Department of microbiology microbial food technology group a diploma in quality assurance in microbiology diploma



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[edit]Body hygiene


See also: Body hygiene kit

Body hygiene pertains to hygiene practices performed by an individual to care for one's bodily health and well being, through cleanliness. Motivations for personal hygiene practice include reduction of personal illness, healing from personal illness, optimal health and sense of well being, social acceptance and prevention of spread of illness to others.

Personal hygiene practices include: seeing a doctor, seeing a dentist, regular washing/bathing, and healthy eating. Personal groomingextends personal hygiene as it pertains to the maintenance of a good personal and public appearance, which need not necessarily be hygienic.

Body hygiene is achieved by using personal body hygiene products including: soap, hair shampoo, toothbrushes, tooth paste, cotton swabs, antiperspirant, facial tissue, mouthwash, nail files, skin cleansers, toilet paper, and other such products.


Excessive body hygiene


The benefits of body hygiene can be diminished by the risks of excessive body hygiene, which is hypothesized to cause allergic disease and bodily irritation.

Excessive body hygiene and allergies


The hygiene hypothesis was first formulated in 1989 by Strachan who observed that there was an inverse relationship between family size and development of atopic allergic disorders – the more children in a family, the less likely they were to develop these allergies.[33] From this, he hypothesised that lack of exposure to “infections” in early childhood transmitted by contact with older siblings could be a cause of the rapid rise in atopic disorders over the last thirty to forty years. Strachan further proposed that the reason why this exposure no longer occurs is, not only because of the trend towards smaller families, but also “improved household amenities and higher standards of personal cleanliness”.

Although there is substantial evidence that some microbial exposures in early childhood can in some way protect against allergies, there is no evidence that we need exposure to harmful microbes (infection) or that we need to suffer a clinical infection.[34][35][36] Nor is there evidence that hygiene measures such as hand washing, food hygiene etc. are linked to increased susceptibility to atopic disease [31][32] If this is the case, there is no conflict between the goals of preventing infection and minimising allergies. A consensus is now developing among experts that the answer lies in more fundamental changes in lifestyle etc. that have led to decreased exposure to certain microbial or other species, such as helminths, that are important for development of immuno-regulatory mechanisms.[37] There is still much uncertainty as to which lifestyle factors are involved.

Although media coverage of the hygiene hypothesis has declined, a strong ‘collective mindset’ has become established that dirt is ‘healthy’ and hygiene somehow ‘unnatural’. This has caused concern among health professionals that everyday life hygiene behaviours, which are the foundation of public health, are being undermined. In response to the need for effective hygiene in home and everyday life settings, the International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene has developed a “risk-based” or targeted approach to home hygiene which seeks to ensure that hygiene measures are focussed on the places, and at the times which are most critical for infection transmission.[6] Whilst targeted hygiene was originally developed as an effective approach to hygiene practice, it also seeks, as far as possible, to sustain “normal” levels of exposure to the microbial flora of our environment to the extent that is important to build a balanced immune system.

Excessive body hygiene of external ear canals


Excessive body hygiene of the ear canals can result in infection or irritation. The ear canals require less body hygiene care than other parts of the body, because they are sensitive, and the body system adequately cares for these parts. Most of the time the ear canals are self-cleaning; that is, there is a slow and orderly migration of the skin lining the ear canal from the eardrum to the outer opening of the ear. Old earwax is constantly being transported from the deeper areas of the ear canal out to the opening where it usually dries, flakes, and falls out.[38] Attempts to clean the ear canals through the removal of earwax can actually reduce ear canal cleanliness by pushing debris and foreign material into the ear that the natural movement of ear wax out of the ear would have removed.

Excessive body hygiene of skin


Excessive body hygiene of the skin can result in skin irritation. The skin has a natural layer of oil, which promotes elasticity, and protects the skin from drying. When washing, unless using aqueous creams with compensatory mechanisms, this layer is removed leaving the skin unprotected.

Excessive application of soaps, creams, and ointments can also adversely affect certain of the natural processes of the skin. For examples, soaps and ointments can deplete the skin of natural protective oils and fat-soluble content such as cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), and external substances can be absorbed, to disturb natural hormonal balances.


Culinary (food) hygiene


Culinary hygiene pertains to the practices related to food management and cooking to prevent food contamination, prevent food poisoning and minimize the transmission of disease to other foods, humans or animals. Culinary hygiene practices specify safe ways to handle, store, prepare, serve and eat food.

Culinary practices include:



  • Cleaning and disinfection of food-preparation areas and equipment (for example using designated cutting boards for preparing raw meats and vegetables). Cleaning may involve use of chlorine bleachethanolultraviolet light, etc. for disinfection.

  • Careful avoidance of meats contaminated by trichina wormssalmonella, and other pathogens; or thorough cooking of questionable meats.

  • Extreme care in preparing raw foods, such as sushi and sashimi.

  • Institutional dish sanitizing by washing with soap and clean water.

  • Washing of hands thoroughly before touching any food.

  • Washing of hands after touching uncooked food when preparing meals.

  • Not using the same utensils to prepare different foods.

  • Not sharing cutlery when eating.

  • Not licking fingers or hands while or after eating.

  • Not reusing serving utensils that have been licked.

  • Proper storage of food so as to prevent contamination by vermin.

  • Refrigeration of foods (and avoidance of specific foods in environments where refrigeration is or was not feasible).

  • Labeling food to indicate when it was produced (or, as food manufacturers prefer, to indicate its "best before" date).

  • Proper disposal of uneaten food and packaging.

Personal service hygiene


Personal service hygiene pertains to the practices related to the care and use of instruments used in the administration of personal care services to people:

Personal hygiene practices include:



  • Sterilization of instruments used by service providers including hairdressersaestheticians, and other service providers.

  • Sterilization by [autoclave] of instruments used in body piercing and tattoo marking.

  • Cleaning hands.

History of hygienic practices


Elaborate codes of hygiene can be found in several Hindu texts, such as the Manusmriti and the Vishnu Purana.[39] Bathing is one of the fiveNitya karmas (daily duties) in Hinduism, and not performing it leads to sin, according to some scriptures. These codes were based on the notion of ritual purity and were not informed by an understanding of the causes of diseases and their means of transmission. However, some of the ritual-purity codes did improve hygiene, from an epidemiological point of view, perhaps by accident, or because certain practices acquired ritual status on account of an empirical correlation with good health.

Regular bathing was a hallmark of Roman civilization.[40] Elaborate baths were constructed in urban areas to serve the public, who typically demanded the infrastructure to maintain personal cleanliness. The complexes usually consisted of large, swimming pool-like baths, smaller cold and hot pools, saunas, and spa-like facilities where individuals could be depilated, oiled, and massaged. Water was constantly changed by an aqueduct-fed flow. Bathing outside of urban centers involved smaller, less elaborate bathing facilities, or simply the use of clean bodies of water. Roman cities also had large sewers, such as Rome's Cloaca Maxima, into which public and private latrines drained. Romans didn't have demand-flush toilets but did have some toilets with a continuous flow of water under them. (Similar toilets are seen in Acre Prison in the film Exodus.)

Until the late 19th Century, only the elite in Western cities typically possessed indoor facilities for relieving bodily functions. The poorer majority used communal facilities built above cesspools in backyards and courtyards. This changed after Dr. John Snow discovered thatcholera was transmitted by the fecal contamination of water. Though it took decades for his findings to gain wide acceptance, governments and sanitary reformers were eventually convinced of the health benefits of using sewers to keep human waste from contaminating water. This encouraged the widespread adoption of both the flush toilet and the moral imperative that bathrooms should be indoors and as private as possible.[41]

Islamic hygienical jurisprudence


Since the 7th century, Islam has always placed a strong emphasis on hygiene. Other than the need to be ritually clean in time for the daily prayer (Arabic: Salat) through Wudu and Ghusl, there are a large number of other hygiene-related rules governing the lives of Muslims. Other issues include the Islamic dietary laws. In general, the Qur'an advises Muslims to uphold high standards of physical hygiene and to be ritually clean whenever possible.

Hygiene in Ancient Europe


Contrary to popular belief[42] and although the Early Christian leaders condemned bathing as unspiritual,[43] bathing and sanitation were not lost in Europe with the collapse of the Roman Empire.[44][45] Soapmaking first became an established trade during the so-called "Dark Ages". The Romans used scented oils (mostly from Egypt), among other alternatives.

Bathing did not fall out of fashion in Europe until shortly after the Renaissance, replaced by the heavy use of sweat-bathing and perfume, as it was thought in Europe that water could carry disease into the body through the skin. (Water, in fact, does carry disease, but more often if it is drunk than if one bathes in it; and water only carries disease if it is contaminated by pathogens.) Medieval church authorities believed thatpublic bathing created an environment open to immorality and disease. Roman Catholic Church officials even banned public bathing in an unsuccessful effort to halt syphilis epidemics from sweeping Europe.[46] Modern sanitation was not widely adopted until the 19th and 20th centuries. According to medieval historian Lynn Thorndike, people in Medieval Europe probably bathed more than people did in the 19th century.



7.Explain the GHP for Commodities in detail.

GHP for commodities

DFID commissioned a substantial, evidence-based assessment of the impact of the

Global Health Partnerships (GHPs) with which DFID engages at both global and

country level, drawing out best practice principles to guide DFID’s future

engagement. This synthesis report summarises key findings from a series of

component studies which in practice covered a wider range of GHPs.

GHPs are a moving target in a changing environment, and the evidence to assess

them is sometimes limited. Nonetheless, some broad conclusions can be drawn.

First, despite some concerns, individual GHPs are seen overall as having a

positive impact in terms both of achieving their own objectives and of being

welcomed by countries studied. This is true even of GHPs where evaluation has

found organisational or relationship shortcomings. The general theme of findings

from most evaluations is one of GHP success, but with clear scope for yet further

achievement if challenges are resolved.

Key areas of success have been raising the profile of the disease, mobilising

commitment and funding, accelerating progress (though it is unclear whether some

GHP targets will be delivered on time), and in some cases leading innovation. Most

current and planned interventions funded by GHPs are potentially highly costeffective.

Neglected diseases are mostly being addressed by at least one GHP.

GHP-led R&D for new tools to address neglected diseases is intensifying and

focused on those diseases in greatest need. The R&D GHPs generally appear to be

seen as a particularly fruitful way to foster research and development for new

diagnostics, drugs and vaccines. Some GHPs - such as GAVI, the TB Global Drug

Facility and the Green Light Committee for multidrug-resistant TB - have successfully

secured commodity price reductions, and fostered both competition and research,

though ARV price reductions may stem more from increased competition from

generic manufacturers and global pressure than the Accelerating Access Initiative.

GHPs are bringing additional funding for communicable diseases and other global

public goods. They have been successful in leveraging significant additional funds

from Foundations, though not from other new sources. 97% of pledges for GFATM are

from traditional donor countries. They appear to be relatively well targeted towards

diseases which present the largest burden of ill health, towards countries in greatest

need in terms of socio economic status and in relation to recent trends in

development assistance for health and population. However, GHPs alone will be

insufficient to provide countries with the financial means required to deliver a

reasonable package of basic health services.

The limited literature on GHPs in difficult policy environments suggests that it is

possible for GHPs to operate there and perhaps to deliver wider benefits beyond

their specific programme. Country work in this study concluded that the situation

presented by fragile states necessitates even more concerted effort on the part of

multilaterals and bilaterals to provide direct support to the health system. It may

make sense for financing and access/donation GHPs to adopt a slower, more hands

on approach with fragile states, identifying strong national partners (either state or

non-state) through whom they can work.

Second, there are at the same time some critical concerns and challenges. The

more taxing concerns relate to GHP operations at country level.

Some GHPs operate above country level and are aimed at development and

provision of important new public goods and technologies. Many are more aimed at

acceleration of country progress towards the MDGs and other targets. These latter

Assessing the Impact of Global Health Partnerships 5

DFID Health Resource Centre

GHPs are generally seen to fit well with national priorities and programmes, though

there may be issues about the priority given to polio NIDs and HIV/AIDs. Evidence

suggests that low resource countries are likely to need partnership or donor

contribution of three elements to support a successful disease control programme:

some contribution to providing the necessary drugs (through funding, donation or

discounted price); funding for some operational costs, and technical assistance.

Without all three, impact can be limited.
8.Explain the Basic principles of HACCPin detail.

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