instruments used are: bhungal, tabla, flute, pakhaawaj, rabaab, sarangi, manjeera, etc.
there is a rare synthesis of devotional and romantic sentiments.
JATRA - BENGAL
Fairs in honour of gods, or religious rituals and ceremonies have within their framework musical plays are known asJatra.
Krishna Jatra became popular due to Chaitanya prabhu's influence.
earlier form of Jatra has been musical & dialogues were added at later stage.
The actors themselves describe the change of scene, the place of action, etc.
BHAONA(ANKIA NAAT) - ASSAM.
cultural glimpses of Assam, Bengal Orissa, Mathura and Brindavan can be seen.
The Sutradhaar, or narrator begins the story, first in Sanskrit and then in either Brajboli or Assamese.
MAACH - MADHYA PRADESH
Maach is used for the stage itself as also for the play.
songs are given prominence in between the dialogues.
The term for dialogue in this form is bol and rhyme in narration is termed vanag.
The tunes of this theatre form are known as rangat.
evolved from the folk forms such as Gondhal, Jagran and Kirtan.
female actress is the chief exponent of dance movements in the play. She is known as Murki.
Classical music, footwork at lightning-speed, and vivid gestures make it possible to portray all the emotions through dance.
DASHAVATAR -KONKAN AND GOA
personify the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu-the god of preservation and creativity. The ten incarnations are Matsya (fish), Kurma (tortoise), Varaha (boar), Narsimha (lion-man), Vaman (dwarf), Parashuram, Rama, Krishna (or Balram), Buddha and Kalki.
Apart from stylized make-up, the Dashavatar performers wear masks of wood and papier mache.
KRISHNATTAM - KERALA
came into existence in the middle of 17th century A.D. under the patronage of King Manavada of Calicut.
Krishnattam is a cycle of eight plays performed for eight consecutive days.
The plays are Avataram, Kaliamandana, Rasa krida, kamasavadha, Swayamvaram, Bana Yudham, Vivida Vadham, and Swargarohana.
episodes are based on the theme of Lord Krishna - his birth, childhood pranks and various deeds depicting victory of good over evil.
MUDIYETTU - KERALA
celebrated in the month of Vrischikam (November-December). performed only in the Kali temples of Kerala, as an oblation to the Goddess.
depicts the triumph of goddess Bhadrakali over the asura Darika.
seven characters in Mudiyettu-Shiva, Narada, Darika, Danavendra, Bhadrakali, Kooli and Koimbidar (Nandikeshvara) are all heavily made-up.
'Theyyam' derived from the Sanskrit word 'Daivam' meaning God.
Hence it is called God's dance.
performed by various castes to appease and worship spirits.
distinguishing features - colourful costume and awe-inspiring headgears (mudi) nearly 5 to 6 feet high made of arecanut splices, bamboos, leaf sheaths of arecanut and wooden planks and dyed into different strong colours using turmeric, wax and arac.
KOODIYAATTAM - KERALA
based on Sanskrit theatre traditions.
characters of this theatre form are:
Chakyaar or actor,
Naambiyaar, the instrumentalists and
Naangyaar, those taking on women's roles.
The Sutradhar or narrator and the Vidushak or jesters are the protagonists.
Vidushak alone delivers the dialogues.
Emphasis on hand gestures and eye movements makes this dance and theatre form unique.
most popular episodes are from the Mahabharata i.e. Draupadi swayamvar, Subhadra vivah, Abhimanyu vadh, Karna-Arjun yuddh and from Ramayana i.e. Raajyaabhishek, Lav-kush Yuddh, Baali-Sugreeva yuddha and Panchavati.
THERUKOOTHU - TAMIL NADU
literally means "street play".
mostly performed at the time of annual temple festivals of Mariamman (Rain goddess) to achieve rich harvest.
there is a cycle of eight plays based on the life of Draupadi.
Kattiakaran, the Sutradhara gives the gist of the play to the audience
Komali entertains the audience with his buffoonery.
KARYALA- HIMACHAL PRADESH
deals with serious question of life & death briefly and with simplicity of expression & diction, all enveloped in humour.
Indeed, audience is given essence of our cultural heritage of viewing the world as a stage and as an unsubstantial pageant which is to be negotiated and lived by rising above it.
There is often stylistic diversity, which strengthens their identity from Swang, Nautanki, Bhagat, etc..
PUPPET FORMS OF INDIA
puppet has to be more than his live counterpart
Ancient Hindu philosophers have likened God Almighty to a puppeteer and the entire universe to a puppet stage.
themes are mostly based on epics and legends.
Marionettes having jointed limbs controlled by strings
reeds are bound together with a gap between them before inserting into the body of the instrument.
The body of the tube is conical in shape narrow at the blowing end and opening out gradually with a metallic bell at the farther end to enhance the volume of the sound.
A set of spare reeds, an ivory or silver needle for adjusting and cleaning the reeds are also hung from the mouth piece of the instrument.
(3) AVANADDHA VADYA - PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS
sound is produced by striking the animal skin which has been stretched across an earthern or metal pot or a wooden barrel or frame.
The earliest references to such instruments have been found in the Vedas where there is mention of Bhumi Dundhubhi; this was a hollow pit dug in the ground and covered with the hide of a buffalo or ox which was stretched across the pit.
The tail of the animal was used for striking the animal hide and thus sound was produced.
The main categories are-Oordhwaka, Ankya, Alingya and the waisted or the Damaru family of drums.
Tabla pair is a set of two vertical Oordhwaka drums.
right side is called the Tabla and the left, the Bayan or Dagga.
Tabla has a wooden body with a covering of animal skin, this is held together with leather straps.
Between the straps and the wooden body, oblong wooden blocks are placed for tuning the drums.
syahi(ink) paste applied in the centre of the animal skin, the tabla can be tuned accurately by striking the rims with a hammer.
body of the bayan is made of clay or metal and is covered with animal skin which also has syahi paste applied on it. Some musicians do not tune this drum to an accurate pitch.
tabla pair is used as accompaniment to vocal and instrumental Hindustani music and with many dance forms of northern India.
complicated talas of the Hindustani music are played with great virtuosity on the tabla.
Prominent musicians playing the tabla today are-Ustad Alla Rakha Khan and his son Zakir Hussain, Shafat Ahmed and Samata Prasad