Department of microbiology microbial food technology group a diploma in quality assurance in microbiology diploma



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17. Write a brief note on Country Salt Cured Ham and Bacon.


The dilemma facing pioneer mountain cooks was how to keep freshly butchered meat from spoiling without refrigeration. Hogs were butchered in the late fall when the temperature was down around 33 degrees, and while the meat was fresh, it was salt cured. The next spring any leftovers would be smoked under a fire of green hickory or peppered. Sausage was packed in the intestines of the hog, tied off and also hung in the smokehouse for curing. Salting, peppering, and smoking protected the meat from spoiling and from insects. Today it's that salt, pepper, and smoky flavor that we love in country ham, bacon, and sausage.

Clifty Farm's Country Ham


Clifty Farms country ham is from Tennessees oldest smokehouse. Slow bake or boil this salt cured and hickory smoked ham to serve with your home made biscuits or rolls and your holiday dinner will be one to remember. Serve lightly re-fried leftovers at breakfast with red-eye gravy. Four hours soaking recommended.
Ogi:

Ogi is a fermented cereal porridge from West Africa, typically made from maize, sorghum, or millet. Traditionally, the grains are soaked in water for up to three days, before wet milling and sieving to remove husks. The filtered cereal is then allowed to ferment for up to three days until sour. It is then boiled into a pap, or cooked to make a stiff porridge.

The fermentation of ogi is performed by various lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus spp, and various yeasts including Saccharomyces and Candida spp.



Soy sauce:

Soy sauce (US), soya sauce (Commonwealth), or shoyu (Japan) is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. Soy sauce was invented in China, where it has been used as a condiment for close to 2,500 years. In its various forms it is widely used in East and Southeast Asian cuisines and increasingly appears in Western cuisine and prepared foods.


Production


Soy sauce is made from soybeans.


Traditional


Authentic soy sauces are made by mixing the grain and/or soybeans with yeast or kōji (, the mold Aspergillus oryzae or A. sojae) and other related microorganisms. Traditionally soy sauces were fermented under natural conditions, such as in giant urns and under the sun, which was believed to contribute to additional flavours. Today, most of the commercially-produced counterparts are fermented under machine-controlled environments instead.

Although there are many types of soy sauce, all are salty and earthy-tasting brownish liquids used to season food while cooking or at the table. Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami by the Japanese (鮮味, literally "fresh taste"). Umami was first identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University. The free glutamates which naturally occur in soy sauce are what give it this taste quality.

Soy sauce should be stored away from direct sunlight.

Artificially hydrolyzed


Many cheaper brands of soy sauces are made from hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed from natural bacterial and fungal cultures. These soy sauces do not have the natural color of authentic soy sauces and are typically colored with caramel coloring, and are popular in Southeast Asia and China, and are exported to Asian markets around the globe. They are derogatorily called Chemical Soy Sauce "化學醬油" in Chinese, but despite this name are the most widely used type because they are cheap. Similar products are also sold as "liquid aminos" in the US and Canada.

Some artificial soy sauces posed potential health risks due to their content of the chloropropanols carcinogens 3-MCPD (3-chloro-1,2-propanediol) and all artificial soy sauces pose health risks due to the unregulated 1,3-DCP (1,3-dichloro-2-propanol) which are minor byproducts of the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis [1].


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