Describe the position of the pharynx



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Head & Neck – Pharynx and Larynx


1

Describe the position of the pharynx












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2

Describe the boundaries of the pharynx and where it is widest and narrowest












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Name the most superior part of the pharynx. Describe its location, function and epithelium. Describe its clinical relevance.












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Name the middle part of the pharynx. Describe its location, boundaries, function and epithelium











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Name the inferior part of the pharynx. Describe its location, boundaries and epithelium











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Describe the wall of the pharynx












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7

Name the muscles involved in the outer circular muscle layer of the pharynx












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Describe where the outer muscle layer attaches posteriorly and what happens to them anteriorly. Describe their function during swallowing












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9

Name the muscles involved in the inner longitudinal muscle layer of the pharynx. Describe their function during swallowing.












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10

Describe the innervation of the pharynx












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Describe the sensory innervation of the pharynx












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12

Describe the motor innervation of the pharynx











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13

Name and describe the first phase of swallowing












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14

Name and describe the second phase of swallowing










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15

Name and describe the third phase of swallowing











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16

Describe the different muscle in different areas of the oesophagus and what control they are under












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17

Describe the blood supply of the pharynx. What artery do these vessels all branch off of?












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18

Describe the venous drainage of the pharynx












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19

Describe the nerves in the afferent pathway and efferent pathway of the gag reflex












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20

What does the gag reflex test?












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21

What are the adenoids? Describe their location. What happens to them during infection? What happens to them in recurrent infections?












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22

Describe the clinical features of enlarged adenoids












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23

The Palatine Tonsils lie in the Tonsillar fossa between two arches Name these two arches and describe their position












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24

Describe the lymphatic drainage of the palatine fossa and its location












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25

During a Tonsillectomy, there is a potential for bleeding as the palatine tonsils are very vascular. Describe what artery the bleeding is usually from. Describe any other nearby neurovascular structures












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26

What is Quinsy? How does it progress? What is a sign? How do you treat it?












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27

Describe common sites for food becoming stuck in the second part of the pharynx












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28

Describe common sites for food becoming stuck in the third part of the pharynx












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29

Describe where the Larynx extends to and from












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30

What is the larynx’s most vital function?












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31

The Laryngeal Skeleton is made up of the hyoid bone and 9 cartilages. How many unpaired cartilages are there? Name them












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32

The Laryngeal Skeleton is made up of the hyoid bone and 9 cartilages. How many paired cartilages are there? Name them












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33

What is the epiglottis? How and where is it attached?












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34

What is the thyroid cartilage colloquially known as? What portion of it can be used to find a spinal level, what spinal level is this and what happens at this level?












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35

The thyroid cartilage has 2 lamina and 2 horns. Describe how and what the horns articulate to or with












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36

What shape is the Cricoid Cartilage? It has 2 articular facets on either side, what do they articulate with? What can its surface marking indicate?











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37

What shape is the Arytenoid Cartilage? What is it crucially involved in? Describe its anterior and lateral sides












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38

What is the crico vocal ligament/membrane also known as? What does it mainly consist of? Describe its upper and lower borders












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39

The internal larynx is split into 3 divisions. Name the first one and its borders.












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The internal larynx is split into 3 divisions. Name the second one and its borders.












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The internal larynx is split into 3 divisions. Name the third one and its borders.












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42

Name the extrinsic laryngeal muscles and their function












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Name what the intrinsic laryngeal muscles act on and their function












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44

Describe the innervation of the intrinsic laryngeal nerves












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45

Name the layers of the vocal cords












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46

Describe the mucosa of the vocal cords and explain the implication of this










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47

Describe the actions of the lateral cricoarytenoid, posterior cricoarytenoid and the cricothyroid muscles












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48

What cranial nerve innervates the larynx












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49

Describe the innervation of the larynx












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50

Describe what levels the right and left recurrent laryngeal nerves descend to and what they curve around












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51

Why is hoarseness of voice a red flag symptom?












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52

Name some causes of hoarseness of voice












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53

Describe blood supply to the larynx and what the vessels are a branches of












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54

Describe the venous drainage of the larynx and what these veins drain into












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55

What are some causes of laryngeal obstruction?












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56

Describe the procedures that can be done in an emergency situation in a laryngeal obstruction.












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