Define the following terms used to describe the Nervous System and explain how they interact with each other
Page 1/28 Date conversion 05.06.2018 Size 4.51 Mb.
Neuroscience and Mental Health · S Tran
S ession 1:
Define the following terms used to describe the Nervous System and explain how they interact with each other:
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
List the major causes of neurological disorders and give examples.
State the difference in the regenerative capacity of injured axons between the CNS and PNS.
Describe the main components of a standard neurological examination.
Outline the main electrophysiological and imaging techniques
used in neurological diagnosis, noting the main advantages and disadvantages.
Neurological Disorders and their Main Causes
Parts of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System = Brain + Spinal Cord
‘Housekeeping’ Functions. – Processing sensory + motor information
Supports higher functions: perceptions, cognition, emotion & memory.
Peripheral Nervous System = Peripheral nerves + Ganglia
Provides sensory & motor innervations to the body
Autonomic Nervous System = parts of the CNS + PNS.
Controls visceral function & homeostasis e.g. peristalsis & bladder release
Internal organs, blood vessels, glands, eye structures, genitalia.
Somatic Nervous System
Controls motor and sensory function for body wall
Causes of Neurological Disorders:
Cerbrovascular Infarct / Stroke
Degeneration of neural tissue as no backup energy reserves like muscle
Pressure is an issue
If primary then it’s normally connective tissue or glial
Diabetic Neuropathy e.g.
Can result in comas
In peripheral nerves Injury tingling sensation
Heavy Metal encepholopathies e.g.
fetal alcohol syndrome
? Mobile Phones
Recreation Drugs etc
D egeneration Neurological Examination
Level of consciousness
Mental state and cognitive function
Simple general knowledge/mathematical questions
Twichage, feet touch, evaluation of strength of muscle groups
Eyelid strength, facial movement, gag reflex, smell, taste, hearing
Differences in regeneration capacity of the NS
No replacement of neurones
No axonal regeneration of CNS
High energy requirement – Low Energy Reserves
Little space inside the cranial cavity
In PNS, Regeneration may be functionally compromised
In CNS, regeneration is limited in distance therefore not viable
EEG: Electroencephalography measures the electrical potentials measured at scalp of underlying neurones Epilepsy & Coma.
EMG: Electromyography examines integrity of muscles e.g. motor neurone disease
NCS: examines integrity of peripherphal nerves & lower motor neurones
Nerve Conduction Studies Imaging
CT: Computerised Tomography uses x-ray sources. Shows hard tissue. Can’t be used too often. Cheap and Quick.
MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging is based on the behaviour of hydrogen protons to a externally applied magnetic field. Use for soft tissue differentiation. Time consuming. Can be used to give a functioning image: Functional MRI.
Angiography demonstrates cerebral vessels radiographically after a contrast medium injection.
Neuronal Dysfunction and Death
Neuronal = Epilepsy (abnormal synchronous firing)
Neuronal Death = Parkinson’s disease
S ession 2: Learning Objectives
Draw and label a diagram of a typical neuron, identifying soma,
dendrites, axon and terminals.
Define the role of each cellular component in the specialised function of the neuron.
Outline the organisation and functions of intracellular transport in the neuron.
Define the functional subtypes of neurons and list the ways in which they are organised collectively in the nervous system.
Describe the organisation of synapses.
Name the main classes of neuroglia and explain their functions in the nervous system.
Cells of the NS
Structure of a Neuron
Axon – Long extension of a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the body of the cell.
Axon Terminals - The hair-like ends of the axon
Cell Body/Soma - The cell body of the neuron; it contains the nucleus
Dendrites - The branching structure of a neuron that receives messages on the Soma.
Myelin Sheath - The fatty substance that surrounds and protects some nerve fibers
Node of Ranvier – Gaps in the myelin sheath, allows salutatory conduction to occur
Nucleus - Organelle in the cell body of the neuron that contains the genetic material of the cell
Schwann's Cells - Cells that produce myelin - they are located within the myelin sheath.
The database is protected by copyright ©dentisty.org 2016