Date: 17/06/2011 Periodicity and coverage Periodicity of data collection



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Thailand

Identification

Title of the survey: Labour Force Survey

Organisation responsible: National Statistical Office

Objectives of the survey: To estimate the size and characteristics of the labour force in the country and in different regions periodically.

Date: 17/06/2011

Periodicity and coverage

Periodicity of data collection: Monthly

Geographical coverage: Whole country

Population coverage: Whole population excluding the following groups: Armed forces and persons living in institutions

The survey covers: Only the usual residents present

Definition of usual resident: (1) Usual residents who are present during the seven days preceding the interview date. (2) Usual residents who are temporarily away during the seven days preceding the interview date without planning on having permanent residence elsewhere, and with the following characteristics: (2.1) Temporarily away elsewhere for less than 3 months from the date of departure to the day preceding the interview date. (Except for workers or students); (2.2) Away for the purpose of education, training, study tour abroad for less than 6 months from the date of departure to the day preceding the interview date; (2.3) Away for more than 3 months without permanent residence elsewhere, (salesmen, fishermen, ...); (2.4) Away for the purpose of work and temporarily residing elsewhere for no longer than 30 days from the date of departure to the expected return date. (3) Temporary residents residing for more than 3 months. (4) Temporary residents who were present during the seven days preceding the interview date without permanent residence elsewhere. (5) Maids, workers, and construction workers residing in the current residence for less than 3 months.

Definition of household and household members: (1) Households with one person or more living in the same house or dwelling, sharing necessary goods and services. The members of a household may be relatives or non relatives. The number of members in non relatives’ households should not be higher than 5 persons. (2) Households with several persons living together in one place for their own benefits. (2.1) Households with at least 6 individuals living together, but without family ties, or family ties between no more than 3 members. These individuals pay for goods and services as agreed; (2.2) Households constituted by at least 6 workers living on a regular basis at work, in factories or establishments provided by the employer and with no separate household. (3) Households with dormitory style. General people rent and do not stay as separated households. (Excluding students in schools, colleges or universities)

Usual household members who are temporarily absent are enumerated in the survey: Yes, including labour related questions

Age coverage: The labour related questions of the survey relate to the population of 15 years old and over

Topics covered:

Demographic characteristics: age, sex, marital status, educational attainment, relationship to household head

Main labour related characteristics: employment, unemployment, underemployment, hours of work, wages, employment related benefits, informal employment, usual activity, absence from work

Other labour related characteristics: industry, occupation, status in employment, institutional sector (public/private), size of establishment, duration of employment, existence of more than one job, duration of unemployment, characteristics of the last job, search for another job, methods of looking for work, reasons for not being in the labour force

Other characteristics:

Concepts and definitions

Current employment

Definition of employment: Employment refers to persons aged 15 years and over who during the survey week: 1) Worked for at least one hour for wages/salary, profits, dividends or any other kind of payment, in cash or in kind; or 2) Did not work at all or worked less than one hour because of temporary absence from work but 2.1) Receive wage/salary, profits from business enterprise or farm during the period of absence; or 2.2) Do not receive wage/salary, profits from business enterprise or farm during the period of absence but had regular jobs or business that they would return to. 3) Worked for at least one hour without pay in business enterprises or on farms owned or operated by household heads or members.

Employment refers to people who during the reference period:

- worked for one hour or more for wage or salary, in cash or in kind

- worked for one hour or more for profit or family gain, in cash or in kind

- were temporarily not at work and had a formal attachment to a wage employment job

- were temporarily not at work and had an enterprise

- worked in subsistence agriculture or in production of other goods for own consumption



Reference period for employment: The seven days preceding the interview date (moving)

Current unemployment

Definition of unemployment: Unemployment refers to persons aged 15 years and over who during the survey week did not work even for one hour, and had no jobs, business enterprise or farms of their own, but were available for work. Unemployment includes: (a) Those who had been looking for work, applying for a job or waiting to be called to work during the 30 days preceding the date of the interview; (b) Those who had not been looking for work during the 30 days preceding the date of the interview but were available for work during the 7 days preceding the interview.

Unemployment refers to people who during the reference period: Are without work, available to work and actively seeking work

Reference period for seeking work: The 30 days preceding the interview date

Reference period for availability for work: The seven days preceding the interview date (moving)

Underemployment

Underemployment concept measured: Time related underemployment

Definition of underemployment related to working time: This refers to employed persons who are available for more work.

Underemployment refers to employed persons who:

- are willing to work additional hours in the survey reference period

- are available to work additional hours in the survey reference period

Hours of work

The survey measures: hours actually worked

Information is collected for: main and secondary job(s) separately

Reference period used for the measure of hours of work: a week

Actual hours of work are collected for: the week as a whole

Separate information is collected for overtime hours: no

Separate information is collected for absence hours: no

Separate information is collected for working time arrangements: yes

Time unit used in the measure of hours of work: exact hours

Income from paid employment

The components of income for which separate statistics are available are: regular cash earnings, payments in kind and services, bonuses

Reference period: a month

Income from paid employment refers to: main job only

Information on income from paid employment is requested in: exact amounts

Actual/usual income: actual income for a specific reference period

Income due/received: income received in a specific reference period

Income from self-employment

Employment in the informal sector

Informal employment

Definition of informal employment: Employed persons who are not covered by the employment social security scheme.

Criteria used to define informal jobs: lack of coverage by social security system by virtue of the job in question

Information is collected for: main job

Informal employment refers: only to persons whose main job is informal

Usual activity

Treatment of special groups

- Persons with a job but temporarily absent due to parental leave are classified as employed

- Persons with a job but temporarily absent due to educational or training leave are classified as employed

- Persons with a job but temporarily absent due to voluntary leave without pay are classified as economically inactive

- Persons on temporary lay-off without pay are classified as unemployed

- Persons on indefinite lay-off without pay are classified as unemployed

- Seasonal workers not at work during the off-season are classified as economically inactive

- Persons without work and currently available for work who have made arrangements to start a new job on a date subsequent to the reference period are classified as unemployed

- Persons without work and currently available for work who are trying to establish their own enterprise are classified as unemployed

- Persons without work and currently available for work who are not seeking work during the reference period due to specific reasons (e.g. discouraged workers) are classified as unemployed

- Persons who performed some work for pay or profit during the reference period but were subject to compulsory schooling are classified as employed if they are aged 5 years old or over

- Persons who performed some work for pay or profit during the reference period but were full-time or part-time students are classified as employed if they are aged 5 years old or over

- Persons who performed some work for pay or profit during the reference period but were retired and/or receiving a pension are classified as employed

- Persons who performed some work for pay or profit during the reference period but were registered as jobseekers at an employment office are classified as employed

- Persons who performed some work for pay or profit during the reference period but were receiving unemployment benefits are classified as employed

- Persons who were seeking and/or available for work and were subject to compulsory schooling are classified as unemployed if they are aged 5 years old or over

- Persons who were seeking and/or available for work and were full-time or part-time students are classified as unemployed if they are aged 5 years old or over

- Persons who were seeking and/or available for work and were retired and/or receiving a pension are classified as unemployed

- Paid apprentices and trainees are classified as economically inactive

- Unpaid apprentices and trainees are classified as economically inactive

- Contributing family workers at work during the reference period are classified as employed

- Persons engaged in production of goods for own final use (e.g. subsistence farming) are classified as employed

- Persons engaged in production of services for own final use (e.g. care work, cooking, etc.) are classified as employed

- Volunteers contributing to the production of goods are classified as economically inactive

- Volunteers contributing to the production of services provided by market producers are classified as economically inactive

- Volunteers contributing to the production of services provided by non-market producers (i.e. government units, NPIs serving households, etc.) are classified as economically inactive

- Volunteers contributing to the production of personal or domestic services produced by other households are classified as economically inactive

Classifications

Disaggregations used in the analysis and tabulation of the survey results:

- The economically active population is tabulated by: sex, urban/rural area

- The employed population is tabulated by: sex, age, industry, occupation, status in employment, level of education, urban/rural area

- The unemployed population is tabulated by: sex, age, industry, occupation, level of education, urban/rural area

- The economically inactive population is tabulated by: sex, urban/rural area

Classifications used

Industry:

- Title of the classification: Thailand Standard Industrial Classification

- Number of most detailed groups or digits used: 17 groups

- Links to international classifications: ISIC Rev.3



Occupation:

- Title of the classification: ISCO-88

- Number of most detailed groups or digits used: 10 groups

Status in employment:

- Title of the classification: ICSE-1993

- Number of most detailed groups or digits used: 5 groups

Education:

- Title of the classification: ISCED-97



- Number of most detailed groups or digits used: 9 groups

Sample design

Sampling frame: Population census

The sampling frame is updated: every 2 years

Procedure used to update the sampling frame: The sampling frame is based on the list of the population and housing blocks and villages. Updated every 2 years with the results of a survey on household’s basic information and other related household surveys.

The sample is stratified: Yes

Variables used for stratification: geographic region, urbanisation

Number of sampling stages: 2

Ultimate sampling units: households

Number of ultimate sampling units per sample area: 12 in rural areas, 15 in urban areas.

Sample size: 79560 ultimate sampling units per quarter

Sample fraction: 0.53% of the total population

Sample rotation takes place: at the ultimate sampling unit and the sampling area level

The rotation system results in: the overlap between consecutive survey periods and the overlap between same periods one year apart

Percentage of ultimate sampling units remaining in the sample for two consecutive survey rounds: 50%

Maximum number of times an ultimate sampling unit is interviewed: 6

Months needed to renew the sample completely: 24

Comments: 4 rotation groups and 2-2-2 pattern.

Data collection

Main mode of data collection: face to face personal interview (paper and pencil)

Number of ultimate sampling units (USU) interviewed per interviewer per day: 1

Average duration of an interview per household member of working age: 40 minutes

The field staff is mainly: part of a permanent survey organisation

Duration of training on the survey for newly recruited interviewers: 1.5 day(s)

Respondents' participation in the survey is compulsory: Yes

Ultimate sampling units that could not be identified are replaced: No

Ultimate sampling units that could not be contacted are replaced: No

Ultimate sampling units that refuse to participate are replaced: No

Estimation and adjustment

Percentage of all eligible ultimate sampling units that are interviewed: 98%

The sample is self-weighting: Yes

Weighting factors used to adjust for: sample design, survey non-response, bench-marking (to ensure consistency between survey estimates and those from other reliable source(s), e.g. census)

Adjustment for item non-response is made: No

If sub-annual surveys are conducted, the results are adjusted for seasonal variations: No

Selected indicators tabulated from the survey:

- Unemployment rate by: sex, age, level of education, economic activity, occupation, status in employment, region (urban/rural)

- Employment to population ratio by:

- Labour force participation rate by: sex, age, region (urban/rural)

- Hours of work (per worker) by: sex, age

- Earnings (per worker) by: sex, age, economic activity

- Number of workers by hours band by: sex, economic activity, occupation

- Number of workers by earnings class by: sex, economic activity, occupation, region (urban/rural)



Availability of data from other sources

- Data on employment is also available from: establishment surveys and population censuses

- Data on unemployment is also available from: administrative records and population censuses

LFS data are considered official for:

- employment: yes

- unemployment: yes

- hours of work: yes



Documentation and dissemination

Publication(s) and website where the survey results can be found: The Labour Force Survey: March 2011; The Labour Force Survey (Whole Kingdom) Quarter 4: October - December 2010

Publication(s) and website where methodological information on the survey can be found: The Labour Force Survey (Whole Kingdom) Quarter 4: October - December 2010

Dissemination formats and periodicity:

- news release (monthly)

- comprehensive report (monthly)

- online database (monthly)



- microdata access (quarterly)

Time needed for an initial release of the survey results: the monthly report is usually disseminated within one month, and the quarterly report is usually disseminated within a quarter

The public is informed in advance on the date of the initial release of survey results: No

Non-published results can be made available on request: Yes

Micro data are made available on request: Yes

Historical information

Year when the survey was conducted for the first time: 1963

Years when significant methodological changes were introduced: Since 1966, the coverage of the labour force survey was the population aged 11 years old and over. In 1995, it changed to 13 years old and over. In 2001, it changed again to 15 years old and over. Since 2001, the ISCO-88 and the ISIC Rev.3 are applied. Also in 2001 each sanitary district was promoted to municipal area and the new educational standard code was implemented.


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