Date: Topic Exercises



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BIO 201: Anatomy and Physiology I

LAB SCHEDULE
Fall 2009, Sections 10614, 10616, or 57588

Dr. Angela K. Mick

Date: Topic Exercises


Aug 25,27

Body Orientation Terms; The Skull

Saladin

Chps 3 and 8

Atlas


Sep 1,3

Vertebral Column, Sternum, & Ribs



Sep 8,10

Muscles of Neck, Head, & Face; Histology - Epithelial Tissues



Sep 15,17

Review; Histology - Connective Tissues

Mini-Practical I



Sep 22,24

Practical I (100 points)




S 29, O 1

Bones of Shoulder and Upper Limb

Muscles of the Chest, Back, & Shoulder



Saladin

Chps. 4,5,10

Atlas


Oct 6,8

Muscles of the Arm; Histology – Epidermis & Related Tissues



Oct 13,15

Review; Mini-Practical II




Oct 20,22

Practical II (100 points)




Oct 27,29

Bones of Pelvis and Lower Extremity

Muscles of the Abdomen and Lower Extremity



Saladin

Chp. 10


Atlas, Chp.8

Nov 3,5

Muscles of Lower Extremity; Histology - Muscle




Nov 10,12

Review; Mini-Practical III




Nov 17,19

Practical III (100 points)




Nov 24,26

Begin Brains (Models, Sheep), Spinal Cord Models; Histology-N.S.

Saladin

Chp. 14


Dec 1,3

Sheep Eye, Eye and Ear Models; Review; Mini-Practical IV




Dec 8,10

Practical IV (100 points)




***This schedule is tentative and is subject to change at the discretion of your instructor. ***




BIO 201 Anatomy and Physiology I

Practical Exam I


  • Please do not touch or point at bones, plastinized parts, or models with pens or pencils - use only broom straws or wooden cotton swabs.




  • Human Plastinates: These are human tissues. Please treat these specimens with respect and care. You must sign specimens in/out. Only handle them while wearing non-latex gloves. Keep pens and pencils far away. Be gentle.




  • Identifying Bones: Bones will either be articulated or disarticulated. You should be able to identify these bones in either state.

    • Bones Boxes: Make sure you have the correct bones in the boxes before you leave lab.




  • Muscles:

  • Anatomy and Physiology Revealed [APR]– all the muscles can be visualized in APR, and you will need to identify the muscles on the models, plastinated specimens, and in APR. The sooner you use APR while learning this material, the easier the material will become.

      • You are responsible for recognizing all the bolded functions in the muscles; these functions are taken from APR and may be slightly different from what Saladin lists.

      • APR shows the written function and has animations of those functions for most of the muscles on the lists.




  • Histology

    • The slides will be shown in lab and there are also references to APR where you can also review the histology. It is recommended that you review the histological specimens not only on APR, but also the web. This can be done by using keywords and any of the popular web-browsers.




  • References:

    • Text: Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function 5th edition by Saladin

    • CD or web site: Anatomy and Physiology Revealed [APR]

    • Optional Histology Atlas: A Photographic Atlas of Histology by Michael Leboffe


AXIAL SKELETON

CRANIAL BONES (Saladin pgs, 245-258)

  • Be able to identify these bones and inherent features in an intact skull or separately.



Frontal Bone (1)

    • coronal suture

    • frontal sinus


Parietal Bones (2)

    • sagittal suture

    • middle meningeal vessel impressions


Temporal Bones (2)

    • squamosal suture

    • external auditory meatus (external acoustic meatus)

    • mandibular fossa

    • zygomatic process

    • styloid process (note: attachment for muscles of tongue, pharynx and hyoid)

    • mastoid process (note: contains air sinuses)

    • jugular foramen

    • carotid canal

    • middle meningeal vessel impressions

    • petrous part


Occipital Bones (1)

    • lambdoidal suture

    • sutural bones (Wormian bones)

    • foramen magnum

    • occipital condyles

    • external occipital protuberance


Sphenoid Bone (1)

    • greater wings

    • lesser wings

    • optic foramen

    • sella turcica

    • pterygoid processes



Ethmoid Bone (1)

    • crista galli

    • cribriform plate

    • perpendicular plate

    • middle nasal conchae



FACIAL BONES (Saladin, pg 245-256)

Mandible (1)

    • body

    • mental foramen

    • alveolus (alveoli)

    • ramus

    • mandibular foramen

    • coronoid process

    • mandibular notch

    • mandibular condyle



Maxillae (2)

    • infraorbital foramen

    • maxillary sinus

    • palatine process (note: anterior part of hard palate)

    • alveolus (alveoli)


Palatine Bones (2) (note: posterior part of hard palate)

Zygomatic Bones (2)

Nasal Bones (2)

Lacrimal Bones (2)

Vomer (1)

Inferior Nasal Conchae (2)

Hyoid (1)
THORACIC CAGE (Saladin, pg 265-266)

Sternum (1)

    • manubrium

    • body (gladiolus)

    • xiphoid process


Ribs (12 pairs) differentiate between:

    • true ribs (1-7)

    • false ribs (8-12)

      • floating ribs (11-12) (note: these are false ribs not connected to sternum)

    • on each rib:

      • head

      • neck

      • tubercle

      • shaft


Costal Cartilages
VERTEBRAL COLUMN (Saladin, pg 259-267)

Parts of Vertebrae [Identify on Lumbar, Thoracic, and Cervical (except axis and atlas) vertebrae]

    • body (centrum)

    • vertebral arch

    • lamina

    • pedicle

    • vertebral foramen

    • spinous process

    • transverse process

    • superior articular process and facet

    • inferior articular process and facet

    • intervertebral foramen (note: formed by the intervertebral notches of two adjoining vertebrae)

    • intervertebral discs


Cervical Vertebrae (7)

  • atlas

  • axis

  • dens or odontoid process

  • vertebra prominens (note: seventh cervical vertebra has the largest spinous process)

  • transverse foramen (note: pair in each cervical vertebra that conducts vertebral arteries)


Thoracic Vertebrae (12)

  • costal facets


Lumbar Vertebrae (5)
Sacrum (note: 5 fused sacral vertebrae)

sacral foramina

sacral canal

sacral hiatus (note: inferior opening to the sacral canal)



auricular surface (note: site of sacroiliac joint with pelvic girdle)
Coccyx (note: 4-5 fused coccygeal vertebrae)

MUSCLES OF THE FACE AND NECK

Saladin Text (pg) 326-344


Muscles of the Face and Neck

Actions of Muscle

platysma

elevates and creases neck; depression of lower lip and angle of mouth

sternocleidomastoid


rotates and flexes head


levator scapulae


elevation of scapula (shrugging shoulders); lateral flexion of neck

scalene


lateral flexion and rotation of neck

trapezius



elevation, medial rotation, adduction and depression of scapula

splenius capitus


rotation of head; extension of head and neck

sternohyoid


depresses hyoid bone

sternothyroid


depresses larynx

thyrohyoid


elevates larynx & depresses hyoid bone

omohyoid


depresses hyoid bone

mylohyoid


elevates floor of mouth

digastric


elevates hyoid bone; depresses mandible

masseter


elevates mandible

buccinator


compression of cheek

temporalis


elevation of mandible

orbicularis oris


closes mouth; puckers lips

frontalis


elevation of eyebrows

orbicularis oculi


closes eyelids


MUSCLES OF THE DEEP BACK, POSTERIOR

Saladin Text (pg) 344-346


Muscles of the Back, Posterior

Actions

Spinalis

(of Erector Spinae)


lateral flexion and extension of vertebral column

Longissimus

(of Erector Spinae)


lateral flexion and extension of vertebral column

Iliocostalis

(of Erector Spinae)


lateral flexion and extension of vertebral column


Histology for Practical 1

References:

  • Epithelium: Saladin (pg 155-160), Atlas of Histology (Cpt 3), APR (histology)

  • Connective Tissue: Saladin (pg 161-170), Atlas of Histology (Cpts 4 & 5)


Epithelial Tissues

Simple squamous epithelium

  • Simple cuboidal epithelium

  • Simple columnar epithelium

  • Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

  • Stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium

  • Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium

  • Transitional epithelium


Connective Tissues

    • adipose connective tissue

      • adipocytes

    • dense regular connective tissue (note: also called white fibrous tissue)

      • fibroblasts

      • collagenous fibers

    • dense irregular connective tissue

      • fibroblasts

      • collagenous fibers

    • loose areolar connective tissue

      • fibroblasts

      • collagen fibers

      • elastic fibers

    • reticular connective tissue

      • fibroblasts

      • reticular fibers

DEFINITIONS


STRUCTURE

DEFINITION


ACROMION

comes from the Greek "akron", peak + "omos", shoulder = the peak of the shoulder; platelike extension; (acromial end of clavicle and acromion of scapula)

ALVEOLUS


Latin referring to little cavity; pit or socket; tooth socket; (alveoli of the mandibles and alveoli of the maxillae)

AURICULAR


Auri – ear, (auricular surface of sacrum and auricular surface of the innominate bone)

CANAL


tubular passage or tunnel in a bone; (carotid canal)

CONCHA

Spanish for “shell”; shaped like an elongated sea-shell (inferior nasal conchae bones, middle and superior nasal conchae of the ethmoid)

CONDYLE

rounded knob that articulates with another bone; (occipital condyle, mandibular condyle)

CORACOID


resemblance to crow’s beak; (coracoid process of the scapula)

CORONAL


coronal plane – perpendicular to sagittal plane and divides the body into anterior and posterior portions; (coronal suture)

CORONOID


Corono – crown; (coronoid process of the mandible, coronoid process of the ulna)

CRIBRIFORM


cribri- sieve, strainer; (cribriform plate of the ethmoid)

CRISTA GALLI


crista – crest; (crista galli of the ethmoid)

FACET

smooth, slightly concave or convex articular surface; (articular facets of vertebrae)

FORAMEN


hole through a bone, usually round; (foramen magnum of the skull)

FOSSA


shallow, broad or elongated basin (mandibular fossa)

FRONTAL

from Latin “frons” which means forehead; (frontal bone and frontal lobe)


HEAD


prominent expanded end of a bone; (head of rib, head of femur, head of humerus)

HIATUS


natural fissure or opening in a stucture; inferior opening to sacral canal (sacral hiatus); opening in diaphragm through which the esophagus travels (esophageal hiatus)

LAMINA


thin, flat plate; (lamina of vertebrae)

MEATUS


opening into a canal; (acoustic meatus of the ear)

OCCIPITAL

Latin “occipit” which means back of the head; (occipital bone and occipital lobe)

ODONTOID

Odonto – tooth; tooth-like projection; (odontoid process of the axis)






STRUCTURE


DEFINITION


PARIETAL

Latin “parietlis” means of a wall; (parietal bone and parietal lobe)


PEDICLE


Latin meaning “small foot”; a stem or stalk of tissue that connects parts of the body to each other, (vertebral lamina)

PETROUS

related to or resembling a rock (petrous portion of temporal bone)


PROCESS

any bony prominence; (mastoid process of skull)


PROTUBERANCE

a bony outgrowth or protruding part; (external occipital protuberance)


RAMUS


Latin meaning “branch”; perpendicular portion; (ramus of the mandible)

SAGITTAL


sagittal plane – passes vertically through the body or organ and divides it into right and left portions; (sagittal suture)

SELLA TURCICA


means a Turkish saddle;

saddle-shaped depression;

(sella turcica of sphenoid)





SINUS

cavity within a bone; (frontal sinus of the frontal bone)


SPINE

sharp, slender or narrow process; (spine of the scapula)


STYLOID


stylus – pen used by ancient Greeks and Romans to write on wax tablets; (styloid process of temporal bone, styloid process of the ulna, styloid process of radius)

SUTURE

means to join; immovable joint between skull bones; (saggital suture)


TEMPORAL

Latin “temporlis” from Latin “tempora”, pl. of tempus, temple. Of or relating to the temples of the skull; (temporal bone and temporal lobe)

TRANSVERSE


transverse plane – passes across the body or organ perpendicular to its long axis; divides the body or organ into superior and inferior portions; (transverse process in vertebra)

TUBERCLE

small, rounded process; (greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus)


VOMER

means “plowshare” referring to its resemblance to a blade of a plow; (vomer bone)

XIPHOID


derived from the Greek word xiphos for straight sword; (xiphoid process of the sternum)



BIO 201 GCC Practical 1 Page




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