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CHEMISTRY

FIRST TERM SS 1


WEEK

TOPIC / CONTENT

ACTIVITIES


1

INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY

1. Meaning of chemistry

2. Career prospects tied to chemistry

3. Applications (Hospital, Military, Teaching, Chemical and Petrochemical Industries, Space Science, Agriculture etc).



Teacher:

- Defines chemistry, gives examples and illustrations.

- Guide students to identify career prospect in chemistry.

- Uses posters and charts to guide class discussion.


Instructional Resources:

- Pictures of chemical industries and laboratories.

- Posters and charts.

Instructional Resources: locally available, chemical industries.



2

INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY

1. Adverse effects of chemicals, drug abuse, poisoning, corrosion, pollution.

2. Scientific method.


Teacher:

i. Application of chemistry and adverse effect on chemicals.

ii. Take students to visit chemical industries e.g. paints, tie and dye, vegetable oil, petrochemical industries.

iii. Explain the scientific methods of enquiry using specific examples.



3

CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

1. Types of chemical industries

2. Importance:

- to the individual

- to the nation.


Teacher:

- Uses pictures of some local industries to guide students to identify chemical industries in Nigeria.

- Initiates and guide discussion on the economic importance of the chemical industries.

Instructional Resources:


  • Pictures

  • Charts

4

CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

Excursion to chemical industries



Teacher:

- Takes students on field trips to chemical industries.

- Guides students to observe:

i. the processes going on in the industries

ii. the various ways these industries degrade the environment.

iii. Suggest ways of reducing environmental problems.



Instructional Resources:

Chemical industries in the locality




5

STANDARD SEPARATION TECHNIQUES FOR MIXTURES

1. Classification of substances

2. Filtration, Evaporation, Decantation, Floatation, Frostation.

3. Crystallization and Fractional Crystallization.





Teacher:

-Guides students to understand underlying principles behind the choice of a separation technique for a particular mixture.

-Demonstrates the method of separation.

Instructional Resources:

-Water


-Sand

-Common salt

-Filter paper

-Evaporation dish




6

STANDARD SEPARATION TECHNIQUES FOR MIXTURES

1. Distillation and fractional distillation.

2. Precipitation

3. Magnetization (magnetism).



Teacher:

Demonstrates the method of separation


Instructional Resources:

  • Liebing condenser

  • Magnets

7

STANDARD SEPARATION TECHNIQUES FOR MIXTURES

1. Chromatography

2. Sublimation

3. Pure and impure substances



Teacher:

Demonstrates the determination of melting point for solids and boiling points for liquids.


Instructional Resources:

  • Ink

  • Separating funnel,

  • Cubes of sugar.

8

PARTICULAR NATURE OF MATTER

  1. Physical and chemical changes

  2. Atoms and molecules

  3. Dalton’s Atomic theory

Teacher:

Demonstrates physical and chemical changes using simple examples like burning of candle, salts dissolved in water, burning of magnesium ribbon and preparation of pap (akamu) and starch.

ii. To guide students to make chalk (CaCO3) as a chemical change.

Instructional Resources:


  • Water

  • Common salt

  • Sugar

  • Candle

  • Matches

  • Models (coloured beads)

  • Calcium carbonate (calcium trioxocarbonate iv) [CaCO3]

9.

PARTICULAR NATURE OF MATTER

1. Constituents of atoms, Protons, Neutrons and electrons.

2. Arrangement of electrons around the nucleus.


Teacher:

To guide students to calculate the empirical formula from percentage composition.



10

PARTICULAR NATURE OF MATTER

1. Atomic number, mass number and isotopy.

2. Relative atomic masses based on C14 isotope


Teacher:

Guide the students to calculate the relative molecular mass of a compound.



11

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CHEMISTRY

SS 1 SECOND TERM


WEEK

TOPIC / CONTENT

ACTIVITIES

1

CHEMICAL COMBINATION

1. Periodic Table ( first 20 elements)

2. Electronic configuration of atom

3. Types of bonds:

a. strong bonds (interatomic bonds) e.g. electrovalent (ionic), covalent, coordinate covalent (Dative), metallic bonds.


Teacher:

i. Guides students to:

- identify the first 20 elements

- draw the electronic configuration of these elements

- place these elements in their proper position on a blank periodic table template

ii. Explains the types of bonds and their characteristics.


Instructional Resources:

- Blank periodic table template

- Models

- Charts


- Table salt.

2

CHEMICAL COMBINATION

Types of bonds continued:

b. Weak bonds e.g. hydrogen bond, van-der waals forces dipole-dipole force of attractions. (intermolecular bonds).

4. Systems of naming compounds:

- conventional

- IUPAC


Note: any of these 2 naming systems is acceptable at this level.

Teacher:

- Uses simple demonstrations to illustrate the type of bond in common substances like camphor, common salt (NaCl), sulphur, etc.

- Teaches students to write conventional and IUPAC names of common substances.


Instructional Resources:

- Sugar


- Camphor balls

- Some liquids e.g. oil, water

- Aerosol.


3

CHEMICAL COMBINATION

5. States of matter:

- solid

- liquid


- gaseous state

6. The kinetic theory and its applications



Teacher:

Initiates class discussion on:

- states of matter

- kinetic theory and change of state.



4

SYMBOLS, FORMULAE AND EQUATION

1. Chemical symbols of elements and their valencies

2. Empirical and molecular formulae

3. Law of conservation of matter.



Teacher:

- Guides the students to write chemical symbols and formulae correctly.

- Guides the students to write and balance chemical equations.

- guides students to calculate the empirical and molecular formula of a compound.

- perform experiment to illustrate conservation of mass.
Instructional Resources:

- Periodic table of elements

- Coloured beads.


5

SYMBOLS, FORMULAE AND EQUATION

1. Law of constant composition

2. Law of multiple proportions

3. Chemical Equations



Teacher: Performs experiments to illustrate:

- law of Constant composition

- law of Multiple proportion

- to guide the students to report the experiment in the correct format:

- Aim

- Objective



- Method

- Diagram

- Result

- Discussion

- Conclusion


6

GAS LAWS

  1. Boyle’s law

  2. Charle’s law

  3. General gas equation

Teacher:

- Defines Boyle’s and Charles’ laws

- Illustrates Boyle’s and Charles’ laws

- Write the equations for both laws.


Instructional Resources:

-Pictures and charts

-Piston and pump


7

GAS LAWS

  1. Gay-Lussac’s law

  2. Avogadro’s law

  3. Ideal gas equation

Teacher:

-Performs experiments to explain the laws

- Effects of temperature on the volume of a gas.

-Effects of pressure on volume of a gas.



8

GAS LAWS

  1. Graham’s law

  2. Molar volume of gases

  3. Avogadro’s number and the mole concept

  4. Calculations based on the Gas law.

Teacher:

-Definition of gases e.g. cotton wool soaked in ammonia solution and conc. HCl.

-Volume relations in gaseous reactions.

-State the Gay-Lussac’s, Avogadro’s and Graham’s laws.

-Solves the relevant calculations.

-Explains the relationship PV=nRT.


Instructional Resources:

- Cotton wool and ammonia solution; conc. HCl.

- Thermometer and glass vessel etc.


9

ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS

1. Characteristics, Preparations, reactions and uses of acids, bases and salts.



Teacher:

-Provides different ripe and unripe fruits, sour milk, some common laboratory indicators.

-Guides students to classify indicators into acidic and basic indicators.
Instructional Resources:

-Ripe and unripe fruits (mango, orange, pawpaw, grape, lime, etc).

-Sour milk.


10

ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS

2. Relative acidity and alkalinity (the pH scale).

3. Deliquescent, Efflorescent and Hygroscopic substances.


Teacher:

Guides the students to extracts from flowers as indicators.

Demonstrate efflorescence, Deliquescence and Hygroscope.
Instructional Resource:

-Brightly coloured flowers or leaves (hibiscus, croton, ixora, allamanda, bluebells, etc).

-Chemicals (NaOH, KOH, HCl, H2SO4).


11

ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS

Solubility of salts in water.



Teacher:

-performs experiments to illustrate neutralization reaction

-guides the students in the preparation of salts.

-demonstrates solubility of salts.


Instructional Resources:

-Distilled water

-Acetone

-Ethanol


-Filter paper

-Motar/pestle, litmus paper

-methyl orange, phenolphthalein


12

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CHEMISTRY
SS 1 THIRD TERM


WEEK

TOPIC / CONTENT

ACTIVITIES

1

WATER

  1. Sources of water

  2. Types of water (soft and hard water)

  3. Water pollutants

  4. Uses of water

  5. Laboratory preparation of water

Teacher:

i. Guides students to:

-identify properties of water

-list sources of water

- list some water pollutants

ii. Demonstrate causes of water hardness.

iii. Gives the laboratory properties of water as a reading assignment.
Instructional Resources:

-charts (preparation of water, uses of water).

-water samples (river, well, tap etc)

-soap


-samples of contaminated water

-samples of hard water.



2

CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS

  1. Carbon: structure of carbon

  2. Allotropes of carbon

-charcoal, graphite and diamond

-structure and properties of the allotropes.

-the combusting of carbon allotropes.


Teacher:

-Leads the students in a guided identification of carbon containing compounds in and around us.

-Explains the relationship between carbon and life by explaining the function of some of the compounds listed above.

-Relates the structure of carbon to the formation of various compounds.

Introduces the phenomenon of allotropes using carbon.

Instructional Resources:


  1. Samples of carbon-containing compounds in and around us, e.g. stick, paper, coal etc.

  2. Models or coloured beads.

3

CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS

  1. Coal:

-different types

-industrial distillation of coal

-uses and products

4. Coke:


- gasification and uses.

Teacher:

Explains the location, method of mining and economic importance of coal and coke.


Instructional Resource:

-Real examples of crude oil fractions such as petrol (pms), diesel oil, kerosene etc.

-Shells, fruits, alkanols.


4

CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS

5. Oxides of carbon:

-carbon(iv) oxide (carbon dioxide)

-carbon(ii) oxide (carbon monoxide)

6. Synthetic gas:

-manufacture and uses.



Teacher:

- Synthetic gas:

manufacture and carbon uses

-Explains the properties of carbon (iv) oxide, carbon (ii) oxide and trioxocarbonate (iv) salts.


Instructional Resources:

-carbonates

-glass vessels.


5

CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS

7. Carbonic acid (Trioxocarbonate (iv) acid)

8. any carbonate (Trioxocarbonate(iv) salts).


Teacher:

Explains the properties of carbonic acid and trioxocarbonate (iv) salts.



6

CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS

9. Hydrocarbon and its main classes.



Teacher:

Identifies the location of crude oil in Nigeria.



7

CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS

10. Crude oil and natural gas

11. Importance of hydrocarbons


Teacher:

List the various fractions of crude oil giving their uses and economic importance.


Instructional Resources:

Gas from decaying foods, fruits and vegetables.



8

HYDROCARBONS

1. Structure and valency of carbon

2. Meaning and examples of hydrocarbon

3. Homologous series (characteristics and naming-IUPAC)

4. Saturated hydrocarbons: composition and structure.


Teacher:

-Explains the tetravalent nature of carbon

-Define homologous series and state their characteristics.

-Identify and write structures of alkanes, alkenes and alkynes.


Instructional Resources:

-Models of hydrocarbons.

-baromime water

-silver trioxonitrate (v) solution

-charts

-coloured beads.



9

HYDROCARBONS

5. Isomerism

6. Unsaturated hydrocarbons (composition and structure

7. Aromatic hydrocarbon e.g. Benzene structure and properties only.



Teacher:

-Illustrate with models, the stereo-chemistry of simple hydrocarbons.

-Explain and give examples of: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.


10

PETROLEUM OR CRUDE OIL

1. Origin and composition of petroleum (crude oil).

2. Nigerian and world crude oil reserves.

3. Exploration and drilling of crude oil.

4. Fractional distillation and major products.

5. Location of Nigerian Refineries.

6. Cracking and reforming.


Teacher:

-Guides the students in the discussion of origin and composition of crude oil.

-Explains the fractional distillation of petroleum and gives the students the list of the major fractions.

-Guides the students in identifying Nigerian Refineries.

-Explain the term cracking and reforming.
Instructional Resource:

1. Pictures:

-on exploration of oil

-of any refinery in Nigeria

-fractional distillation apparatus

-petroleum products: kerosene, diesel oil, grease etc.



11

PETROLEUM OR CRUDE OIL

7. Petrochemicals as starting materials or organic synthesis.

8. Quality of petrol: meaning of octane number

9. Natural gas:

-occurrence

-packaging as liquefied natural gas (LNG)

-uses

- Economic importance of petrol.



Teacher:

-Explains the use of petrochemicals as starting materials for the synthesis of a large number of organic compounds like plastics, synthetic rubber, insecticides, detergents, fibres etc.

-Explains the use of octane number in determining the quality of petrol

-Explains the occurrence, packaging and uses of natural gases.


Instructional Resources:

-samples of plastics, synthetic rubber, insecticides, detergents, fibres, (nylon, Dacron, etc).

-cylinder of natural gas.


12

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PHYSICS

SS 1 FIRST TERM

WEEK

TOPIC/ CONTENT

ACTIVITIES

1

INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS

-Definition of Physics

-Applications of Physics( in automobile, space, aeronautics, electronics,

Communication, medicine, warfare, etc)

-Career prospects in Physics

-Fundamental and derived quantities and their units.


Teacher presents relevant charts to students.



2

POSITION, DISTANCE, AND DISPLACEMENT

-Measurement of distance


-Concept of direction
-Concept of position and position coordinate

-Teacher to guides the students on the use of the meter rule, the vernier caliper, and micrometer screw gauge.

-Teacher to guide the students on the use of compass bearing to indicate direction.

-Teacher to guide the students on use of rectangular coordinate axis to locate the position of the objects.


3

TIME

-Concept of time

-Ways of measuring time


Teacher to guide the students on the use of stop clocks/watches to measure time intervals.

4

MOTION

-Types of motion: Random, oscillatory/vibration, translational/rectilinear, rotational motion

-Relative Motion


Teacher to use the following to demonstrate types of motion: simple pendulum, loaded spiral spring, rotating fan, etc.

5

MOTION

Cause and effects of motion

-Types of force

i) Contact force

ii) Force field
-Friction (Solid Friction)

I) Types of Friction: Static friction and dynamic friction

ii) Coefficient of limiting friction

iii) Advantages and disadvantages of friction

iv) Methods of reducing friction


Teacher: Uses of the following to demonstrate contact force and force field: spring balance and magnets

6

SPEED AND VELOCITY

-Concept of speed

-Concept of velocity

-Uniform/Non-uniform speed/Velocity

-Distance/Displacement-time graph


Teacher: Runs or rolls an object through a measured distance, measure the time taken and calculate the speed.

Guide the students to plot distance-time graph.



7

RECTILINEAR ACCELERATION

- Concept of acceleration

-Uniform/Non-uniform acceleration

-Velocity-time graph

-Analysis of rectilinear motion(equations of uniformly accelerated motion)


Teacher: Guides the student on the plotting of velocity-time graph and on the derivation of the three equations of the uniformly accelerated motion.

Students to interpret and apply the three equations of motion to solve simple problems.



8

SCALARS AND VECTORS

-Concept of scalars

-Concept of vectors

-Distinction between scalars and vectors

-Vector representation


Teacher to guide the student on how to represent vector in their note books.

9

VECTORS

-Addition of vectors

-Resolution of vectors


Teacher: Leads the students on the use of the force board to determine the resultant of two forces and uses Analytical and graphical methods to solve problems on addition and resolution of vectors.

10

WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

-Concept of work, energy and power

-Inter changeability of work and energy


Teacher uses charts

11

WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

-Determination of work, energy and power

-Work done in a force field


Teacher uses charts

12

WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

-Types of energy(Mechanical)

i) Potential energy

ii) Kinetic energy

-Conservation of mechanical energy

-World energy resources

i) Renewable energy resources

ii)Non-renewable energy resources



Teacher uses charts

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