Dental Hygiene Regulation and Access to Oral Health Care: Assessing the Variation across the U. S. States Tanya Wanchek University of Virginia



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***significant at the 1 percent level; **significant at the 5 percent level; *significant at the 10 percent level.

Standard errors in parenthesis. 131 observations. Data is missing for Delaware and Hawaii for all years; Alaska, North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, Vermont, and Washington D.C. in 2002; Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Minnesota, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah in 2004 New Jersey and Arkansas are missing dental office visit data by income group for 2002 and Alaska for 2006.




Table 4. Access to Care by Age Group




(1)

Supply

(2)

Demand

(3)

Outcome

(4)

Outcome

(5) Outcome

(6) Outcome

(7) Outcome

(8) Outcome

VARIABLES

lnDH Employ

lnDH wage

lnvisit age 18-24

lnvisit age 25-34

lnvisit age 35-44

lnvisit age 45-54

lnvisit age 55-64

lnvisit age 65plus

lnDH wage

1.617***




-0.555***

-0.565***

-0.353***

-0.146

-0.130

0.145




(0.425)




(0.148)

(0.127)

(0.113)

(0.122)

(0.111)

(0.130)

lnGrads

0.240***

























(0.063)






















Practice years index

0.012*

























(0.007)






















Exams

0.046***

























(0.014)






















lnD Employ

-0.165




0.036

0.039*

0.057***

0.046**

0.055***

0.060***




(0.106)




(0.026)

(0.021)

(0.019)

(0.020)

(0.018)

(0.020)

lnDA Employ

-0.369*




0.154***

0.197***

0.174***

0.187***

0.213***

0.211***




(0.220)




(0.055)

(0.046)

(0.041)

(0.044)

(0.039)

(0.045)

lnDH Employ




-0.222**

0.161**

0.119*

0.145***

0.264***

0.163***

0.147**







(0.089)

(0.072)

(0.061)

(0.054)

(0.060)

(0.052)

(0.060)

DHPPI




0.002***

























(0.001)



















lnD wage




0.281***

0.063

0.119**

0.064

0.013

0.031

-0.006







(0.085)

(0.066)

(0.057)

(0.050)

(0.055)

(0.050)

(0.059)

lnDA wage




0.532***

0.087

0.089

0.047

-0.171

-0.031

-0.168







(0.148)

(0.127)

(0.111)

(0.099)

(0.106)

(0.099)

(0.118)

Cost living




0.004***

-0.000

0.000

0.000

-0.000

0.001

-0.000







(0.001)

(0.001)

(0.001)

(0.001)

(0.001)

(0.001)

(0.001)

lnIncome

0.132

0.175

0.174**

0.166**

0.139**

0.150**

0.132**

0.149**




(0.333)

(0.116)

(0.086)

(0.073)

(0.064)

(0.071)

(0.061)

(0.071)

lnDensity

-0.013

-0.034***

0.010

0.018**

0.013*

0.019**

0.012*

0.016**




(0.028)

(0.011)

(0.009)

(0.008)

(0.007)

(0.008)

(0.007)

(0.008)

yr2004

0.006

0.016

-0.040**

-0.025

-0.022

-0.017

0.018

0.013




(0.076)

(0.026)

(0.019)

(0.016)

(0.014)

(0.016)

(0.013)

(0.016)

yr2006

-0.018

0.041

-0.065***

-0.047***

-0.034**

-0.051***

-0.013

-0.018




(0.075)

(0.026)

(0.020)

(0.017)

(0.015)

(0.016)

(0.014)

(0.016)

Constant

-12.559***

0.881

5.281***

4.647***

3.783***

3.768***

2.366***

1.109




(2.968)

(1.610)

(1.052)

(0.904)

(0.798)

(0.883)

(0.785)

(0.923)

***significant at the 1 percent level; **significant at the 5 percent level; *significant at the 10 percent level.

Standard errors in parenthesis. 127 observations. Data is missing for Delaware and Hawaii for all years; Alaska, Nevada, New Jersey, North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, Vermont, and Washington D.C. in 2002; Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Hawaii, Minnesota, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Utah in 2004; Arizona and Alabama in 2006.




1 The seriousness of failure to treat caries is demonstrated by the 2007 death of a 12-year-old Maryland boy from an

abscessed tooth cause by decay, which could easily have been diagnosed and treated. (The Washington Post 2/28/07,



accessed 714/08.)

2 Alternative measures of entry restrictions, including the cost of licensure by credentials, were also tested. Various combinations produced significant results, but concerns about multicollinearity led us to choose a reduced selection of explanatory variables.



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