ii. Proofs of sum of angles in a triangle is 180^{o}, the exterior angles is equal to the sum of its two interior opposite angles.

Teacher:

- Leads students to explain the format for carrying out proofs in geometry, by explaining the concepts of: given, required to prove, construction, proof, conclusion.

- Guides the students to prove the two theorems on the board with necessary diagrams.

- Assists students to carryout practical demonstrations, and to solve examples and give students some task to solve and inspect them.

Students:

Participate in discussing the format for proving geometrical theorem, take special note of the format, then write them down and ask questions.

-Solve the task given.

Instructional Resources:

Cardboard paper, cutout of triangles, protractor to verify and establish the truth about the theorem.

2

DEDUCTIVE PROOFS (II)

i. Similar and congruent triangles

ii. Isosceles and equilateral triangles.

Teacher:

Demonstrates on the chalkboard how to prove the followings:

Angles of parallel lines, angles in a polygon, congruent triangles, properties of parallelogram, deductive reasoning and axioms using relevant models of plane shapes.

Students:

Participate in the teacher’s demonstrations by contributing in making some deductions and write down essential points agreed upon, on angles of a polygon, congruent triangles. etc.

Instructional Resources:

Parallel lines, congruent triangles, polygons, cut out paper, protractors.

3

DEDUCTIVE PROOFS (III)

i. Properties of parallelogram and related quadrilaterals.

ii. Intercept theorem

iii. Parallelogram of the same base and between the same parallel lines are equal in area.

Teacher:

- Leads students to demonstrate the properties of the riders using paper cutouts, protractors, models of parallelogram, polygon, congruent triangle etc.

- Guides students to solve problems and help them to reproduce arguments based on the reasons (theorem or axioms).

Students:
Carry out practical demonstration of the properties of the rides along with the teacher using paper cutouts, construct models of plane shapes. Apply deductive reasoning to solve the given practical problems.

Instructional Resources:

As in week 2

4

POLYGON – TYPES

i. Sum of interior angles of any n-sided polygon.

ii. Sum of exterior angles of any polygon

iii. Problem solving on polygon.

Teacher:
As in week 2 and 3 above.

Students:

As in week 2 and 3 above

Instructional Resources:

As in week 2 and 3 above.

5

TRIGONOMETRY (I)

i. Basic trigonometric ratios, sine, cosine and tangent with respect to right-angled triangles.

ii. Trigonometric ratio of special angles 30^{o}, 45^{o}, 60^{o}.

iii. Deriving trigonometric ratios of 30^{o}, 45^{o}, 60^{o}.

Teacher:

- Shows students a chart of right angled-triangle with a clearly marked angle.

- Guides students to identify ratios forming sine, cosine and tangent of the marked angles. (verify the position of the marked angles)

- Lead students to construct right angled-triangles of 30^{o}, 45^{o}, 60^{o}.

- Guides students to use the above shapes to derive trigonometric ratios of 30^{o}, 45^{o}, 60^{o}.

Students:

Study the chart; identify ratios forming cosine and tangent of marked angle on the chart.

Draw right-angled triangles and use it to solve problem involving calculation of lengths, construct right-angled triangles of 30^{o}, 45^{o} and 60^{o}.

Derive trigonometric ratios of 30^{o}, 45^{o} and 60^{o} under teacher’s supervision.

Instructional Resources:

Charts showing trigonometric ratios of a right angled triangle, pencil and ruler, protractor, cutout shapes of right angled triangles showing angles 45^{o}, 30^{o} and 60^{o} respectively.

6

TRIGONOMETRY (II)

i. Solving problems involving use of sine, cosine and tangent at right-angled triangles.

ii. Application of trigonometric ratios of 45^{o}, 30^{o} and 60^{o} to solving problem without the use of calculating aids.

Teacher:

i. Guides students to use sine, cosine and tangents to solve problems involving calculation of length, angles, angles of elevation and depression etc.

ii. Leads students to draw right-angled triangle of side 1 unit on the equal sides.

iii. Guides students on how to derive trigonometric of ratio.

iv. Leads students to measure the two other angles in the right angled triangle.

v. Lead students to obtain sine and cosines of various angles using measured lengths.

Students:

Solve problems on practical application of trigonometric ratios under guidance of teacher.

Obtain sine and cosine of various angles.

Identify the relationship between the trigonometric ratios and the measured values.

Instructional Resources:

Chart showing unit circle etc.

7

TRIGONOMETRY (III)

Trigonometric ratios related to the unit circle

i. Draw graphs of sine from

0^{o} ≤ ө ≤ 360^{o}

ii. Draw graphs of cosine from 0^{o}≤ ө ≤ 360^{o}

Teacher:

Guides them to see the relationship between calculated sine and cosine of trigonometric ratios and the angles measured with protractor in the unit circles.

Constructs table of values for 0^{o} ≤ ө ≤ 360^{o}fie both sine and cosine, plots the points on the graph board and draw the graphs.

Guides them on the activities to obtain accurate values.

Leads them to obtain solution from graph drawn.

Students:

Participates in the construction of table of value for y and plotting of the points and drawing of the graph.

Instructional Resources:

Graph board, graph book, pencils, and mathematical sets. Mandatory.

8

STATISTICS

i. Revision on collection, tabulation and presentation of data.

ii. Construction of frequency tables

iii. Bar charts and histogram differentiate between bar chat and histogram.

Teacher:

Guides students to:

-information on their age, number of children in the families and other areas of life.

-tabulates data collected

-lists various forms of presentation of data e.g. bar chart, pie chart.

-leads students to construct table from given data; draw bar chart and histogram.

Students:

Submit objects like corks brought to class.

Tabulate into specific categories, list various of presentation of dates, table from given data.

Draw bar chart and histogram.

Instructional Resources:

Ages of students recorded on cardboard, prices of goods, objects of different kinds. Corks of soft drinks, posters containing real life data.

Graph board, graph book.

9

STATISTICS (II)

i. Calculating the sectoral component of pie chart.

ii. Drawing pie chart correctly.

iii. Interpreting the pie chart and bar chart.

Teacher:

Leads students to calculate the angular equivalent of the different frequency in a given distribution using the idea of ratio and proportion.

Guides students to draw pie chart using their compass, and protractor.

Interpret the pie chart in terms of sectoral angles.

Students:

Calculate sectoral angles, draw pie charts, correctly to interpret data using the pie chart.

Instructional Resources:

Graph board, graph papers, a pair of compass and protractor etc.

10

STATISTICS (III) GROUPED DATA

i. Drawing histogram

ii. Estimation of mode from histogram.

Teacher:

Guides students to use frequency table to draw histogram.

Note: the kingdoms should be classified into prokaryotes and eukaryotes: also in kingdom plantae the difference between higher and lower plant should be emphasized.

I. The teacher groups the student into two, one group to collect living things and the other group to collect non-living things for comparison.

ii) Teacher provides a living cockroach and a potted plant, asks student to write down their observation.

i) Teacher to grow culture of bacteria and blue – green algae, asks student to observe the cultures, record and make inferences.

i) Teacher guide students to uproot the farm plant, collect lemon, pistia (water lettuce), break some branches of shrubs & bring them into the laboratory, asks student to observe all the specimens, record and make inferences.

4

THE CELL

i) Cell as a living unit of living organism

ii) The cell theory

iii) Forms in which living things exist

-- independent organism

-- As a colony

-- As filament,

iv) Cell structures and functions of cell component.

v) Differences between plants and animal cell.

I). Teacher Provide Prepared slides of Paramecium or Euglena, volvox and spirogyra, asks students to observe the slides under the microscope and record their observation.

Ii). Teacher mounts slides of plant and animal cells for student to observe, draw, label and note their difference and similarities.

iii) Definition of Plasmolysis, Haemolysis, Turgidity and flaccidity.

iv) Biological importance.

i) Teacher provides perfume and request a student to spray at one end of the classroom and ask the student to describe what happened

ii) Teacher to demonstrate diffusion and osmosis using living and non-living components.

6

PROPERTIES & FUNTIONS OF THE CELL

i) feeding:- Definition and types

a) Autotrophic nutrition photosynthetic nutrition chemosynthetic nutrition

b) Heterotrophic nutrition and mode of nutrition.

i) The teacher sets up experiment to show the effects of different nutrients or spirogyra. Asks students to observe record and discuss experiments.

7

PROPERTIES & FUNCTIONS OF THE CELL CONTINUE

i) Micro and Macro nutrients

ii) Deficiency and effects of macro elements Respiration

i) Gaseous exchange (external respiration)

ii) Glycolysis

iii) Aerobic respiration (kreb cycle)

iv) Anaerobic respiration (lactic acid formation)

v) Difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

vi) Role of enzyme in cellular respiration

i) Teacher sets experiments to show respiration in yeast (anaerobic) and respiration in rat (aerobic)

ii) Teacher draws the krebs cycle on the chalkboard and asks the students to draw also.

iii) Teacher demonstrates to students action of ptyalin on cooked starch and the student also produce saliva from their mouths to carry out the experiment.

8

EXCRETION

i) Definition of excretion

ii) importance of excretion

iii) Difference between excretion, secretion and egestion.

i. Teacher provide yeast, warm water and plastics bowls and also provides prepared slides of conjugation in paramecium, asks students to examine mounted paramecium, identify and draw conjugating paramecium using microscopes or power lens.

13

Revision

Revision

Revision

14

Examination

Examination

Examination

BIOLOGY

SS1 SECOND TERM

WEEKS

TOPIC

CONTENTS

ACTIVITIES

1

TISSUE AND SUPPORTING SYSTEM

i) Definition of supporting and systems.

ii) Types of skeleton

Hydrostatic skeleton

Exo (ecto) skeleton

Endo – skeleton

iii) Skeletal materials:- Chitin, cartilage and bone

iv) Functions of supporting tissues in plants and animals – protection, support, locomotion, strength, rigidity, resistance to forces of wind and water.

i) Teacher and students together provide cockroaches, grasshoppers, centipede, earthworm and cartilaginous fish, individual bone of the mammalian skeleton and infant mammalian skeleton, asks students to observe all the specimen taking note of the different skeleton and stating the types of skeleton.

ii) Teacher provide small mammal and guide students to produce a mammalian skeleton, ask students to identify and list the main parts of the mammalian skeleton.

2

VERTEBRATE SKELETON

i) Axial skeleton – The skull and vertebral column

ii) Appendicular skeleton – The limbs, sternum and ribs, limb girdle.

i) Teacher provides relevant materials for students to make working model of a human arm, ask students to observe the protection functions of the shell of snails, skull of toad.

3

SUPPORTING TISSUE IN PLANTS

i) Types of supporting tissue in plants

ii) Location of supporting tissue in plants

iii) Structures and components of supporting tissues in plants e.g. collenchymas, paranchyma, xylem, phloem etc.

i) Teacher provides transverse section of stems and roots of monocotyledons and dicotyledons plants, asks students to view transverse section of roots and stem under the microscope and make drawing of the tissue taking note of the shape of the cells of the various tissues

4

A) NUTRITION IN ANIMALS

B) MODE OF NUTRITION

i) Food substances – classes with examples

ii) Concept of balance diet and its importance

iii) Food test

i) Types of heterotrophic nutrition – holozoic, saprophytic and parasite nutrition

ii) Feeding mechanism in holozoic organisms – filter feeding, fluid feeding and deposit feeding

i) Teacher provides garri, yam, rice, meat, butter, common salt, fish, prewn, pepper, cowpea, sabs etc to the class, ask students to categorize the food items under four classes of food.
i) Teacher exposes some pieces of meat in the laboratory, ask students to observe flies feed on them and record their observation.

iii) Types of digestive enzymes – sources, location, substance acted upon and effect/products

iv) importance / functions of enzymes

i) Teacher collects different types of teeth from the abattoir and from killed cats or dogs, ask students to observe the different teeth, draw and label them.
i) Teacher performs experiment to test for the acidity of the enzyme ptyalin, ask students to observe the experiment, record and discuss their observations.

- Biotic (living) and Abiotic (non-living) component

- Aquatic and terrestrial component.

ii) Definitions of common terms in ecological studies – environment, population, biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, nicher habitat, biotic, community, ecosystem.

i) Local communities (biomes) – Nigeria ecological region (sahel, sudan, guinea savanna, tropical forest, swamp forest)

ii) Major biomes of the world: Tropical forest, savanna, desert, shrub, apro - alphine and swamps.

i) Teacher takes students on a fieldtrip to at least one of the biotic communities e.g. forest reserve or a botanic garden, ask students to study the community, record and discuss.

ii) Teacher makes available study charts, photographs and films of different biotic communities in Nigeria and biomes of the world.

7

POPULATION STUDIES BY SAMPLING METHOD

i) Population size, population dominance, population density

ii) Factors affecting population

iii) Ecological factors affecting aquatic and terrestrial habitat

iv) Importance of ecological factors to population of plant & animals

i) Teacher guides the students to measure sizes of the ecosystem.

ii) Teacher displays ecological instruments ask student to study them and discuss, show students how to improvise some measuring instruments e.g. wind vane

8

ECOLOGICAL FACTORS CONTINUES

i) Relationship between soil types and water holding effects of soil on vegetation

ii) Simple measurement of ecological factors and measuring instrument e.g. physical factors and edaphic factors.

i) Students with the help of the teacher perform the experiment to compare water holding capacity in the three samples of soil e.g. loamy, clay and sandy soil

9

FUNCTIONING ECOSYSTEM

i) Definitions of autotrophy & heterotrophy

ii) Definition of terms – Producer, consumers, aquatic and terrestrial

iii) Examples of producers and consumers.

i) Teacher show samples of autotrophs and heterophs to students

ii) Student collect organisms and classify them as producers, consumers and decomposers.

10

TROPHIC LEVELS

i) Definition of food chain and food web

ii) Non-cycle nature of energy transfer

iii) Nutrient movement (energy flow) in aquatic and terrestrial habitat.

iv) Pyramid of number and energy

v) Nature of energy flow in food chain and food web.

i) Guide students to make chart showing relationship among organisms e.g. food chain, food web.

ii) Students to develop a chart showing relationships among organisms (food chain, food web)

11

Revision

Revision

Revision

12

Examination

Examination

Examination

BIOLOGY

SS1 THIRD TERM

WEEK

TOPIC

CONTENT

ACTIVITIES

1

ENERGY TRANSFORMATION IN NATURE

i). Energy loss in ecosystem

II). Laws of thermodynamics

iii) Application of law of thermodynamics to ecological phenomenon.

Iv). Food chain.

i). Teacher uses the law of thermodynamics to explain energy flow across the tropic levels.

2

RELEVANCE OF BIOLOGY TO AGRICULTURE.

i) classification of plants

ii) Botanical classification e.g. algae, spermatophyte

ii) Agricultural classification e.g. fibre plant non- fibre plant.

iv) Classification based on life cycle e.g. annual biennial and perennials.

i) Teacher shows student various type of plant and classifies them.

3

EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITTIES ON ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM

i) Effect of bush burning , tillage , fertilizers, herbicide and pesticide application.

ii) Effect of different types of farming method on ecosystem

i) takes students, on field trip to a farm land cleared by burning.

ii) Teacher leads student to visit farm projects and herbicide.

4

PEST & DISEASES OF AGRICULTURAL IMPORTANCE.

i) Definition and types of pests

ii) life cycle of pests

iii) control of pests

iv) Disease – types of diseases

i) takes students to a livestock farm to identify pests of animals

ii) student make a table showing local farm livestock pests and disease they cause

5

FOOD PRODUCTION AND STORAGE.

i) Role of food in agricultural production

ii) factors affecting production and storage

iii) ways of improving crop yield

iv) cause of wastage

v) Methods of preserving and storing food.

i) Demonstrate different food storage methods to student e.g. drying, salting etc.

6

POPULATION GROWTH & FOOD SUPPLY.

i) relationship between availability of food and human population

ii) effects of food shortage

iii) Government effort to increase food production e.g. Agricultural resolution

i) collect a large number of insects and use them to demonstrate the effect of food shortage.

7.

MICRO ORGANISMS AROUND US

i)classification e.g. viruses bacteria, fungi protozoa

ii) carriers e.g. victors and transmitting organisms.