Dios, Patria y Rey



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Dios, Patria y Rey

(God, King and Country)


The First Carlist War, 1833-1840
Updated 15 November 2007
Check out the Alea folder in the Magazine Publishers Forum at www.consimworld.com or Ludopress website www.simtacludopress.net to download the latest version of the rules including errata and FAQ.
Introduction.

Dios, Patria y Rey (DPYR, from now on) is a game system simulating the battles fought out during the Carlist Wars that raged in Spain during the XIX century. The Carlist Wars pitted Liberals or Isabelinos, partisans of Isabel II, on one side, against Carlists or Absolutists, followers of the pretender to the Spanish Throne Prince Carlos, brother of King Ferdinand VII and uncle of Isabel II. The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne and it has been called “a romantic and savage war” as it combined strangely some of the romanticism of the era with all the savagery and brutality of the guerrilla warfare of the Peninsular War of 1808-1814 or the Wars of South American Independence of 1810-1826.

In this first instalment of the system seven battles of the 1st Carlist War (1833-1840) are simulated: Arquijas, Luchana, Oriamendi, Barbastro, Maella and the 1st and 2nd battles of Perecamps.
Abbreviations Used.

Cav: cavalry.

Enem: Enemy/Enemies.

Inf: Infantry

Un, uns. Unit, units Hex, hexes: hexagon, hexagons.

1d6, 2d6: 1 six sided die, 2 six sided dice.

T.N. Translator Note.
1. Game Scale.

The Basic infantry unit is the battalion (600 troops on paper) Militia or guerrilla columns (the majority of units in the Catalan front were guerrillas) represent approximately 500 men. Cavalry units represent 300 horsemen. Artillery represents batteries of 2 to 6 guns.


Every hex represents 200 meters of real terrain. Every activation represents 5 minutes of real time.
2. Game Components.

Eight DIN A3 maps.

Game Rules, Charts and Tables.

Orders of Battle displays to keep track of the casualties suffered by each unit.

270 units and markers.
One or more 6 sided dice and two opaque containers (not included) are required for use in the game.
Units and Markers

Units and markers that represent the different units and markers used for certain game functions. See figures 2 and 3 for details.


Note: the morale markers are not used. These are a leftover of an earlier version of the game.


Morale Types.

Macuto (M) Local militias and/or conscripts with scarce experience or military value. The expression comes from the word “Macuto” combination of the Basque Zakuto and Spanish mochila. Both words mean exactly the same: backpack. The expression applies to someone who is next to useless, unnecessary dead weight.

Chusquero (C). Conscripts. Recruits with little or no motivation. For a long time in Spain, anyone who joins the army only to flee from poverty without having ideological motivations or martial spirit is called a “chusquero” (from the word “chusco” piece of bread). They were also known as “deserters of the plough.”

Pistolo (P) Veterans. Veteran infantrymen well versed in the use of the rifle or “chopo” were called a Pistolo.

Bruto (B) Elites. Bruto, “Brute”, refers to elite troops highly trained and motivated, almost fanatic as was the case for some Carlist units.
Historical Note.
The most fanatic and diehard elements in the Court of Don Carlos were the so called “brutes”, as opposed to the “armchair” Carlists - the so called “ojalateros” (From the Spanish “ojalá”, “Let’s Hope”, “I hope so”. That is, the ones who contented themselves with saying something like “Let’s Hope Cabrera conquers Morella!” “Let’s hope Don Carlos takes Bilbao!” while actually doing little.)
3. Preparation for Play.

After choosing sides (Carlist or Liberal) players then determine the scenario to be played.

Place all combat factor markers in one of the opaque containers.

The scenario rules specify which units participate for each side and where to deploy them; the ammunition levels for each side; reinforcement arrival, etc, as well any special rules.


Each player deploys the units in every specific sector following the scenario instructions. Usually the scenario determines right wing, left wing and centre to deploy the units. The deployment hexes are indicated on each map: “I” (for Izquierda, Left), “C” for Center, and “D” (for Derecha, Right.) In the Perecamps map set up hexes are E (Catalan for Esquerra), C for Centre and D for Dreta (Catalan for right.) The Order of Battle and set up play aid specifies what are exactly the “Right Wing” “Centre” and “Left Wing” for every scenario.
Example.

The OoB play aid for scenario Arquijas determines that set up hexes for “C” or Center Liberal units are hexes 1712 to 2012, 1713, or 1714 to 2114. Therefore, the liberal player must deploy in those hexes following normal stacking rules, etc.
Any unit deployed in a forest or building hex may be placed under a Guirigay1 (Concealment) marker. It will remain under that marker until it fires or moves to a clear hex.
Once all units have been placed, each player randomly picks a number of combat factor markers equal to the sum of all of his M and C morale units from the opaque container. Each player examines the values of each of their markers and assigns one to each C morale unit - placing each marker secretly under the unit. The opposing player may not examine any placed combat factor marker.
Return any remaining picked markers to the container. Each player then again randomly picks a number of combat factor markers equal to the number of his M morale units – but this time without examining them. One marker is again secretly assigned under each M Morale unit. The player will verify the values of these units they are about to open fire (“Batir” activation, see 4.3) or to fight to the shock (Mojar, see 4.2)
Example of Allocation of Markers.

The Carlist player has initially 5 units with moral C and 4 with M morale. The Liberal one has 4 with moral C and 3 of M morale. All Factor Markers are placed in a single opaque container. The liberal player will choose 7 at random (3 +4 = 7) and the Carlist another 9 (5+4=9). Next both players examined the markers that they have picked. They will choose 4 for the units type C (the liberal one) and 5 for units type C (the Carlist). The force markers are placed under respective C morale units and will indicate the combat factors of those units for all the battle.
Next the unused markers are returned to the container and are picked randomly, one for every M morale type unit. In this 3 case the liberal one will choose 3 and the Carlists’ 4. As they are units of type M the markers are placed (without watching) underneath the respective units type M. Those will indicate the fire factors, hits and defence of those units for all the battle and could not be revealed until the unit fights.
In another opaque container the players deposit their side’s three activation markers. Those bearing Carlos V’s portrait for the Carlists and those bearing Isabel II for the liberals) Either of the players picks one activation marker. The player who controls the side of the picked activation marker will be able to perform one of the options listed in section 4 (Actions). This process is repeated until all 6 markers have been picked – at which point the turn ends.
A new turn then begins whereupon all the combat factor markers placed in the previous turn are returned to the container and new unit combat factor markers are chosen using the method detailed above. Similarly, all activation markers are returned to another container ready to be picked anew.
Example. The three liberal markers of activation and the three Carlist are placed in the same opaque container. One of the players will extract one, and if it is a Carlists activation the Carlist player will be able to activate its units (it will be able to use some of the actions such as Mojar, Batir, etc.). If it is a liberal activation it will be able to activate the liberal player and to use some of his actions (See 4.Actions below.) Markers continue to be picked until the container is empty. Then the turn ends and a new turns starts.
4. Actions.
When one of the players selects an activation maker, it may choose among the following actions:



  • MONTEAR

  • MOJAR

  • BATIR

  • BALA RASA

  • CAMPI

  • PUENTE

  • RISTRE


4.1. Montear2

If the active player chooses “montear” all of its units may move up to two hexes (exception: artillery units, that may move 1 hex only)

Units placed in road hexes and moving across hexsides connected by roads may move up to 4 hexes.
During a Montear Activation, the following restrictions apply:
- Cavalry units in mountain hex have their movement allowance halved.
- Friendly units may not end their movement adjacent to an enemy unit.

- Friendly units may not move adjacent to an enemy cavalry unit.

- Friendly units may move adjacent to any enemy infantry, artillery, or leader units – but may not finish its end their movement adjacent.
4.2. Mojar3.
Historical Note.

In modern Spanish the expression “mojar” has a more erotic meaning. However, its origins are far more sinister: “mojar” referred to sinking the blades of the bayonets in the enemy’s body. After the Carlist victory at Oriamendi, the Prince Don Sebastián tried in vain to stop the killing of the hapless English fugitives by shouting “
dejad de mojar!4
All infantry and cavalry units may move 2 hexes and end their move adjacent to one or more enemy units.
After all movement is complete, the active player declares all Mojar combats that will take place bearing in mind the applicable restrictions and options. Each side’s modified combat factors are determined and the combat is resolved as described below.


Mojar Combat Restrictions and Options:


  • Column Attack. Only three units may add their factors to an attack against a single hex.

  • Mixed Order. If cavalry and infantry units attack the same hex the active player must select which type of units will perform the attack, using the attack combat factors of – only - either the cavalry or the infantry.

  • Defending cavalry units attacked only by infantry units may retreat before combat retreating one hex but only before the active player rolls the dice to solve the combat.


Mojar Combat Factor Modifiers:
Rearguard. If any units attack from the defender’s rearguard hexes attackers receive a +1 to their total attack combat factors for each unit attacking from such a rearguard hex.
Add +1 to the defender’s total defence combat factors for each adjacent friendly unit which is not being attacked. That is, +1 per unit. All attacks need to be declared beforehand.

If units are defending in a building hex then roll 1D6 on the table below to obtain a combat factor modifier which is added to the defender’s total defence combat factors.


Die Roll Defender Building Combat Factor Modifier (add to total defence combat factors)

1,2,3 +1


4,5 +2

6 +3
If units are defending in mountain hexes then roll 1D6 on the table below to

to obtain a combat factor modifier which is added to the defender’s total combat factors.
Mountain Modifier.

Die Roll Defender Mountain Combat Factor Modifier (add to total defence combat factors)

1,2,3 +1


4,5,6 +2
- Units defending in a forest hex add +1 to their combat factor.
Mojar Combat Resolution:

Subtract the defender’s modified combat factor from the modified attacker’s combat factor.

(If the final result is negative the combat can not occur and the attacking units must retreat one hex.). Roll on the following table to determine if a hit occurs:
Differential Minimum Die Roll to Hit

Between 0 and 1 6

Between 2 and 3 5,6

4 or more 4,5,6


If the attacking player inflicts one hit to the defending unit a “Shock Damage” marker is placed on that unit’s square in the OoB play aid. The units suffering one hit must retreat 1 hex and or remain in place and receive a second “shock damage” marker.
Special Mojar Combat Rules
Aurrera!5/Viva la petita! (Counter-attack)
Before retreating any defending units that have suffered a hit, B morale units may launch a counterattack. Only the attack combat factor of the defending unit and the defence combat factors of any attacking units are compared. The choice of what attacking unit will suffer the counterattack belongs to the defending player.

Black Flag (Bandera Negra)

In certain scenarios each side receives a certain number of Bandera Negra markers.


Procedure: Before resolving a Mojar attack (also applies to Ristre attacks), the attacking player may place a Bandera Negra marker on top of any one of the attacking units. If the die roll to hit is successful the defending units under attack receive two Shock Damage markers.
Historical Note.

When a black flag was displayed it meant that no quarter would be given to prisoners. In the Catalan and Levant fronts the “No Prisoners!” flags used to be red and black, colours that would be adopted later by the Anarchist movement.
St. Ferdinand Cross.
During a Mojar attack (also applies to Ristre attacks), if a single unit manages to inflict shock damage to any one enemy unit without receiving support from neighbour units it can be decorated with a St. Ferdinand Cross. Only one may be awarded per side and scenario. The owning player chooses when to “grant” the decoration to any one unit. It is not mandatory to give it to the first unit that manages to inflict damage single-handedly. The cross may not be transferred to other units and will be placed in the units’ square in the OoB play aid while the unit remains in play.
Effects of having a St. Ferdinand Cross. The unit awarded with the cross will have a +1 combat factor modifier when performing a Mojar attack or when defending against an enemy during Mojar attack (also applies to Ristre attacks)
Historical Note.

The maximum Spanish military award is the Cruz Laureada de San Fernando. It can be bestowed to individuals or to an entire unit. It must be proposed by an officer of higher rank and the person proposed for the decoration must be subjected to a military hearing to examine all the evidences and testimonies presented to justify the award. The Laureado soldier, NCO or officers is nominated a Knight of the Order of Saint Ferdinand. Also, like the American Medal of Honour, it can be awarded more than once.
4.3. Batir6.

All infantry and cavalry units with FIRE factors (factors 1, 2 or 3) may fire from a maximum range of 3 hexes.

There must be a clear line of fire (i.e. free of combat units and any obstacles - forest, buildings, mountains.)

Units with 0 fire factor may not perform a “Batir” attack.


Batir Combat Resolution:

Each firing unit reduces the ammunition level defined by that side by the scenario rules by 1. the active player rolls 2d6 per unit. The objective is to get the same numbers on both dice (2 sixes, 2 ones, etc.) The firing unit’s fire factor may be used to modify the die roll by adding or subtracting it from either one of the two die rolls.


Example. One unit with a fire factor of 2 rolls two dice and gets a die roll of 3 and another of 5. The “3” result is modified to 5 by adding the fire factor of 2, thus achieving a “hit” on the enemy unit.
Batir Combat Modifiers:

Aside of the fire factor other modifiers may be used to amend the die roll:


- Unit(s) being fired at placed in building hex: -1 drm


- Unit(s) being fired at placed in forest hex -1 drm. Only units placed in forest edge hexes may be fired at, units inside the forest are not under the firing unit line of fire. For example, at the Perecamps map a unit in the village of Boix may fire against one unit placed in 1803 but not against one unit placed in 1802.

- Units firing against targets placed at maximum range (3 hexes) -1 drm.


- Units firing against targets in mountain hexes from clear or road hexes: +1 drm.
- Units firing against targets in adjacent hexes: +1 drm.

- Target units with two or more friendly units in adjacent hexes +1 drm.

- If the enemy player has already played a batir activation during this turn -1 drm (the gunpowder smoke makes difficult to shoot accurately.) Players should take note of what activations had been played during the turn.

- The maximum modifier that can be applied is +3 no matter the number of applicable drm’s.


Batir Combat Results:

After scoring a “hit” on the enemy unit a “Fire damage” marker is placed in that unit’ square in the OoB play aid. If firing against a stack of several units only the unit sited on top receives the “fire damage” marker.


Nota Histórica.

Batir el cobre “to beat the copper”: this expression has its origins in the decades following the Ist Carlist War and was caused by the adoption of the needle gun as the standard infantry weapon. The colour of the cartridge and bullet caused that soldiers associated this kind of gun to the cupper. Colloquially the expression “batir el cobre” was used to distinguish veteran from green units: “they know how to beat the cupper” was said of a veteran unit.



4.4. Paqueo7.
In a Batir attack if both dice naturally roll the same number – prior to applying any modifiers – then the Paqueo has happened. The target unit receives two fire damage markers.
Historical Note.
The expression “paqueo” has its origins in the adoption of the needle gun and specially the robust Remington repeating rifle. The Onomatopoeic sound produced by the impact of the percussion cap at the bullet base (“PA”) followed by the sound (“CUM!”) of the bullet exiting though the rifled tube of the weapon produced the word. This is why in the Spanish army the snipers are colloquially known as “pacos.”

4.5. Bala Rasa.
Bullets are crazy, only the bayonet is wise.

Marshall Suvorov.


If this activation is selected all artillery units of the active player receive two “salvo” markers. At least one of the salvo markers must be used in the current turn. The ammunition level is decreased by 2 for every activated artillery unit.
Salvo markers may not be accumulated between game turns.

The active player may fire its second salvo during an enemy activation, but never against enem. units adjacent to the firing artillery unit.



Bala Rasa Combat Resolution:

The attacking artillery units must have a clear line of fire (see batir) to their target. Count the number of hexes between the artillery unit and the target unit are counted. Then the artillery factor of the firing unit is added. Roll 2d6. The minimum die roll to inflict a “hit” on the target unit must be higher than the total distance hexes + artillery factor.


Example. One unit with artillery factor of 5 fires against a target sited in a clear hex 5 hexes away. 5+5=10. The minimum die roll to hit will be 11. With a die roll of 11 or 12 the target hex will be hit by the artillery FIRE.
Bala Rasa Combat Die Roll Modifiers:

Units firing from mountain hex: +2 drm.

Units firing against target with 2 or more friendly units in adjacent hexes: +1 drm

Units firing against inf. unit(s) forming square: +1 drm.

Units firing against cavalry that during the present turn has performed a “ristre” activation: -1 drm.
Units firing against artillery un(s) that during that turn had been activated -1 drm (smoke makes difficult accurate aiming)

Units firing against target in building or forest: -1 drm

If the active player has performed a “montear” action during that turn: -1 drm. That is, if the artillery unit has moved during that turn during a “montear” action.
If the target units receives a hit a “fire damage” marker is placed on that unit square in the OoB play aid. If the target hex contains several stacked units the units placed under the top unit may suffer additional damage (see Rebote and Bote de metralla below)
Other types of artillery fire:
Rebote
8 (Rebound) the artillery unit uses its two “salvo” markers during the same attack. To do so two different targets must be selected (it is not allowed to fire the two salvoes against a single target during the same attack). The 2nd unit target must be further away (up to a maximum of 2 hexes further) from the firing artillery unit than the 1st target. The same roll to hit on 2D6 computed for the 1st attack is also used for the 2nd attack.
Bote de Metralla (Shrapnel Grenades.)
This type of artillery fire may not be used during an enemy’s action.
When calculating the distance to the target unit(s), the active player doubles the distance and adds its artillery factor to obtain the minimum “to hit” die roll.

Example. One artillery unit with factor of 4 fires against a inf. Unit sited in clear hex 2 hexes away. 2 x 2 = 4. Distance would be then 4, plus 4 for the artillery factor. The minimum die roll to hit the target must be 9 with 2d6.
If the target unit is hit it receives two “fire damage” markers instead of one.
4.6. Campi

Any infantry or cavalry unit with FIRE factor may move one hex and perform a batir attack (including the expenditure of ammunition) and return to the hex from whence they moved. At the end of their action its the units may change facing without any further cost.


Historical Note.

Campi qui pugui” Catalan for “everyone for himself” that is, to flee and disperse after a defeat, since as the saying of the era went, “every soldier that flees can fight another day!”


4.7. Puente

All inf. and cav. units may retreat 2 hexes, artillery units may retreat 1 hex. Retreats are performed moving to hexes located further from enemy units that the starting hexes. During a Puente activation any unit(s) may sacrifice its movement ability to place a form square marker on top of it following the same procedure explained in montear. When moving units may change facing without cost.


4.8. Ristre9

The ideal method for the cavalry charge is to trot towards the enemy boot to boot, reserving the gallop for the last final meters thus exploiting to the full its breakthrough power.

Francisco Villamartín


All cavalry units may move 2 hexes but they must end their movement adjacent to enemy units and Start a shock combat (see Mojar) applying the following modifiers:

If the defending units have any shock damage markers the attacking cavalry units DOUBLE their shock combat factor.

If the defending units have any fire damage markers the attacking cavalry units TRIPLE their shock combat factor.

These modifiers are not applicable against uns. sited in building hexes.



Special Ristre Combat Rules
Black Flag (Bandera Negra) and St. Ferdinand Cross.

See Mojar Action Rules.





5. Gefes (Leaders.)

In any Mojar attack (when attacking or defending) each Gefe unit provides modifiers to any friendly unit within its command range.


Gefe units may not actively participate in a Mojar attack.
Any Gefe unit may move during any friendly activation with the following movement allowances:

  • Montear : 2 hexes,

  • Ristre : 1 hex,

  • Campi : 1 hex,

  • Puente : 1 hex.

It needs not to fulfil the conditions specified for infantry, cavalry or artillery units.
Historical/Ortography Note.

In the Spanish orthography of the era “Gefe” was written with G instead of the more modern J, “Jefe.”
Chaqueteo (Elimination.)

At the end of the sixth activation of each turn both players must withdraw from the map all M, C and P morale type units with 3 or more damage markers (either fire or shock) and all B morale type units with 4 or more damage (fire and/or shock) markers.

M, C or P morale type units with 3 or more Shock Damage markers are permanently eliminated.

B morale units with 4 or more shock damage markers are permanently eliminated.


Permanent elimination of a unit is called “chaquetear10


Historical Note.

The expression “chaquetear” has its origins in that the soldiers of the losing side used to take the coats of enemy soldiers killed in the battle to try to cheat the enemy and avoid being shot.
Reingreso (Rally).
Units not permanently eliminated due to shock damage (including those with one or more fire damage markers) may try to return to the game. That is, one unit with B morale has 4 damage markers, it may try to return play if one or more of these are FIRE damage, one M, C or P unit with 3 damage markers will try to return to play if at least one of these is a fire damage marker.


Procedure. Each player rolls 2d6 for each unit trying to rally and compares the result with the type of morale. If the minimum DR is not achieved the unit is permanently eliminated.
Morale Type Minimum DR to Rally
Macuto 10

Chusquero 9

Pistolo 8

Bruto 7


Modify the Rally Die Rolls as follows:

The King’s Gunpowder -2 drm if the ammunition level is 0.

Leader’s Death: -2 drm if the Gefe has been killed that turn or the earlier one.

-1 if the Gefe had to check for FIRE damage during that turn.


If at the end of a given turn the Gefe unit has more than four damage markers and one of them is a fire damage marker, the unit must pass an elimination check. The fire damage markers are withdrawn but the negative factor of having these is applied to the die rolls for the remaining units.
All units passing successfully this rally check return to play without the fire damage markers but keeping the shock damage markers, which are permanent. The returned unit must be placed within its’ Gefe command radius. If there are no available hexes the surplus units must be permanently eliminated. If the Gefe unit has been eliminated the rallied units must be placed in any hex adjacent to a friendly unit or in the latest hex occupied before being withdrawn from the map. If there is no Gefe unit on map the unit received an additional shock damage marker (which may cause its permanent elimination from play)
6. Movment, Form Square, and Stacking.

When moving, units may change its facing in the same hex where they end its movement.


River hexes may only be crossed at ford or bridge hexes.
Infantry units sited in a clear or road hex may use this activation to form square. To do so they must forfeit its movement for that activation and follow the procedure below:
B or P morale type units form square automatically. No DR is needed.
C morale type units must roll 1d6. On a die roll of 4, 5 or 6, they form square.
M morale type units must roll 1d6. On a die roll of 5 or 6 they form square.

If the unit moves during another activation the square marker is withdrawn, otherwise it can keep it any number of turns.


A square marker cancels the negative modifiers of a Ristre activation (see Ristre.)

The composition (not combat factor markers) of an enemy stack may be checked at any moment by the enemy player. Exception: stacks sited in building hexes under a Guirigay marker.


Several units may be placed in the same hex, with the following rules and restrictions:

- No more than two units may deploy in a clear or road hex. Exception: up to three units may be placed in building hexes,

- It is not possible to stack units in forest or mountain hexes. Exception: up to three units may be placed in building hexes

- During movement, infantry units of the same side must move through hexes occupied by friendly infantry units. Infantry cannot move across a hex occupied by a friendly cavalry or artillery unit.

- It is forbidden to move across hexes occupied by enemy units of any type.
7. Victory Conditions.

If the scenario rules do not say otherwise, the winner is the player who eliminates (chaquetear) all enemy units before the end of the scenario.


If at the end of the match both players have units on the map, the final result is considered a draw. Some scenarios determine partial victory for some of the sides if any of them still has units on the map at the end of the match.
Corda/Cuerda/Soka11 (Armistice)

If at any moment of the match (excepting during the rally check die rolls) either sides has 3 or less units on the map, its adversary may try to force it to surrender. To do so, the active player trying to force the surrender must use up any of its activation markers. Instead of performing its activation, it rolls 1d6. On a die roll of 5 or 6, the enemy player must surrender and the player who compelled the surrender is declared the winner.


Surrender Die Roll Modifiers:

-1 drm if there are one or more B morale type units among the units still on play.

+1 drm if the side subjected to the surrender attempt has only one unit still on the map.
Historical Note.
In Modern Spanish tener cuerda or dar cuerda (literally “to give” or “to have” tether or rope) means to be patient or to give time to rectify or to think about something. It origins comes from the Carlist Wars: In the 1875 siege of Olot, During the 3rd Carlist War, the top commanders in Catalonia for both sides, Gens. Savalls and Martínez Campos met for a long time in a Masía (typical Catalan country manor) known as the Hostal de la Corda to try to negotiate an armistice.


8. Designer Notes.

After reading the rules most aficionados will notice that DPYR is a corrected and upgraded version of the Libertadores system Published in issue 10 of Soldados y Estrategia with some period terminology thrown in and some improvements suggested by players.


The most noticeable changes in the new version are:
1. Changes in the artillery units. During the war the artillery was not decisive enough to decide the results of most battles but it was valuable enough to be considered the most appreciated booty by both armies.

2. Because of the very rough terrain where the war was fought (Basque Country, northern Catalonia, Maestrazgo12) the cavalry was not a decisive weapon tactically, although the lack of cavalry was the cause why the Carlists could not project its power outside of its strongholds. As the indomitable Cabrera used to complain “Wish I had 2000 horse!”

3. As for the procedure for picking combat factors for the morale of M and C units, it must be taken into account that along with veteran formations there were many others formed by conscripted militias.

4. In the Carlists Wars annihilation of the enemy by surrounding or overrunning was rarely achieved in battle. Usually armies disengaged after reaching a certain level of casualties, and pursuits were rare. Numerous Carlist expeditions and Cabrera himself were defeated repeatedly but rarely stopped or forced to surrender.


5. Finally, the differentiation between fire and shock damage is based in the study of the manuals of the era: Jomini, Villamartín and San Miguel. The fire damage could momentarily disorganize but its destruction power was far from the one that will achieve in future decades. The Shock damage is irreversible, instead; it represents real casualties, as opposed to the fire damage, which causes basically disorganization. Fire damage can destroy one unit but the better its morale the higher the possibilities of remaining in combat; only shock may eliminate a given unit in a direct and definitive manner. In the 1830s we are still in the era where firepower had not imposed itself for good to the shock combat, as would happen definitively during the mid XIX century.

With the unit names I have chosen to add some era colour. Instead of just using boring unit numbers I’ve named the units after its leaders especially for the guerrilla bands of the Catalan front such as the units of Ros (“Blonde”) Llarg (“Long”), Guerxo (one eyed) or Poca Roba (“scantily clad”) instead of 1st Cataluña, 2nd Cataluña, etc. etc.

Another source of arguments and critics may be the appearance (or no appearance) of a particular unit in a certain battle etc. I have opted to apply some educated guessing when designing the Orders of Battle because the sources of the era are really partial to one side or the other and they tended to minimize the friendly units and exaggerate the enemy ones to justify a defeat or to magnify a victory.
And now, victory or defeat of the armies of Don Carlos are in your hands. As Napoleon said, “Fortune is a Lady that does not gives you a second opportunity if you don’t catch the first!”
Enric Martí.

Barcelona, November 2006


9. Scenarios.

1. Templar y Tentar13: Arquijas, 5 February 1835.



Erregucien gortetan

Hiri eta kampanetan

Noruk ea du aditzen

Zumalaz mintztzen? 14

After the victory at Mendaza, Liberal General Córdoba tries to achieve the definitive success that he missed in the earlier battle. Erroneously he believed that Zumalacarregui was all but defeated and tried to give him the coup de grace. His plan was simple: Cordoba with the better part of the army would force the river Ega at the fords of Arquijas while Gen. Oraa would outflank Zumalacarregui moving across the bridge of Acedo. Unfortunately, Oraa, nicknamed “the general of the parallel lines” did not move as fast as he should have and Zumalacarregui took the opportunity to defeat Cordoba and Oraa in detail, inflicting severe losses to Córdoba and preventing him from crossing the Ega before turning on to Oraa and inflicting a sounding defeat on him as well. Once again, el tío Tomás “Uncle Tomas” has saved his forces from certain annihilation and defeated an enemy much superior in numbers but vastly inferior in leadership.



Duration:
16 turns
Victory Conditions.

The player who eliminated all the enemy units at the end of the activations of turn 16 wins. If at the end of turn 16 there are still Carlist units on the map the Carlist player gets a partial victory.



Ammunition: 85
Carlists, 97 liberals.

Deployment:

Carlists: (D) Derecha Infantry 1º Navarra, 2º Alava, 3º Alava and 1º Guipúzcoa; Cavalry 3º Navarra (C) Centro Infantry Guías, 3º Navarra, 4º Navarra, 5º Navarra and 1º Castilla; Gefe Zumalacárregui, Artillery Orbaizeta. (I) Izquierda Infantry 6º Navarra, 1º Alava, 2º Guipúzcoa and 2º Castilla; Cavalry 1º Castilla.

Liberales: (D) Infantry 1º Soria,1º Guardia, 2º Guardia, 1º Princesa, Siguenza and Isabel II; Cavalry Sagunto; Artillery Santoña, Centro Infantry Avila, 1º Zaragoza, Extremadura and Gerona; Cavalry Caz Guardia, Gefe Córdoba, Artillery Coruña, (I) Izquierda 2º Soria, 2º Zaragoza and Infante; Cavalry Almansa.
Special Rules.

Fords.
The river Ega may be crossed only at the fords of Molino, Arquitas, and at the Acedo bridge.


2. Christmas Eve of the Ayacucho: Luchana, Saturday 24 December 1834

Era noche de nieve y granizo

de las balas zumbaba el silbido

del obús el terrible estampido,

el tambor apagaba los ayes

del que adiós a su patria decía15.

The relief of the third siege of Bilbao was much more difficult than Gen. Baldomero Espartero, (nicknamed “el Ayacucho” due to him being a veteran of the Wars of South American independence) could even expect. A few days before the definitive assault Espartero fell ill and Gen. Oráa took command of the attack. Despite of the support of British naval gunfire and artillery and the ineptitude of the Carlist command that didn’t concentrate his their fire nor provide timely reinforcements to the front, the Carlist troops resisted stubbornly to the point that Espartero, with high fever, was forced to go to the front to retake command. After a quick survey of the situation Espartero ordered a halt to the attack but the bugler misunderstood the order and signalled “attack.” The surprised Espartero could not believe his eyes: all his troops to a man attacked again and overran the Carlist position. This action marked the peak of Espartero’s glory.


Duration:
17 turns

Victory Conditions:

The player who eliminated all the enemy units at the end of the activations of turn 17 wins. If at the end of turn 17 there are still Carlist units on map the Carlist player gets a partial victory.


Black Flags (Banderas Negras):

Carlists 1, Liberals 3.



Ammunition:

80 Carlists, 93 Liberals


Deployment:

Carlistas (D) Derecha Infantry 3º Alava, 1º Vizcaya, 5º Vizcaya, 2º Guipúzcoa and 6º Navarra; Artillery Seurra;

(V) Vanguardia Infantry 2º Castilla, 4º Castilla, and 6º Vizcaya; C Centro Infantry 4º Vizcaya , Gefe Noboa; Artillery Muelle; (I) Izquierda Infantry 2º Aragón, Preferencia, Provisional; Artillery Clotilde.

Reinforcements: Enter during the first Carlist activation of turn 6th in the D (Derecha, Right) deployment area cavalry units 1º Castilla and 4º Navarra.

Liberales (D) Infantry Royal marines, 2º Soria, Rey, 2º Zaragoza, Borbon; Cavalry L British, Artillery Wylde; C Centro Infantry 1º Soria, 1º Zaragoza, 1º Guardia, Urribarrera e Infante; Cavalry Vitoria, Artillery Pamplona, Gefe Oráa, (I) Izquierda Infantry Gerona, S Fernando, Extremadura and V Navarra; Cavalry Príncipe, Artillery Santoña.


Special Rules

The Gunboats King, Ringdove and Sarracen.
At the beginning of any Montear activation of the liberal side (only once per match) the Liberal player announces that he is going to use the British gunboats.

Effects: All units adjacent to the river ignore it and can cross it as if it was a clear terrain hex.
Artillery units have their movement factor increased by 2.
Historical Note.
King, Ringdove and Saracen were the British gunboats that supported the crossing of the Nervion river estuary.

John Hay.
At the beginning of any Liberal activation when any one of its units is adjacent to the Luchana bridge, the Liberal player may try to repair that bridge. Roll 1d6. On a die roll of 5 or 6 the bridge is repaired and can be used for the remainder of the game.

DRMs: +1 drm if there are Liberal units adjacent to the bridge on both sides of the river.



Historical Note

John Hay was the English engineer responsible for the repairing of the bridge of Luchana, vital to relieve the siege of Bilbao.

The First Soldier.
In the first Liberal activation of turn 8, leader (Gefe) Oráa is replaced by Espartero. If Oraa has been definitively eliminated during any turn prior to turn 8, Espartero enters as a reinforcement the following turn in any hex of the deployment area “C”, (Centre.) Any negative modifiers caused by the elimination of the leader Oráa in any rally checks are deferred until Espartero is permanently eliminated.
Historical Note.

El primer soldado “the first soldier” was the favourite self imposed title of Gen. Espartero.


The Morning Sun.
Starting with turn 6, any Batir and/or Campi activations have a modifier for firing units of -1. Bala Rasa activations from that turn on add +2 hexes to the distance to their targets. Rebote artillery fire may not be used.
Historical Note.

The better part of the battle of Luchana was fought out at night under truly nightmarish weather conditions of snow, rain and stone.



3. Oriamendi. Thursday 16 March 1837

¡A por el Guiri16!
Y cuando de arriba abajo

me fatigo en esta sierra,

otros en feliz tierra

dirán entre pavo y ron

Viva Isabel de Borbón

Y para el tonto la guerra.17
A badly plotted and even badly conducted Liberal operation would lead to the most legendary Carlist victory of the war. The sortie from San Sebastián of the Liberal Army (formed by the full British Legion with the support of some Spanish units) to conquer Hernani was temporally delayed to take the fort of Santa Bárbara. However, the delay gave ample time to the Carlists to bring in reinforcements during the night. The Infante18 Don Sebastián deployed with the intention of surrounding the Liberal flanks. To do so a vigorous attack to fix the Liberal centre was required. The attack is directed skilfully by the veteran Col. Villareal, who, armed only with a cane, harangued his men “A morir muchachos, con dos cojones y pa’arriba19” (the very catholic Carlist sources omit this coarse detail) The order to attack was transmitted throughout the line and the Liberal rout became catastrophic: the Carlists set aside their Spanish enemies to pursue the British and took their the coveted red coats to display them as war trophies in the streets of Hernani. One war cry was repeated hundreds of times: !A por el guiri! In colloquial Spanish nowadays guiri is synonym of foreigner, but very few people know that the expression has its origins in this battle: the buttons of the red coats of the British Legion had engraved the acronym GUIRI, GUardIa Real de Isabel. If the complete disaster was somehow avoided it was thanks to the courage and professionalism of the British Marines and artillery that did wonders to rescue from the Carlist fury as many as possible of their hapless countrymen.

Duration:
12 turns.

Victory Conditions:
The player who has eliminated all the enemy units at the end of the activations of turn 12 wins. If at the end of turn 17 there are still Liberal units on map the Liberal player gets a partial victory.
Banderas Negras:

4 Carlist, 1 Liberal.


Ammunition:
86 carlist, 70 liberal

Deployment.

Carlistas (D) Derecha Infantry 5º Navarra, 2º Guipúzcoa, Guías, 4º Alava, 5º Vizcaya; Cavalry 1º Castilla, C Centro Infantry 3º Alava, Madera, 1º Alava, 1º Navarra, Granaderos, Gefe Sebastián, (I) Izquierda Infantry 1º Aragón, 4º Vizcaya, 1º Guipúzcoa, 2º Vizcaya and 4º Vizcaya; Cavalry 2º Navarra.

Artillery units Vedia and Guriezo must set up on the Hernani, Santa Bárbara or Convento hexes.

Liberales (D) Derecha Infantry 1º España, Royal marines, 8º Highlander, 3º Westminster y 6º G. Scots: cavalry: British Legion; Artillery Wylde; C Centro Infantry Chapelgorris, 11º Munster, 7º Light Irish, and 9º R Queen; Gefe Evans; Cavalry L Rey, Artillery Pamplona; (I) Izquierda Infantry Oviedo, 2º España and Valencia; Cavalry Princesa; Artillery Shaw.


Special Rules.

Congreve Rockets.
The Shaw artillery unit is a Congreve rocket unit.

It operates just like any other artillery unit (See 4.5 Bala Rasa) with the exception that it may not activate Rebote or Bote de Metralla.

When firing against cavalry units if successful the cavalry un. receives two fire damage markers instead of one .
Historical Note.
During most of the XIX century all British field armies contained rocket units.



4. Le Brave du Cheval. Barbastro Friday 2 June 1837.

Les officiers de la Legión francaise

a leur brave chef Conrad, mort aux

champs de Barbastro pour la

liberté espagnole.20
For the second time after the battle of Huesca, the Carlist “Royal Expedition” was taken by surprise. The pretender to the Throne had barely time to form a line of battle. The Liberal initial assault seemed to carry the day as it included some of the magnificent cavalry units of the brave Diego de León, “the first lance of Spain”. The Liberal cavalry forced the Carlist centre and left flanks to retreat to rough terrain. Nevertheless, the Carlist right, timely reinforced, infiltrated under cover of an olive grove and outflanked the Liberals. Among the Carlist right wing units there was one unit formed by deserters of the French foreign Legion, the so called “Argelines” who defied to singular combat his former comrades of the French Legion.

It is not well established which Liberal unit routed first: the line infantry, the cazadores,21 the Guards or the French Legion. The commander of the latter, enraged by the liberal rout, rushed to the front line to lead a head on counterattack but is was killed by an accurate shot in the head. His death would be kept secret for more than three days to avoid further demoralization of the scarce survivors of the Legion, who had fought to mutual annihilation with the Argelines. Years later, the then captain Bazaine (veteran of the French Legion in Spain and future Marshall of France in the Franco Prussian War) said about the death of his former chief Conrad: He did the only thing he did well: to launch an attack, and a frontal one!



Duration:
15 turns
Victory Conditions:
The player who has eliminated all the enemy units at the end of the activations of turn 15 wins.
Banderas Negras:

Carlist 2, Liberal 2.


Ammunition:

Carlists: 97

Liberals: 100
Deployment:

Carlistas (D) Derecha Infantry 1º Castilla, Argelino, Guías, 9º navarra and 10º Navarra:, Artillery Huesca, Cavalry 1º Navarra; C Centro Infantry 12º Navarra, Granaderos, 3º Alava, 4º Alava, 5º Alava and 1º Aragón, Gefe Carlos V; Izquierda Infantry 2º Aragón, 2º Castilla,3º Castilla and 4º Castilla; Cavalry 2º Navarra.

Liberales (D) Derecha Infantry Rey, 1º Aragón, Infante and 2º Córdoba; Cavalry Almansa y Princesa; C Centro Infantry 2º Guardia, Príncipe, 1º Córdoba and G General; Cavalry Kraiewski (Polish); Gefe Oráa, Artillery Logroño; (I) Izquierda Infantry 1º Guardia, 2º Africa, Avila, Legión; Cavalry Santiago, Artillery: Figueras.
5 ¿Seré yo, mi general? Maella, 1 October 1838

Hoy es preciso que saque mi sable, no es cosa de pelear con palo pues

el enemigo es torito claro !Como a mi me gusta, tomará bien la pica!22

General Ramón Pardiñas


Pardiña’s adversary in the battle, Ramón Cabrera, in the council of war previous to the battle will be rather laconic and enigmatic. He said tomorrow we will fight Pardiñas, we will defeat him and he will die, but one of us will die too.
One by one, his officers ask him:

It is going to be me, Sir?
And he answered:

I can’t say anything else, but my heart doesn’t deceive me!
The beginning of the battle seemed to favour the Liberal arms, because the heavy cavalry overran the Carlist infantry in the plains, which surrendered en masse while the Liberal cavalrymen slaughtered them while shouting them “today there is no quarter!” Cabrera, in a typical gesture, charged practically alone in the middle of the fray while shouting his men “cowards! Will you let your general die alone among the enemy? Immediately the 1st Aragon squadron followed the example of Cabrera, followed suit by the remainder of the army, which counterattacked. The valiant Pardiñas imitated Cabrera’s example with equal bravery but lesser fortune. The Liberal units did not follow him and Pardiñas was killed by a lance thrust after a brave but desperate stand. Demoralized, the Liberals routed. The Carlist victory is complete and the Tigre del Maestrazgo shows no mercy to the captured liberal troopers. Its units had suffered grievous casualties as well and the competent colonel Antonio Arias died in the battle. He was one of the officers in the meeting of the night prior to the battle!

Duration:

14 turns.


Victory Conditions:

The player who eliminated all the enemy units at the end of the activations of turn 14 wins.


Banderas Negras:

Carlist 3, Liberals 2.


Ammunition:

54 Carlists, 54 liberals.


Deployment:

Carlistas (D) Infantry 1º Tortosa, Minyons and Bosque; cavalry 2º Aragón, C Centro Infantry 2º Tortosa; Cavalry 1º Aragón, Artillery Xocolate, Gefe Cabrera; (I) Izquierda Infantry 1º Mora and 2º Mora; Cavalry L Tortosa.

Liberales (D) Derecha Infantry 3º Córdoba y Caspe; Cavalry Cataluña; C Centro Infantry 1º Africa and 2º Africa; Artillery Logroño; Gefe Pardiñas; (I) Izquierda Infantry 1º Córdoba, 2º Córdoba, S Fernando; Cavalry Reina.
6. Anem!23 Perecamps, 14 November 1839
La campana sona

el canó ja retrona

A la victòria anem

Ja és arribat el dia

que el poble tant volia24
Anem!: this was the only order uttered by the charismatic but not very effective Carlist officer Brujó during the entire battle although he was considered the most competent commander of the Army of Catalonia. But, as the saying of the era went, justice could be expected from the cause and bravery from the soldiers, but never intelligence from the generals. The battle of Perecamps was fought out in the same scenario of other five battles during the war, and the course of events was always the same: a Liberal convoy advanced to the Liberal strongpoint of Solsona to supply it and the Carlists partisans fell on them from the higher ground to ambush it. The Liberal units that managed to pass regrouped and after a short respite at the city they know that outside of the city the Carlists are waiting for them, spoiling for another fight.
Duration:

16 turns.


Victory Conditions:

The player who eliminated all the enemy units at the end of the activations of turn 16 wins


Banderas Negras:

Carlists 3, Liberals 2.


Ammunition:
70 Carlists, 85 Liberals.
Deployment:

Carlista (D) Derecha Infantry Ros, Gravat and Muchacho; Cavalry Marsal; Artillery Ripoll; C Centro Infantry Castells, Pep de l´oli, Griset, Borges and Cendrós; Gefe Brujó: Artillery Berga; (E) Izquierda Infantry Pitchot and Estartús; Cavalry Ontoria and Lanc. Tortosa.

Liberales (D) Derecha Infantry 1º España, Astorga, Unión and Castilla, Cavalry Santiago; C Centro Infantry Oporto, Lieja, Asturias and Militia of Barcelona, Gefe Valdés, Cavalry Montesa, Artillery S Andrés; (I) Izquierda Infantry, Zamora, Valencia and 2º Soria, Cavalry Príncipe; Artillery Figueras.
7. On an equal footing: 2nd Perecamps. Friday 24 April 1840

Hijos míos, veo que no tenéis bayonetas, que es el arma más fiel,

el cartucho se derrama y se pierde con la humedad, yo no os las

puedo dar, pero el enemigo tiene muchas, nosotros vamos a ir a quitárselas25.
Manuel Ibáñez "El Llarg de Copons"
Under the draconian discipline of the Count of España, by the end of the war the Carlist Army of Catalonia was the most disciplined and hard fighting force among the armies of Don Carlos. This fact was recognized by both enemies and friends. To reach this level of proficiency was not an easy task, because by tradition the Catalans had little love for discipline. Individualism is a notorious characteristic among them as one can read in the memoirs of von Rahden or von Goeben when describing the “uniforms” of the Catalan Carlists: Canadian-like otter fur hats, full-dress coats combined with espardenyas26 , bear furs, or naked torsos topped with the typical barretina hat (“Red phrigian hat” according to these scandalized Prussian witnesses). It is enough to remember the uniform of Cabrera, who was Catalan too: two big calibre pistols in holsters made of white wolf skin and a Carlist beret in white with a cape of the same colour (in one battle this cape would be pierced by more than 10 bullets) When the Count of España was murdered by his own troops, the dubious Segarra took command, but the men who actually commanded the Army of Catalonia at Perecamps was Manuel Ibáñez, el Llarg ("Long Manuel"). His men, entrenched in the masías along the road to Solsona, exacted a heavy toll from the Liberal units with the capture of these little redoubts overlooking the valley, while in the plains below the proud Catalan units fought on an equal footing the Royal Guards, the true elite of the Liberal Army.
Duration:
15 turns.
Victory Condition:

Same as in Perecamps I.


Banderas Negras:

Carlists 2, liberals 2.


Ammunition:

68 Carlists, 72 Liberals.


Deployment.

The Carlist player must deploy one or more units in the following villages: Boix, Sacanellas, Barcons, St. Pere and Perecamps with any 8 of the following units: Infantry Cor roure, Tell, Gisbert, Vilella, Pep de l´oli, Poca roba, Boquica, Clenchu, Estevet and Llucifer; Gefe Llarg, Artillery Berga and Ripoll.

He may use all his Guirigay markers to keep his forces hidden but there must be at least one of 7 the mentioned units in each of the villages listed. The remainder along with Cavalry units Guerxo, Tristany and Ontoria may deploy in the deployment areas (D) Dreta o (E) Esquerra, along with the remaining Guirigay markers.

Liberals: they may not use any Guirigay marker during play or set up. Once deployed the Carlist army the Liberal army may deploy within 3 or more hexes of any Carlist unit or stack the following units: Infantry 1º Guardia, 2º Guardia, Tarifa, Asturias, Toledo, Jaén, M Barcelona, Saboya, Valladolid, Oporto, Málaga y Siguenza; Cavalry Santiago and Sagunto, Artillery San Andrés and Vic; Gefe Van Halen.
Dios Patria y Rey
Credits

Game design: Enric Martí

Development and Playtesting: Cándido González, Grant Whitley, David Gómez Relloso

Layout, map and counter graphics: Xavier P. Rotllan, Javier Romero

English rules translation: Javier Romero

English rules editing: Jack Stalica, Paul Rohrbaugh.



DPYR Errata
(as of 28 September 2007)


Amended Tables
Batir modifiers:
-Units firing from a mountain hex +1
-Units firing against an adjacent hex +1

Bala Rasa Fire:
- Firing against units forming square: -1
- Firing against units who had been activated for Ristre that turn +1
- If that side’ had performed a Montear activation that turn +1


1 Guirigay. In Spanish a guirigay is something confusing, a noisy mess.

2 Literally translated, to move or march cross country. T.N.

3 Mojar. Colloquially speaking “To dunk” “to dip.” T.N.

4 Literally translated, stop dunking!” T.N.

5 Aurrera! “Forward!” in Basque. Old Basque war cry, also used nowadays in football and other sports. “Viva la Petita!” war cry of the Catalan liberals referring to “La Petita”, the “little one”, that is, Queen Isabel II.

6 Batir: “to firefight” Engage with rifle and small arms fire.

7 Paqueo. In Spanish military parlance (even today) sniping. The expression “paqueo” or “paquear” as synonym of sniping was widely used in the Moroccan and Spanish Civil Wars. T.N.

8 By expending more ammunition, the artillery unit uses the first target as a reference to “find the range” to another, further away, target.

9 Ristre: the iron support were the troopers fixed the lance before charging the enemy. In modern Spanish, to have or to carry anything “en ristre” means that you are ready to use it.

10 Chaquetear, literally ”turncoating” Change coat. Expression also widely used in the Spanish Civil War, as synonym of deserting or switching sides. T.N.

11 Rope, tether in Catalan/Spanish/Basque.

12 Extremely rugged and mountainous region located approximately between Southern Aragón and Northern Castellón. During the Spanish Civil War the Maestrazgo witnessed a hard fought campaign when the Nationalist tried to advance on to Valencia from the North in April-June 1938. T.N.

13 Bullfighting terminology. Tentar to attract the bull towards the matador’s cloak. Templar, to force the enemy/bull to attack when and where you want. Bullfighting was (and is) very popular in the Basque country.

14 In the Courts of the Kings

In the towns and in the countryside
Is there anyone who


has never heard of Zumalakarregui?

Basque traditional song.



15 It was night of snow and raining stone
from the bullets the whistle could be heard


From the cannons the terrible din
the sound of drums quelled the moans


of those saying goodbye to his fatherland.

16 Guiri. In modern Spanish, colloquial word for “foreigner” that can be friendly or despective depending on the context were the word is used.

17 And while I trek up and down
and I got fatigued in these ridges
another ones in happier lands
will say between turkey and rum


Long live Isabel of Borbón
And war is for the fools.



18 Infante, “Prince of the blood.” The sons of the King carry the title of Infante Real.

19 Roughly translated, Come on, Let’s die boys, with two cojones (balls), let’s go forward!

20 The officers of the French Legion

have lost its brave commander Conrad

Killed in the battlefield of Barbastro

For the cause of Spanish freedom.


21 Light infantry. The same type of units that would be called “Jägers” by the Germans or “chasseurs” by the French. Literally translated, cazador means “hunter.”

22 Gen. Pardiñas used bullfighting terminology that would need dozens of lines of text to translate, let alone to understand what did he said. Roughly translated the general said that the enemy would put up a gallant fight and that he will need to do its utmost to win the battle.

23 Catalan for “Let’s go!” “Come on!”

24 The bells toll now

The cannon thunders
towards victory we advance


The day has come

The day so longed by the people


25 My sons, I can see you don’t have bayonets,

which is the most faithful weapon, because cartridges are ruined by moisture.

I can’t give you weapons but the enemy has many, we’ll take them theirs.

26 Typical Catalan sandals made of esparto grass.




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