Department of microbiology microbial food technology group a diploma in quality assurance in microbiology diploma



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Publicly Available Specifications


BSI also publishes a series of Publicly Available Specification (PAS) documents.

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) are a flexible and rapid standards development model that is open to all organizations. A PAS is a sponsored piece of work allowing organizations flexibility in the rapid creation of a standard while also allowing for a greater degree of control over the document's development. A typical development time frame for a PAS is around 6–9 months. Once published by BSI a PAS has all the functionality of a British Standard for the purposes of creating schemes such as management systems and product benchmarks as well as codes of practice. A PAS is a living document and after two years the document will be reviewed and a decision made with the client as to whether or not this should be taken forward to become a formal British standard.


Examples


  • PAS 78: Guide to good practice in commissioning accessible websites

  • PAS 55- 1: Asset management - Specification for the optimized management of physical infrastructure assests

  • PAS 72: Responsible Fishing - Specification of good practice for fishing vessels

  • PAS 911: Fire strategies - guidance and framework for their formulation

  • PAS 82: Shopfitting - Management system specification

  • PAS 77: IT Service continuity Management - Code of Practice

  • BSI PAS 100 Composting specification

  • BSI PAS 101 Specification for recovered container glass

  • BSI PAS 102 Specification for processed glass for selected secondary end markets

  • BSI PAS 103 Specification for quality and guidance for good practice in collection and preparation for recycling

  • BSI PAS 104 Specification for quality and guidance for good practice for the supply of post consumer wood for consumption in the manufacture of panel board products

  • BSI PAS 105 Specification for paper waste

Availability


Copies of British Standards are sold at the BSI Online Shop[8] or can be accessed via subscription to British Standards Online (BSOL)[9]. They can also be ordered via the publishing units of many other national standards bodies (ANSIDIN, etc.) and from several specialized suppliers of technical specifications.

Many British Standards (BSs) – as well as some of the European and International Standards that were adopted as British Standards (BS EN, BS ISO) – are also available in public and university libraries in the United Kingdom. However, BSI makes standards available to these libraries only under licence restrictions which forbid loan, inter-library loan, open-shelf access, and copying of more than 10% of a document by library users[10]. The BSI Knowledge Centre in Chiswick charges visiting members of the public a fee of £20 per hour. This service is free to BSI members, students and accredited journalists[11].





Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems are human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater), industrial wastes, and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g. sewerage andwastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g. latrines, septic tanks), or even by personal hygiene practices (e.g. simple handwashing with soap). Sanitation as defined by the WHO (World Health Organisation); Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word 'sanitation' also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal. [1]

The term "sanitation" can be applied to a specific aspect, concept, location, or strategy, such as:



  • Basic sanitation - refers to the management of human feces at the household level. This terminology is the indicator used to describe the target of the Millennium Development Goal on sanitation.

  • On-site sanitation - the collection and treatment of waste is done where it is deposited. Examples are the use of pit latrines, septic tanks, and imhoff tanks.

  • Food sanitation - refers to the hygienic measures for ensuring food safety.

  • Environmental sanitation - the control of environmental factors that form links in disease transmission. Subsets of this category are solid waste management, water and wastewater treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise and pollution control.

  • Ecological sanitation - a concept and an approach of recycling to nature the nutrients from human and animal wastes


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