Dental Hygiene Regulation and Access to Oral Health Care: Assessing the Variation across the U. S. States Tanya Wanchek University of Virginia



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Table 2. 3SLS System Estimation




(1)

Supply

(2)

Demand

(3)

Outcome

(4)

Outcome




lnDH Employment

lnDH Wage

lnvisits male

lnvisit female

lnDH wage

1.319***




-0.360***

-0.131




(0.359)




(0.107)

(0.102)

lnGrads

0.173***













(0.060)










Practice years index

0.016**













(0.007)










Exams

0.027*













(0.015)










lnD Employ

-0.179*




0.058***

0.055***




(0.105)




(0.020)

(0.018)

lnDA Employ

-0.350*




0.204***

0.169***




(0.202)




(0.040)

(0.037)

lnDH Employ




-0.230**

0.205***

0.221***







(0.094)

(0.058)

(0.054)

DHPPI




0.002***













(0.001)







lnD wage




0.267***

0.049

0.016







(0.086)

(0.050)

(0.048)

lnDA wage




0.592***

0.015

-0.110







(0.136)

(0.094)

(0.093)

Cost living




0.004***

0.000

-0.001







(0.001)

(0.001)

(0.001)

lnIncome

0.346

0.346

0.153







(0.309)

(0.113)

(0.064)

(0.059)

lnDensity

-0.024

-0.036***

0.015**

0.017***




(0.027)

(0.010)

(0.007)

(0.006)

yr2004

-0.003

0.020

-0.008

-0.011




(0.072)

(0.026)

(0.015)

(0.013)

yr2006

0.022

0.041

-0.015

-0.027*




(0.071)

(0.026)

(0.015)

(0.014)

Constant

-11.337***

0.720

3.977***

3.366***




(2.696)

(1.547)

(0.768)

(0.736)

***significant at the 1 percent level; **significant at the 5 percent level; *significant at the 10 percent level.

Standard errors in parenthesis. 133 observations. Data is missing for Delaware and Hawaii for all years; Alaska, North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, Vermont, and Washington D.C. in 2002; and Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Minnesota, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Utah, and South Carolina in 2004.


Table 3. Access to Care by Income Group



(1)

Supply

(2)

Demand

(3)

Outcome

(4)

Outcome

(5) Outcome

(6) Outcome

(7) Outcome




lnDH Employ

lnDH Wage

lnvisits $15K or less

lnvisits $15-25K

lnvisits $25-35K

lnvisits $35-50K

lnvisits $50K+

lnDH wage

1.211***




-0.065

-0.390**

-0.390***

-0.207*

-0.065




(0.357)




(0.285)

(0.191)

(0.118)

(0.115)

(0.081)

lnGrads

0.169***






















(0.060)



















Practice years index

0.013*






















(0.007)



















Exams

0.024*






















(0.015)



















lnD Employ

-0.182*




0.102**

0.095***

0.047***

0.047***

0.032**




(0.104)




(0.043)

(0.030)

(0.018)

(0.018)

(0.012)

lnDA Employ

-0.364*




0.317***

0.285***

0.188***

0.154***

0.070***




(0.203)




(0.090)

(0.063)

(0.038)

(0.038)

(0.026)

lnDH Employ




-0.293***

0.497***

0.276***

0.076

0.224***

0.189***







(0.106)

(0.162)

(0.107)

(0.063)

(0.065)

(0.046)

DHPPI




0.002***






















(0.001)
















lnD wage




0.283***

-0.093

0.078

0.053

-0.021

-0.028







(0.092)

(0.138)

(0.091)

(0.055)

(0.055)

(0.039)

lnDA wage




0.667***

-0.446

-0.270

0.103

-0.127

-0.103







(0.157)

(0.280)

(0.185)

(0.116)

(0.112)

(0.078)

Cost living




0.004***

0.000

0.001

0.001

-0.000

-0.001







(0.001)

(0.002)

(0.001)

(0.001)

(0.001)

(0.001)

lnIncome

0.515*

0.177

0.039

0.089

0.103*

-0.027

-0.087*




(0.309)

(0.119)

(0.156)

(0.102)

(0.060)

(0.062)

(0.045)

lnDensity

-0.041

-0.043***

0.029

0.031**

0.011

0.023***

0.026***




(0.029)

(0.014)

(0.021)

(0.014)

(0.008)

(0.009)

(0.006)

yr2004

-0.011

0.021

-0.017

-0.040*

-0.012

-0.024*

-0.012




(0.072)

(0.027)

(0.035)

(0.023)

(0.013)

(0.014)

(0.010)

yr2006

0.023

0.046

-0.143***

-0.085***

-0.051***

-0.043***

-0.019*




(0.071)

(0.028)

(0.038)

(0.025)

(0.015)

(0.015)

(0.011)

Constant

-11.692***

-0.152

5.622***

6.026***

4.197***

6.310***

6.001***




(2.785)

(1.806)

(2.098)

(1.368)

(0.826)

(0.829)

(0.592)
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