Persian influence - result of Humayun's observance at the court of Shah Tahmasp during the period of his exile.
Humayun's Tomb at Delhi, (1564) by his widow Haji Begum as a mark of devotion, eight years after his death.
Use of red sandstone.
Construction of a huge fort at Agra.
Massive sandstone ramparts of the Red Fort, New Delhi.
Buildings at Fatehpur Sikri blended both Islamic and Hindu elements in their architectural style. Buland Darwaza, Panch Mahal and Dargah of Saleem Chisti are the most imposing of all the buildings of Fatehpur Sikri. Diwan-e-Khas in the complex which was designed for private audiences.
Shalimar Bagh on the banks of Lake Dal in Kashmir.
Akbar's Tomb at Sikandra near Agra, which was completed in 1613.
Jahangir's Tomb at Shadera near Lahore, built by his wife Nur Mahal
Substitution of marble for the red sandstone.
Marblized Diwan-i-Am and Diwan-i-Khas build by Akbar at Red Fort, Delhi.
Shah Jahan built the Jami Masjid at Agra in 1648 in honour of his daughter Jahanara Begum & Wazir Khan's mosque in Lahore,1634.
Taj Mahal - a memorial to his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
Bibi-ki-Maqbara, tomb of Aurangzeb's wife Begum Rabia Durani, a poor replica of the famous Taj Mahal
a fine example of Mughal architecture in the Deccan region.
A large number of miniatures comprising portraits, court scenes, series of the Ragamala and the Baramasa, etc. were executed from the 17th to 19th centuries at several centres of painting like Pali, Jodhpur and Nagour etc. in Marwar.
Bikaner had close relations with the Mughals.
Some of the Mughal artists were given patronage by the Bikaner court
responsible for the introduction of a new style of painting having much similarity with the Mughal and the Deccani styles.
developed under the patronage of Raja Savant Singh (1748-1757 A.D.) , who wrote devotional poetry in praise of Krishna
master painter Nihal Chand who, in his works, has been able to create visual images of his master's lyrical compositions
PAHARI SCHOOL (17th - 19th CENTURIES)
comprises the present State of Himachal Pradesh, some adjoining areas of the Punjab, Jammu and Garhwal in UP.
this area was ruled by the Rajput princes and were often engaged in welfare.
centres of great artistic activity from the latter half of the 17th to nearly the middle of the 19th century.
characterised by vigorous and bold line and strong glowing colours.
There is a change in the facial type which becomes a little heavier and also in the tree forms which assume a somewhat naturalistic character, which may be due to the influence of the Mughal painting.
general features - use of strong and contrasting colours, monochrome background, large eyes, bold drawing, use of beetles wings for showing diamonds in ornaments, narrow sky and the red
consisting of portraits of Raja Balwant Singh of Jasrota (a small place near Jammu) by Master Nainsukh.
He worked both at Jasrota and at Guler.
paintings are in a new naturalistic and delicate style marking a change from the earlier traditions of the Basohli art.
colours used are soft and cool.
inspired by the naturalistic style of the Mughal painting.
third phase of the Pahari painting in the last quarter of the 18th century.
developed out of the Guler style.
the faces of women in profile have the nose almost in line with the forehead, the eyes are long and narrow and the chin is sharp.
There is, however, no modelling of figures and hair is treated as a flat mass.
4.KULU – MANDl
a folk style of painting, mainly inspired by the local tradition.
style is marked by bold drawing and the use of dark and dull colours.
Though influence of the Kangra style is observed in certain cases yet the style maintains its distinct folkish character.
1.KALIGHAT PAINTINGS- KOLKATA
Kalighat painting was a product of the changing urban society of the 19th century Calcutta.
group of artists evolved a quick method of painting on mill-made paper. Using brush and ink from the lampblack, these artists defined figures of deities, gentry and ordinary people with deft and vigorously flowing lines.
romantic depictions of women.
satirical paintings lampooning the hypocrisies of the newly rich and the changing roles of men and women after the introduction of education for women.
2.MADHUBANI PAINTINGS- MITHILA,BIHAR
Women (Mithila region,Bihar) have painted colorful auspicious images on the interior walls of their homes on the occasion of domestic rituals since at least the 14th century.
This ancient tradition, especially elaborated for marriages, continues today.
used to paint the walls of room, known as KOHBAR GHAR in which the newly wedded couple meet for the first time.
3.PHAD: SCROLL PAINTINGS (BHILWADA, RAJASTHAN)
Phad is a painted scroll, which depicts stories of epic dimensions about local deities and legendary heroes.
Bhopas(local priests) carry these scrolls on their shoulders from village to village for a performance
represents the moving shrine of the deity and is an object of worship.
most popular & largest Phad - local deities Devnarayanji and Pabuji.
4.KALAMKARI PAINTINGS (ANDHRA PRADESH)
Kalamkari (lit. pen-work) is primarily used for the temple festivals or as wall hangings.
stories from the epics Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Puranas are painted as continuous narratives
relevant Telugu verses explaining the theme are also carried below the artwork.
colors are obtained from vegetable and mineral sources.
gods are painted blue,
the demons and evil characters in red and green.
Yellow is used for female figures and ornaments.
Red is mostly used as a background.
a ritualistic design drawn at the threshold of households and temples.
drawn everyday at dawn and dusk by women in South India
Kolam marks festivals, seasons and important events in a woman's life such as birth, first menstruation and marriage.
Kolam is a free-hand drawing with symmetrical and neat geometrical patterns.
PERFORMING ART – DRAMA/ FOLK DANCE
BHAND PATHER(JASHIN) - KASHMIR
unique combination of dance, music and acting.
Satire, wit and parody are preferred for inducing laughter.
music is provided with surnai, nagaara and dhol.
Since the actors are mainly from the farming community, the impact of their way of living, ideals and sensitivity is noticable.
SWANG - HARYANA
Gradually, prose too, played its role in the dialogues.