Department of maxillofacial surgery & diagnostic sciences



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KING SAUD UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY

DEPARTMENT OF MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY & DIAGNOSTIC SCIENCES

DIVISION OF ORAL BIOLOGY/ PATHOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY




  1. MDS


ORAL BIOLOGY

Course Director




For MUC & DUC


Professor Rita M. Khounganian




Department of Maxillofacial Surgery & Diagnostic Sciences


Oral Biology / Pathology and Microbiology Division

KING SAUD UNIVERSITY


COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery & Diagnostic Sciences

Division of Oral Biology/ Pathology and Microbiology




251 MDS – Oral Biology

Course Director: Professor Rita Khounganian

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery & Diagnostic Sciences


Oral Biology / Pathology and Microbiology Division

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



COURSE TITLE : ORAL BIOLOGY

COURSE NO.& CODE : 251 MDS


CREDIT HOURS : 3 (2 LECT. + 1 LAB)

LEVEL : SECOND YEAR (1st half & 2nd half)



A. Course Description:

251 MDS is a one-year course. It is given as a one lecture in the 1st half of the year and one lecture and one practical session in the 2nd half of the year.

Oral Biology course comprises instructions in the principles of oral anatomy and embryology, oral histology, and oral Physiology.




  1. Course Objectives:

At the end of the course the student should be able to:




  1. Understand fairly well the principles of the formation and development of normal orofacial tissues.




  1. Be able to describe satisfactorily the interrelationships between macroscopic, microscopic structures and functions of these oral tissues.




  1. Know correctly the chemical composition of enamel, dentin, cementum, bone and the major similarities/differences among them.




  1. Have a fair knowledge of the roles of some minerals and factors which affect the metabolism of mineralized tissues (bone; teeth).




  1. Have a clear understanding of the biology of the periodontium.




  1. Be able to describe satisfactorily the anatomy of salivary glands and the physiology of salivary secretion.




  1. Understand well the principles of occlusal function and articulation as determined by craniomandibular relationship.


    1. Course Oultine:
1. Lecture Topics:

Cell structure and Function

General Embryology

Development of the oral cavity, pharyngeal arches and tongue

Development of the face and palate

Development and growth of the maxilla

Development and growth of the mandible

Developmental anomalies & clinical considerations

Development of the teeth: Crown formation

Amelogenesis I : Life cycle of ameloblasts

Amelogenesis II : Enamel formation and maturation

Dentinogenesis


Development of the teeth: Root formation and supporting structure


Eruption of the deciduous and permanent teeth

Shedding and exfoliation of the deciduous teeth

Properties and composition of enamel

Histological structure of enamel

Properties & composition of dentine

Histological structure of dentine

Dental pulp, anatomy, structures & functions

Cementum, structure and function

Histological structure & function of periodontal ligament

Histological Structure of the jaw bones and alveolar process

Temporomandibular joint, anatomy and histology

Classification of the Oral Mucosa, definitions and general consideration

Keratinized and non-keratinized oral mucous membrane

Specialized mucosa – Histological structure of the tongue

Gingival sulcus and dentogingival junction

Salivary gland, classification

Salivary gland, structures and functions

2. Practical Sessions:

Introduction and methodology

Histology of tooth development

Histology of enamel

Histology of dentin

Histology of the dental pulp

Histology of the cementum

Histology of the periodontal ligament

Histology of the alveolar bone

Histology of the lip and oral mucosa

Histology of the tongue and dentogingival junction

Histology of the salivary glands



Lectures Topics in Details (content)

1-4 EMBRYOLOGY OF THE HEAD, FACE, AND ORAL CAVITY:
1. Introduction and definitions – Cell structure and function


    • Avery JK: Essentials of Oral Histology and Embryology. A clinical approach

2nd Edition, 2000. Chapter 1,2 page 1 – 28
2. Formation of 3-germ layer -Formation of the neural crest cells.


  • Recommended textbook: page 2-8

3. Branchial or pharyngeal arches and their derivative -Development of the primitive oral

cavity and the face.


  • Recommended textbook: page 21-28

4. Development of the tongue-Development of the thyroid gland.



  • Recommended textbook: pages 29-30 & 24

5. Development of the palate and premaxilla.



  • Recommended textbook: page 28-31



  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002. chapters 1&2.

  • Reference book: Ten Cate (Oral Histology – development, structure and function) 5th edition, 1998, Chapters 2 page 10-23 & chapter 3 page 24-39



5. DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH OF THE MAXILLA:
Maxillary and premaxillary ossification centers-Factors affecting growth of maxilla


  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002, chapter 3, page 44-60.

  • Reference book: Ten Cate, (Oral Histology -development, structure and function), 5th edition, 1998, Chapter 3, page 44-46.



6. DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH OF THE MANDIBLE:
Role and fate of Meckel’s Cartilage-Ossification Centers & Growth Factors of

Mandible



  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002, chapter 3, page 44-60.

  • Reference book: Ten Cate (Oral Histology -development, structure and function), 5th edition, 1998, Chapter 3, page 41-44.

7. DEVELOPMENTAL ANOMALIES AND CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS:
Hereditary causes and environmental causes of congenital malformations –

developmental anomalies.




  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002, chapter1, page16-19 & chapter 2, page 37-40.

Reference book: Ten Cate (Oral Histology -development, structure and function), 5th

edition, 1998, Chapter 3, page 46-49.



8. DEVELOPMENT OF TEETH: CROWN FORMATION
Dental Lamina-Bud stage-Cap stage-Early bell stage-Advanced bell stage


  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002, chapter 5 page 72-78.

  • Reference book: Ten Cate AR (Oral Histology, development, structure and function) 5th edition, 1998, Chapter 6, page 78-95.



9-10. DEVELOPMENT OF ENAMEL:
I. Life Cycle of Ameloblasts: Light microscopic and ultrastructural observations

II. Amelogenesis: Enamel matrix deposition, calcification and maturation





  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002,Chapter 5 page 92-105

  • Reference book: Ten Cate AR (Oral Histology – development, structure and function), 5th edition, 1998. Chapters 10 &11 page 197-235.



11. DEVELOPMENT OF DENTIN:
Dentinogenesis : Formation of collagen matrix- Mineralization


  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002 chapter 5 page 87-92

  • Reference book: Ten Cate. Oral Histology (development, structure and function), 5th edition, 1998. Chapter 8 pages 128-149


12. DEVELOPMENT OF TEETH: ROOT AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURE:
Root sheath development-single & multiple root formation-development of

cementum, periodontal ligment, and alveolar bone




  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002, chapter 6, page 108- 122

  • Reference book: Ten Cate AR (Oral Histology, development, structure and function) 5th edition, 1998, Chapter 6, page 97-99.



13. TOOTH ERUPTION:
Pattern of tooth movement -Histology of Tooth Movement-Mechanism of tooth

movement- Clinical Considerations,





  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd

edition, 2002, chapter 7 page 123 -140

  • Reference book: Ten Cate, (Oral Histology -development, structure and

function), 5th edition, 1998, Chapter 14, page 289-298.

14. EXFOLIATION AND SHEDDING OF DECIDUOUS TEETH:

Definition-Pattern of Shedding-Histology of Shedding


Mechanism of resorption and shedding-clinical considerations: remnants of deciduous

teeth- retained deciduous teeth-submerged deciduous teeth




  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002, chapter 7 page 123 -140

  • Reference book: Ten Cate, (Oral Histology -development, structure and function), 5th edition, 1998, Chapter 14, page 298-313.



15- 16. ENAMEL:
1. Development of Enamel: I. Life Cycle of Ameloblasts II. Amelogenesis

2. Enamel Structure I: Origin-Physical and Chemical characteristics -Structure

3. Enamel Structure II: Enamel Surface Structures: Prismless enamel -Perikymata

Age changes of enamel-Clinical Implications: Fluoridation -Acid Etching




  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002,Chapter 5 page 92-105 & chapter 9 page 153-171

  • Reference book: Ten Cate AR (Oral Histology – development, structure and function), 5th edition, 1998. Chapters 10 &11 page 197-235.



17-18. DENTIN:
1. Development of Dentin: Formation of collagen matrix- Mineralization

2. Dentin Structure: Origin-Physical and Chemical characteristics -Basic anatomy

Types of Dentin- Predentin-Histology of Primary Dentin-Incremental growth lines

3. Dentin Structure II: DE junction-DC junction -Innervation of dentin-dentin

Sensitivity-Theories of Pain sensation.

Age changes Dentin: Transparent /sclerotic dentin- Dead tract





  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002 chapter 5 page 87-92 & chapter 10 page 172-189

  • Reference book: Ten Cate. Oral Histology (development, structure and function), 5th edition, 1998. Chapter 8 pages 128-149 & chapter 9 page 150-165 and page 190-194.



19. DENTAL PULP:
Origin-Functions and Anatomy-Histology -Vascularity and Lymphatic supply –Nerve

supply Regressive changes of the pulp: fibrous changes -pulpal stones –diffuse

calcifications


  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002 chapter 11 page 190-211

  • Reference book: Ten Cate. (Oral Histology -development, structure and function), 5th edition, 1998. Chapter 9, page 165 –190.


20. CEMENTUM :
Development -Structure-Origin-Physical and Chemical characteristics –Composition

Functions -Types of cementum -Cementoid-Clinical considerations-Histology –

Incremental lines of Salter-Cemento-enamel junction-Cemento-dentinal junction

Age changes of the cementum





  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002, chapter 13, page231-235.

  • Reference book: Ten Cate. (Oral Histology -development, structure and function), 5th edition, 1998. Chapter 12, page 236-244 & chapter 13, page 253 -256.


21. PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT:
Origin-Development -Functions -Histological structure -Blood supply –Lymphatic

system- Nerve supply -Age changes of the periodontal ligament




  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002, chapter 13, page 235-242.

  • Reference book: Ten Cate. (Oral Histology -development, structure and function), 5th edition, 1998. Chapter 13, page 256-274.


22. ALVEOLAR PROCESS:
Development -Structure -Physiologic Changes -Internal Reconstruction of Bone-

Clinical Consideration




  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002, chapter 13, page 226-231

  • Reference book: Ten Cate, (Oral Histology -development, structure and function), 5th edition, 1998, Chapter 13, page 274-277.



23. TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT (TMJ):
Classification of Joints-Gross Anatomy of the TMJ-Development –Histology of Bony

structure, articular fibrous covering and articular disk- Muscle of Mastication-

Movements at the Joint-Ligaments associated with the Joint-Clinical Considerations


  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002, chapter 20, page 353- 363

  • Reference book: Ten Cate, (Oral Histology -development, structure and function), 5th edition, 1998, Chapter 17, page 386-407.



24-25. ORAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE:
1. Definitions and General Considerations

Lamina propria- Submucosa- Epithelium

2. Keratinized Oral Mucosa

Masticatory mucosa: Hard palate -Gingiva


Vermillion border of lip

3. Non-keratinized Oral Mucosa & Specialized Mucosa

Lining mucosa & Anterior two third and Posterior one third of the tongue


  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002, chapter 14, page 243-262

  • Reference book: Ten Cate. Oral Histology (development, structure and function), 5th edition, 1998, Chapter 16, page 345-385



26. GINGIVAL SULCUS AND DENTOGINGIVAL JUNCTION:
Gingival sulcus-Development of junctional (attachment) epithelium-Shift of

dentogingival junction -Migration of attachment epithelium-Clinical considerations




  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002, chapter 15, page 263-273.

  • Reference book: Ten Cate. (Oral Histology -development, structure and function), 5th edition, 1998, Chapter 13, page 278- 284.

27-28. SALIVARY GLANDS:
1. Structure and Function of Salivary Gland Cells

Serous, mucous and myoepithelial cells-ducts- CT elements

2. Classification and Structure of Human Salivary Glands

Major salivary glands-Minor salivary glands-Development and growth-Control of

secretion-Saliva: Composition and functions-Clinical considerations


  • Recommended textbook: James Avery (Oral development and histology) 3rd edition, 2002, chapter 17, page 292-330.

  • Reference book: Ten Cate AR (Oral Histology, development, structure and function) 5th edition, 1998, Chapter 15, page 315-344.






D. Methodology:



Didactic + Practical


E. Evaluation and Grades


The following percentages (%) of the total grade will be assigned:

* In-Course Assessment Examinations 60 %





~ In-course continuous assessment examinations

~ Mid year examination

~ Practical Examinations

* Final Examination 40 %




F. Textbooks and References :


The Recommended Textbooks:


    • James K. Avery

Oral Development and Histology

3rd edition, 2002. Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. or latest Edition


Or

    • Avery JK

Essentials of Oral Histology and Embryology. A clinical approach

2nd Edition, 2000. Mosby Co. or the latest edition if available


Or

    • Ten Cate AR

Oral Histology, Development, Structure and Function

5th Edition, 1998. C. V. Mosby Co. or the latest 6th Edition, 2003



The Recommended Atlas:

A colour Atlas and Textbook of Oral Anatomy, Histology and Embryology

2nd Edition 1992 , Wolfe Medical Publications Ltd, or the latest 3rd edition , 2002


The Reference Textbooks:




    • Kabita Chatterjee

Essentials of Oral Biology , 2006. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers ltd,


  • Junqueira LC and Carneiro J.

Basic Histology, Text and Atlas. 10th Edition, 2003. Lange Medical Books/McGraw – Hill


    • Bhaskar SN

Orban's Oral Histology and Embryology

11th Edition , 1991. Mosby Co.




    • Holliston LR

Lab Manual of Normal Oral Histology

Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc. 2000




Prof. Rita Khounganian

251 MDS – Updated Course Outline



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