the locality
1. Classification of substances
2. Filtration, Evaporation, Decantation, Floatation, Frostation.
3. Crystallization and Fractional Crystallization.
-Guides students to understand underlying principles behind the choice of a separation technique for a particular mixture.
-Demonstrates the method of separation.
1. Distillation and fractional distillation.
3. Magnetization (magnetism).
Demonstrates the method of separation
3. Pure and impure substances
Demonstrates the determination of melting point for solids and boiling points for liquids.
Demonstrates physical and chemical changes using simple examples like burning of candle, salts dissolved in water, burning of magnesium ribbon and preparation of pap (akamu) and starch.
ii. To guide students to make chalk (CaCO3) as a chemical change.
1. Constituents of atoms, Protons, Neutrons and electrons.
2. Arrangement of electrons around the nucleus.
To guide students to calculate the empirical formula from percentage composition.
1. Atomic number, mass number and isotopy.
2. Relative atomic masses based on C14 isotope
Guide the students to calculate the relative molecular mass of a compound.
1. Periodic Table ( first 20 elements)
2. Electronic configuration of atom
3. Types of bonds:
a. strong bonds (interatomic bonds) e.g. electrovalent (ionic), covalent, coordinate covalent (Dative), metallic bonds.
i. Guides students to:
- identify the first 20 elements
- draw the electronic configuration of these elements
- place these elements in their proper position on a blank periodic table template
ii. Explains the types of bonds and their characteristics.
- Blank periodic table template
Types of bonds continued:
b. Weak bonds e.g. hydrogen bond, van-der waals forces dipole-dipole force of attractions. (intermolecular bonds).
4. Systems of naming compounds:
- Teaches students to write conventional and IUPAC names of common substances.
- Some liquids e.g. oil, water
5. States of matter:
6. The kinetic theory and its applications
Initiates class discussion on:
- states of matter
- kinetic theory and change of state.
1. Chemical symbols of elements and their valencies
2. Empirical and molecular formulae
3. Law of conservation of matter.
- Guides the students to write chemical symbols and formulae correctly.
- Guides the students to write and balance chemical equations.
- guides students to calculate the empirical and molecular formula of a compound.
- perform experiment to illustrate conservation of mass.
- Periodic table of elements
- Coloured beads.
1. Law of constant composition
2. Law of multiple proportions
3. Chemical Equations
- law of Constant composition
- law of Multiple proportion
- to guide the students to report the experiment in the correct format:
- Defines Boyle’s and Charles’ laws
- Illustrates Boyle’s and Charles’ laws
- Write the equations for both laws.
-Pictures and charts
-Piston and pump
-Performs experiments to explain the laws
- Effects of temperature on the volume of a gas.
-Effects of pressure on volume of a gas.
-Definition of gases e.g. cotton wool soaked in ammonia solution and conc. HCl.
-Volume relations in gaseous reactions.
-State the Gay-Lussac’s, Avogadro’s and Graham’s laws.
-Solves the relevant calculations.
-Explains the relationship PV=nRT.
- Cotton wool and ammonia solution; conc. HCl.
- Thermometer and glass vessel etc.
1. Characteristics, Preparations, reactions and uses of acids, bases and salts.
-Provides different ripe and unripe fruits, sour milk, some common laboratory indicators.
-Guides students to classify indicators into acidic and basic indicators.
-Ripe and unripe fruits (mango, orange, pawpaw, grape, lime, etc).
2. Relative acidity and alkalinity (the pH scale).
3. Deliquescent, Efflorescent and Hygroscopic substances.
Guides the students to extracts from flowers as indicators.
Demonstrate efflorescence, Deliquescence and Hygroscope.
-Brightly coloured flowers or leaves (hibiscus, croton, ixora, allamanda, bluebells, etc).
-Chemicals (NaOH, KOH, HCl, H2SO4).
Solubility of salts in water.
-performs experiments to illustrate neutralization reaction
-guides the students in the preparation of salts.
-demonstrates solubility of salts.
-Motar/pestle, litmus paper
-methyl orange, phenolphthalein
-identify properties of water
-list sources of water
- list some water pollutants
ii. Demonstrate causes of water hardness.
iii. Gives the laboratory properties of water as a reading assignment.
-charts (preparation of water, uses of water).
-water samples (river, well, tap etc)
-samples of hard water.
-structure and properties of the allotropes.
-the combusting of carbon allotropes.
-Leads the students in a guided identification of carbon containing compounds in and around us.
-Explains the relationship between carbon and life by explaining the function of some of the compounds listed above.
-Relates the structure of carbon to the formation of various compounds.
Introduces the phenomenon of allotropes using carbon.
-industrial distillation of coal
-uses and products
Explains the location, method of mining and economic importance of coal and coke.
-Real examples of crude oil fractions such as petrol (pms), diesel oil, kerosene etc.
-Shells, fruits, alkanols.
5. Oxides of carbon:
-carbon(iv) oxide (carbon dioxide)
-carbon(ii) oxide (carbon monoxide)
6. Synthetic gas:
-manufacture and uses.
- Synthetic gas:
manufacture and carbon uses
-Explains the properties of carbon (iv) oxide, carbon (ii) oxide and trioxocarbonate (iv) salts.
7. Carbonic acid (Trioxocarbonate (iv) acid)
8. any carbonate (Trioxocarbonate(iv) salts).
Explains the properties of carbonic acid and trioxocarbonate (iv) salts.
9. Hydrocarbon and its main classes.
Identifies the location of crude oil in Nigeria.
10. Crude oil and natural gas
11. Importance of hydrocarbons
List the various fractions of crude oil giving their uses and economic importance.
Gas from decaying foods, fruits and vegetables.
1. Structure and valency of carbon
2. Meaning and examples of hydrocarbon
3. Homologous series (characteristics and naming-IUPAC)
4. Saturated hydrocarbons: composition and structure.
-Explains the tetravalent nature of carbon
-Define homologous series and state their characteristics.
-Identify and write structures of alkanes, alkenes and alkynes.
-Models of hydrocarbons.
-silver trioxonitrate (v) solution
6. Unsaturated hydrocarbons (composition and structure
7. Aromatic hydrocarbon e.g. Benzene structure and properties only.
-Illustrate with models, the stereo-chemistry of simple hydrocarbons.
-Explain and give examples of: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.
1. Origin and composition of petroleum (crude oil).
2. Nigerian and world crude oil reserves.
3. Exploration and drilling of crude oil.
4. Fractional distillation and major products.
5. Location of Nigerian Refineries.
6. Cracking and reforming.
-Guides the students in the discussion of origin and composition of crude oil.
-Explains the fractional distillation of petroleum and gives the students the list of the major fractions.
-Guides the students in identifying Nigerian Refineries.
-Explain the term cracking and reforming.
-on exploration of oil
-of any refinery in Nigeria
-fractional distillation apparatus
-petroleum products: kerosene, diesel oil, grease etc.
7. Petrochemicals as starting materials or organic synthesis.
8. Quality of petrol: meaning of octane number
9. Natural gas:
-packaging as liquefied natural gas (LNG)
- Economic importance of petrol.
-Explains the use of petrochemicals as starting materials for the synthesis of a large number of organic compounds like plastics, synthetic rubber, insecticides, detergents, fibres etc.
-Explains the use of octane number in determining the quality of petrol
-Explains the occurrence, packaging and uses of natural gases.
-samples of plastics, synthetic rubber, insecticides, detergents, fibres, (nylon, Dacron, etc).
-cylinder of natural gas.
-Definition of Physics
-Applications of Physics( in automobile, space, aeronautics, electronics,
Communication, medicine, warfare, etc)
-Career prospects in Physics
-Fundamental and derived quantities and their units.
Teacher presents relevant charts to students.
-Measurement of distance
-Teacher to guide the students on the use of compass bearing to indicate direction.
-Teacher to guide the students on use of rectangular coordinate axis to locate the position of the objects.
-Concept of time
-Ways of measuring time
-Types of motion: Random, oscillatory/vibration, translational/rectilinear, rotational motion
Cause and effects of motion
-Types of force
i) Contact force
ii) Force field
-Friction (Solid Friction)
I) Types of Friction: Static friction and dynamic friction
ii) Coefficient of limiting friction
iii) Advantages and disadvantages of friction
iv) Methods of reducing friction
-Concept of speed
-Concept of velocity
Guide the students to plot distance-time graph.
- Concept of acceleration
-Analysis of rectilinear motion(equations of uniformly accelerated motion)
Students to interpret and apply the three equations of motion to solve simple problems.
-Concept of scalars
-Concept of vectors
-Distinction between scalars and vectors
-Addition of vectors
-Resolution of vectors
-Concept of work, energy and power
-Inter changeability of work and energy
-Determination of work, energy and power
-Work done in a force field
-Types of energy(Mechanical)
i) Potential energy
ii) Kinetic energy
-Conservation of mechanical energy
-World energy resources
i) Renewable energy resources
ii)Non-renewable energy resources