Department of microbiology microbial food technology group a diploma in quality assurance in microbiology diploma

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Soy sauce has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and South East Asian cultures. Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring in Japanese, Thai, and Chinese cuisine. However, it is important to note that despite its rather similar appearance, soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are very different in taste, consistency, fragrance and saltiness. As such, it may not be appropriate to substitute soy sauces of one culture or region for another.

Chinese soy sauce

A bottle of Chinese soy sauce, artificially hydrolyzed, as clearly evident from the discoloration of the bottle due to addition of caramel coloring to mask the production method

Chinese soy sauce (simplified Chinese:; traditional Chinese:; pinyin: jiàngyóu; or chǐyóu) is primarily made from soybeans, with relatively low amounts of other grains. There are two main varieties:

  • Light or fresh soy sauce :A thin (non-viscous), opaque, dark brown soy sauce. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning, since it is saltier, but it also adds flavour. Since it is lighter in color, it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans is called tóuchōu (simplified Chinese: 头抽; traditional Chinese: 頭抽), which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. Touchōu is sold at a premium because, like extra virgin olive oil, the flavor of the first pressing is considered superior. An additional classification of light soy sauce, shuānghuáng (雙璜), is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping.

  • Dark/old soy sauce: A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. It has a richer, slightly sweeter, and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add color and flavour to a dish.

In traditional Chinese cooking, one of the two types, or a mixture of both, is employed to achieve a particular flavour and colour for the dish.

Other types:

  • Thick soy sauce :Dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar. It is also occasionally flavored with MSG. This sauce is not usually used directly in cooking but more often as a dipping sauce or poured on food as a flavorful addition.

  • Dark soy paste: Although not really a soy sauce, it is another salty soy product. It is one of the main ingredients in a dish called zhajiang mian, lit. "fried paste noodles").

Japanese soy sauce

Koyo organic tamari sauce

Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century, where it is known as "shoyu". The Japanese word "tamari" is derived from the verb "tamaru" that signifies "to accumulate," referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally from the liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso. Japan is the leading producer of tamari.

Japanese soy sauce or shō-yu, is traditionally divided into 5 main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient and this tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. They also have an alcoholic sherry-like flavor. Not all soy sauces are interchangeable.


Originating in the Kantō region, its usage eventually spread all over Japan. Over 80% of the Japanese domestic soy sauce production is of koikuchi, and can be considered the typical Japanese soy sauce. It is produced from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. This variety is also called kijōyu (生醤油) or namashōyu (生しょうゆ) when it is not pasteurized.


Particularly popular in the Kansai region of Japan, it is both saltier and lighter in color than koikuchi. The lighter color arises from the usage of amazake, a sweet liquid made from fermented rice, that is used in its production.


Produced mainly in the Chūbu region of Japan, tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. It contains little or no wheat; wheat-free tamari is popular among people eating a wheat free diet. It is the "original" Japanese soy sauce, as its recipe is closest to the soy sauce originally introduced to Japan from China. Technically, this variety is known as miso-damari (味噌溜り), as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures.

Shiro ("white")

A very light colored soy sauce. In contrast to "tamari" soy sauce, "shiro" soy sauce uses mostly wheat and very little soybean, lending it a light appearance and sweet taste. It is more commonly used in the Kansai region to highlight the appearances of food, for example sashimi.

Saishikomi ("twice-brewed") 

This variety substitutes previously-made koikuchi for the brine normally used in the process. Consequently, it is much darker and more strongly flavored. This type is also known as kanro shoyu (甘露醤油) or "sweet shoyu".

Shoyu (koikuchi) and light colored shoyu (usukuchi) as sold in Japan by Kikkoman, 1 litre bottles.

Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:

Gen'en ("reduced salt")

Low-salt soy sauces also exist, but are not considered to be a separate variety of soy sauce, since the reduction in salt content is a process performed outside of the standard manufacture of soy sauce.


Called "Hawaiian soy sauce" in those few parts of the US familiar with it, this is a variant of "koikuchi" soy sauce.

All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:

Honjōzō hōshiki

Contains 100% naturally fermented product.

Shinshiki hōshiki

Contains 30-50% naturally fermented product.

Tennen jōzō

Means no added ingredients except alcohol.

All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:


Standard pasteurized.


Special quality, not pasteurized.


Premium quality, usually implies limited quantity.

Other terms unrelated to the three official levels of quality:


Refers to industrial grade used for flavoring, powder.


Used by marketers to imply the best.

Perhaps the most well-known producer of Japanese soy sauce is the Kikkoman Corporation.

Taiwanese soy sauce

The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China, in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. Later, the cultural and political separation between Taiwan and China since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895, when China ceded Taiwan to Japan, brought changes to traditional Chinese soy sauce making in Taiwan. Some of the top Taiwanese makers, such as Wan Ja Shan, Wei-Wong and Ve-Chung have adopted the more sophisticated Japanese technology in making soy sauce for the domestic market and more recently foreign markets as well.

Korean soy sauce

Korean soy sauce, (called Joseon ganjang, 조선간장, in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). Joseon ganjang, thin and dark brown in color, is made entirely of soy and brine, and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce, called waeganjang (hangul). Currently, Korean soy sauce is made from dripping soy sauce chicken into a pan. This process is widely used because in the process of making soy sauce, you get the benefit of regular chicken. According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea, traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1.4% of soy sauce purchases.

Vietnamese soy sauce

Vietnamese soy sauce is called xì dầu, nước tương, or sometimes simply tương.

Indonesian soy sauce

Kecap manis Indonesian thick and sweet soy sauce is nearly as thick as molasses.

In Indonesia, soy sauce is known as kecap (or ketjap) (a catchall term for fermented sauces) from which according to one theory the English word "ketchup" is derived. Two main varieties exist:

Kecap asin 

Salty soy sauce, which is very similar to Chinese light soy sauce, but usually somewhat thicker and has a stronger flavor; it can be replaced by light Chinese soy sauce in recipes.

Kecap manis 

Sweet soy sauce, which has a thick, almost syrupy consistency and a pronounced sweet, treacle-like flavor due to generous addition of palm sugar. It is a unique variety; in a pinch, it may be replaced by molasses with a little vegetable stock stirred in.

Kecap inggris ("English fermented sauce"), or saus inggris ("English sauce") is the Indonesian name for Worcestershire sauce. Kecap Ikan is Indonesian fish sauce.

Malaysian soy sauce

In Singapore and Malaysia, soy sauce in general is dòuyóu (豆油); dark soy sauce is called jiàngyóu (醬油) and light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). Angmoh tauyew (紅貌豆油, lit. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce.

Malaysia, which has cultural links with Indonesia, uses the word 'kicap' for soy sauce. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak and kicap cair. Kicap lemak is similar to kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin.

Filipino toyo

A popular condiment in the Philippines, it is called toyo (pronounced TOH-yoh), and is usually found beside other sauces such as patis (fish sauce, pronounced pah-TEES) and suka (sugar cane vinegar, pronounced SOO-kah). The flavor of Filipino soy sauce, made from soybeans, wheat, salt, and caramel, is interestingly milder compared to its Asian counterparts--possibly an adaptation to the demands of the Filipino palate and its cuisine. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste compared to its Southeast Asian counterparts, much more similar to the Japanese shōyu. It is used as a staple condiment to flavor many cooked dishes and as a marinade during cooking, it is also a table condiment, and is usually mixed and served with kalamansi (a small Asian citrus-lime). Popular Philippine brands are Marca Piña, Silver Swan, Lauriat, Datu Puti, Toyomansi and UFC (Universal Food Public Company).

Hawaiian shoyu

A unique type of soy sauce produced by Aloha Shoyu Company since 1946 is a special blend of soybeans, wheat, and salt, historically common among local Hawaii residents. Hawaii residents rarely use the term "soy sauce," opting to use the Japanese loanword "shoyu" instead. However, while the Japanese word shōyu is pronounced like show you, Hawaii residents prounounce the word like shoi-yu.

18.Write a brief note on Dry Sausage Preparation.

Dry Sausage:

A sausage is a prepared food, usually made from ground meat, animal fat, salt, and spices (sometimes with other ingredients such as herbs), typically packed in a casing. Sausage making is a traditional food preservation technique.

Traditionally, casings are made of animal intestines though are now often synthetic. Some sausages are cooked during processing, and the casing may be removed after that. Sausages may be preserved by curing, drying in cool air, or smoking. When cooking sausages it is important to ensure they are pricked with a fork or similar implement first in order to prevent their disintegration and to prevent loss of flavour.
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