Course Syllabus  ba 962 Seminar in Consumer Behavior Jim Bettman – Fall 2015 Tuesdays, 1: 25-4: 30, DeSanctis Seminar Room

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Course Syllabus  BA 962

Seminar in Consumer Behavior

Jim Bettman – Fall 2015

Tuesdays, 1:25-4:30, DeSanctis Seminar Room
The purpose of this seminar is to provide PhDlevel coverage of the major research work carried out in consumer behavior. For each topic considered, a range of articles from early “classics” to recent stateofthe art research will be distributed. The starred articles are the ones we will discuss each week. For each topic, our goals will be to determine the main ideas and research questions driving work in each topic area, what we have learned to date, where the gaps are in our knowledge, and what ideas for new research those gaps imply. In particular, my goal is that each week we should generate in class the design/idea for at least one new study in the focal topic area. The other, non-starred articles are provided as important additional papers on the topic. For a better grasp of consumer research, you should read those articles on your own.
Student Responsibilities
Each student should come to the seminar prepared to discuss each starred article in depth and to present their ideas about the major ideas, contributions, or shortcomings of each article if asked to do so. As noted above, we will also generate an idea for a study each week; students should come to class with study ideas stimulated by the articles read.
You will also be responsible for writing up an approximately one to two page (double-spaced) note for each class focusing on one research idea you believe emanates from that week’s readings. Ideally, these brief write-ups will propose new studies designed to extend a particular paper or to build a bridge between papers. Please email me your write-up by 5 pm on the Monday before each class.
Each student will also be expected to do a research paper, which can be a design for a study, a critical literature review, etc. I will set aside 1-2 hours on October 20 when we will discuss preliminary ideas for the papers, and I will ask each student to present an idea at those times. Papers are typically 20-30 pages in length and will be due on Friday, December 11 by 5 pm.
In order to facilitate the writing of your paper, on Tuesday, October 20 you will present roughly 5 overheads in class to the group to gather ideas and feedback; please send your slides to me by 5 pm on Monday, October 19. There will be no regular idea papers for the October 20 session.
Course Grading
The course grade will be based on your seminar paper.

Course Calendar
8/25 Session 1 – Organizational & Introduction
*1. John A. Howard and Jagdish N. Sheth, The Theory of Buyer Behavior, Chapter 2.
*2. James R. Bettman, An Information Processing Theory of Consumer Choice, Chapter 2.
9/1 Session 2  Motivation and Personality
1. Harold H. Kassarjian, “Personality and Consumer Behavior: A Review,” Journal of Marketing Research, 8 (1971), 40918.
*2. Russell Belk, “Possessions and the Extended Self,” JCR, 15 (September 1988), 139-168.
3. Richard S. Lazarus, “Progress on a Cognitive-Motivational-Relational Theory of Emotion,” American Psychologist, 46 (1991), 819-834.

4. Jennifer Aaker, “Dimensions of Brand Personality,” JMR, 34 (August 1997),

*5. Susan Fournier, “Consumers and Their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research,” JCR, 24 (March 1998), 343-373
6. Rosellina Ferraro, Baba Shiv, and James R. Bettman, “Let Us Eat and Drink, for Tomorrow We Shall Die: Effects of Mortality Salience and Self-Esteem on Self- Regulation in Consumer Choice” 32, JCR, (June 2005), 65-75.
7. Joel B. Cohen and Eduardo B. Andrade, “Affective Intuition and Task-Contingent Affect Regulation,” JCR, 31 (September 2004), 358-367.
8. Ayelet Fishbach and Ravi Dhar, “Goals as Excuses or Guides: The Liberating

Effect of Perceived Goal Progress on Choice,” JCR, 32 (December 2005), 370-377.

*9. Ji Kyung Park and Deborah Roedder John, “Got to Get You into My Life: Do Brand Personalities Rub Off on Consumers,” JCR, 37 (December 2010), 655-669.
*10. Szu-Chi Huang and Ying Zhang, “Motivational Consequences of Perceived Velocity in Consumer Goal Pursuit,” JMR, 48 (December 2011), 1045-1056.

9/8 Session 3  Attention and Perception

1. Herbert Krugman, “The Impact of Television Advertising: Learning Without Involvement,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 29 (Fall 1965), 349356.

*2. John A. Bargh and Tanya L. Chartrand, “The Unbearable Automaticity of Being,” American Psychologist, 54 (July 1999), 462-479.
3. Scott McKenzie, “The Role of Attention in Mediating the Effect of Advertising on Attribute Importance,” JCR, 13 (September 1986), 174195.
4. Susan M. Broniarczyk and Joseph W. Alba, “The Importance of the Brand in Brand Extension,” JMR, 31 (May 1994), 214-228.
*5. Ran Kivetz and Itamar Simonson, “Earning the Right to Indulge: Effort as a Determinant of Consumer Preferences Toward Frequency Program Rewards,” JMR, 39 (May 2002), 155-170.
6. Stacy Wood, “Remote Purchase Environments: The Influence of Return Policy Leniency on Two-Stage Decision Processes,” JMR, 38 (March 2001), 157-169.
7. Angela Y. Lee and Aparna A. Lebroo, “The Effect of Conceptual and Perceptual

Fluency on Brand Evaluation,” JMR, 41 (May 2004), 151-165.

8. Gavan J. Fitzsimons, Joseph C. Nunes and Patti Williams, “License to Sin: The Liberating Role of Reporting Expectations,” JCR, 34 (June 2007), 22-31.
*9. David Luna, Torsten Ringberg, and Laura A. Peracchio, “One Individual, Two Identities: Frame Switching among Biculturals,” JCR, 35 (August 2008), 279-293.
*10. Keisha M. Cutright, James R. Bettman, and Gavan J. Fitzsimons, “Putting Brands in Their Place: How a Lack of Control Keeps Brands Contained,” JMR, 50 (June 2013), 365-377.
9/15 Session 4  Applications of Attention and Perception; Search
1. Raymond Bauer, “Consumer Behavior as RiskTaking,” in Donald F. Cox, ed., Risk Taking and Information Handling in Consumer Behavior, 2333.
2. James R. Bettman, “Consumer Information Acquisition and Search Strategies,” In Andrew Mitchell, ed., The Effect of Information on Consumer and Market Behavior, 1978, 3548.
*3. Joseph W. Alba and J. Wesley Hutchinson, “Dimensions of Consumer Expertise,” JCR, 13 (March 1987), 411454.
4. Mita Sujan and James Bettman, “The Effects of Brand Positioning Strategies on Consumers’ Brand and Category Perceptions: Some Insights from Schema Research,” JMR, 26 (November 1989), 454-467.
*5. William Boulding, Ajay Kalra, Richard Staelin, and Valarie Zeithaml, “A Dynamic Process Model of Service Quality: From Expectations to Behavioral Intentions,” JMR, 30 (February 1993), 7-27.

6. John G. Lynch and Dan Ariely, “Wine Online: Search Costs Affect Competition on Price, Quality, and Distribution,” Marketing Science, 19 (Winter 2000), 83-103.

7. Joseph W. Alba and J. Wesley Hutchinson, “Knowledge Calibration: What Consumers Know and What They Think They Know,” JCR, 27 (September 2000), 123-156.
8. Gal Zauberman, “The Intertemporal Dynamics of Consumer Lock-In,” JCR, 30 (December 2003), 405-419.
*9. Baba Shiv, Ziv Carmon, and Dan Ariely, “Placebo Effects of Marketing Actions: Consumers May Get What They Pay For,” JMR, 42 (November 2005), 383-393.
*10. Gal Zauberman, B. Kyu Kim, Selin A. Malkoc, and James R. Bettman, “Discounting Time and Time Discounting: Subjective Time Perception and Intertemporal Preferences,” JMR, 46 (August 2009), 543-556.
9/22 Session 5 – Memory
*1. James R. Bettman, “Memory Factors in Consumer Choice: A Review,” JM, 43 (1979), 3753.
*2. John Lynch and Thomas Srull, “Memory and Attentional Factors in Consumer Choice: Concepts and Research Methods,” JCR, 9 (June 1982), 1837.
3. Gabriel Biehal and Dipankar Chakravarti, “Information Accessibility as a Moderator of Consumer Choice,” JCR, 10 (June 1983), 114.
4. Meryl Lichtenstein and Thomas Srull, “Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Examining the Relationship between Consumer Memory and Judgment,” in Linda Alwitt and Andrew Mitchell, eds., Psychological Processes and Advertising Effects, 1985, 113128.
5. Kevin Lane Keller, “Memory Factors in Advertising: The Effect of Advertising Retrieval Cues on Brand Evaluations,” JCR, 14 (December 1987), 316333.
6. Mita Sujan, James R. Bettman, and Hans Baumgartner, “Influencing Consumer Judgments Using Autobiographical Memories: A Self-referencing Perspective, JMR, 30 (November 1993), 422-436.
7. Geeta Menon, “The Effects of Accessibility of Information in Memory on Judgments of Behavioral Frequencies,” JCR, 20 (December 1993), 431-440.
*8. Kathryn A. Braun, “Post-experience Advertising Effects on Consumer Memory,” JCR, 25 (December 1999), 319-334.
*9. Gal Zauberman, Rebecca K. Ratner, and B. Kyu Kim, “Memories as Assets: Strategic Memory Protection in Choice over Time,” JCR, 35 (February 2009), 715-728.
10. Anat Keinan and Ron Kivetz, “Productivity Orientation and the Consumption of Collectable Experiences,” JCR, 37 (April 2011), 935-950.

9/29 Session 6 - Decision Processes I
*1. James Bettman, Mary Frances Luce, and John Payne, “Constructive Consumer Choice Processes,” JCR, 25 (December 1998), 187-217.
2. Robert Zajonc, “Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences,” American Psychologist, 35 (February 1980), 151175
3. Mita Sujan, “Consumer Knowledge: Effects on Evaluation Strategies Mediating Consumer Judgment,” JCR, 12 (June 1985), 3146.

4. Michael Johnson, “Consumer Choice Strategies for Comparing Noncomparable Alternatives,” JCR, 11 (December 1984), 741753.

5. J. Edward Russo, Margaret G. Meloy, and Victoria Husted Medvec, “Predecisional Distortion of Product Information,” JMR, 35 (November 1998), 438-452.
*6. Itamar Simonson, “Choice Based on Reasons: The Case of Attraction and Compromise Effects,” JCR, 16 (September 1989), 158-174.
7. James R. Bettman and C.W. Park, “Effects of Prior Knowledge and Experience and Phase of the Choice Process on Consumer Decision Processes: A Protocol Analysis,” JCR, 7 (December 1980), 234-248.
8. Donnel A. Briley, Michael W. Morris, and Itamar Simonson, “Reasons as Carriers of Culture: Dynamic versus Dispositional Models of Cultural Influence on Decision Making,” JCR, 27 (September 2000), 157-178.

*9. Michael L. Lowe and Kelly L. Haws, “(Im)moral Support: The Social Outcomes of Parallel Self-Control Decisions,” JCR, 41 (August 2014), 489-505.

*10. Rosellina Ferraro, James R. Bettman, and Tanya Chartrand, “The Power of Strangers: The Effect of Incidental Consumer Brand Encounters on Brand Choice,” JCR, 35 (February 2009), 729-741.
10/6 Session 7  Decision Processes II
1. Jacob Jacoby, Donald Speller, and Carol Kohn, “Brand Choice Behavior as a Function of Information Load: Replication and Extension,” JCR, 1 (June 1974), 3342.
*2. J. Edward Russo, “The Value of Unit Price Information,” JMR, 14 (May 1977), 193201.
3. Peter Wright, “Concrete Action Plans in TV Messages to Increase Reading of Drug Warnings,” JCR, 6 (December 1979), 256269.
4. Itamar Simonson and Amos Tversky, “Choice in Context: Tradeoff Contrast and Extremeness Aversion,” JMR, 29 (August 1992), 281-295.
5. John G. Lynch, Howard Marmorstein, Michael F. Weigold, “Choices from Sets Including Remembered Brands: Use of Recalled Attributes and Prior Overall Evaluations,” JCR, 15 (September 1988), 169-184.
*6. Baba Shiv and Alexander Fedorikhin, “Heart and Mind in Conflict: The Interplay of Affect and Cognition in Consumer Decision Making,” JCR, 26 (December 1999), 278-292.
7. Kathryn M. Sharpe, Richard Staelin, and Joel Huber, “Using Extremeness Aversion to Fight Obesity: Policy Implications of Context Dependent Choice,” JCR, 35 (October 2008), 406-422.
*8. Simona Botti, Kristina Orfali, and Sheena S. Iyengar, “Tragic Choices: Autonomy and Emotional Responses to Medical Decisions,” JCR, 36 (October 2009), 337-352.
9. Cassie Mogilner, Jennifer Aaker, and Sepandar D. Kamvar, “How Happiness Affects Choice,” JCR, 39 (August 2012), 429-443.
*10. Lara B. Aknin, Christopher P. Barrington-Leigh, Elizabeth W. Dunn, John F. Helliwell, Justine Burns, Robert Biswas-Diener, Imelda Kemeza, Paul Nyende, Claire E. Ashton-James, and Michael I. Norton, “Prosocial Spending and Well-Being: Cross-Cultural Evidence for a Psychological Universal,” JPSP, 104 (April 2013), 635-652.

10/13 Fall Break, No Classes

10/20 Session 8 – Attitudes (present paper ideas in class)

*1. Richard E. Petty and John Cacioppo, Attitudes and Persuasion: Classic and Contemporary Approaches, 183212.

2. Richard Lutz, “The Role of Attitude Theory in Marketing,” in Kassarjian and Robertson, Third Edition, 233250.
3. Icek Ajzen and Martin Fishbein, “AttitudeBehavior Relations: A Theoretical Analysis and Review of Empirical Research,” Psychological Bulletin, 84 (September 1977), 888918.
4. Richard Bagozzi, “Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior: A Test of Some Key Hypotheses,” JPSP, 41 (October 1981), 607627.
5. Russell Fazio, Martha Powell, and Carol Williams, “The Role of Attitude Accessibility in the Attitude-to-Behavior Process,” JCR, 16 (December 1989), 280-288.
*6. Julie Edell and Richard Staelin, “The Information Processing of Pictures in Print Advertisements,” JCR, 10 (June 1983), 4560.

7. Andrew Karpinski and James L. Hilton, “Attitudes and the Implicit Association Test,” JPSP, 81 (November 2001), 774-788.

8. Echo Wen Wan, Derek D. Rucker, Zakary L. Tormala, and Joshua J. Clarkson, “The Effect of Regulatory Depletion on Attitude Certainty,” JMR, 47 (June 2010), 531-541.
*9. A. Peter McGraw, Caleb Warren, and Christina Kan, “Humorous Complaining,” JCR, 41 (February 2015), 1153-1171.
*10. Avni M. Shah, James R. Bettman, Peter A. Ubel, Punam Anand Keller, and Julie A. Edell, “Surcharges Plus Unhealthy Labels Reduce Demand for Unhealthy Menu Items,” JMR, 51 (December 2014), 773-789.
10/27 Session 9  Persuasion and Attitude Change I
*1. Richard E. Petty, Rao H. Unnava, and Alan J. Strathman, “Theories of Attitude Change,” in H. H. Kassarjian and T. S. Robertson (Eds.), Handbook of Consumer Behavior, Prentice-Hall, 1991, 241-280.
*2. Peter Wright, “The Cognitive Processes Mediating the Acceptance of Advertising,” JMR, 10 (February 1973), 5362.
3. Richard Petty, John Cacioppo, and David Schumann, “Central and Peripheral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement,” JCR, 10 (September 1983), 135146.

  1. Chris Janiszewski, “Preconscious Processing Effects: The Independence of

Attitude Formation and Conscious Thought,” JCR, 15 (September 1988), 199-209.

  1. Julie Edell and Kevin Keller, “The Information Processing of Coordinated Media

Campaigns,” JMR, 26 (May 1989), 149-163.

  1. Baba Shiv, Julie Edell, and John Payne, “Factors Affecting the Impact of Negatively and Positively Framed Ad Messages,” JCR, 24 (December 1997), 285-294.

7. Michaela Wänke, Gerd Bohner, and Andreas Jurkowitsch, “There Are Many Reasons to Drive a BMW: Does Imagined Ease of Argument Generation Influence Attitudes?” JCR, 24 (September 1997), 170-177.

8. Joseph R. Priester, Dhananjay Nayakankuppam, Monique A. Fleming, and John

Godek, “The A2SC2 Model: The Influence of Attitudes and Attitude Strength on

Consideration and Choice,” JCR, 30 (March 2004).574-587
*9. Noah J. Goldstein, Robert J. Cialdini, and Vladas Griskevicius, “A Room with a Viewpoint: Using Social Norms to Motivate Environmental Conservation in Hotels,” JCR, 35 (October 2008), 472-482.
*10. Sarah G. Moore, “Some Things Are Better Left Unsaid: How Word of Mouth Influences the Storyteller,” JCR, 38 (April 2012), 1140-1154.
11/3 Session 10  Persuasion and Attitude Change II
1. Richard Lutz, “Changing Brand Attitudes Through Modification of Cognitive Structure,” JCR, 1 (March 1975), 4959.
2. Scott MacKenzie, Richard Lutz, and George Belch, “The Role of Attitude Toward the Ad as a Mediator of Advertising Effectiveness: A Test of Competing Explanations,” JMR, 23 (May 1986), 130143.
3. Julie A. Edell and Marian C. Burke, “The Power of Feelings in Understanding Advertising Effects,” JCR, 14 (December 1987), 421433.
*4. Marian Friestad and Peter Wright, “The Persuasion Knowledge Model: How People Cope with Persuasion Attempts,” JCR, 21 (June 1994), 1-31.
5. Scott Koslow, Prem Shamdasani, and Ellen Touchstone, “Exploring Language Effects in Ethnic Advertising: A Sociolinguistic Perspective,” JCR, 20 (March 1994), 575-585.
*6. Jennifer Aaker and Patti Williams, “Can Mixed Emotions Peacefully Coexist?” JCR, 28 (March 2002), 636-649.
7. Rebecca W. Hamilton, “Why Do People Suggest What They Do Not Want? Using Context Effects to Influence Others’ Choices,” JCR, 29 (March 2003), 492-506.
*8. Ryan S. Elder and Aradhna Krishna, “The ‘Visual Depiction’ Effect in Advertising: Facilitating Embodied Mental Simulation through Product Orientation,” JCR, 38 (April 2012), 988-1003.
*9. Peter A. Caprariello and Harry T. Reis, “To Do, to Have, or to Share? Valuing Experiences Over Material Possessions Depends on the Involvement of Others,” JPSP, 104 (February 2013), 199-215.
10. Amit Bhattacharjee and Cassie Mogilner, “Happiness from Ordinary and Extraordinary Experiences,” JCR, 41 (June 2014), 1-17.

11/10 Session 11 – Learning
1. James R. Bettman, Deborah Roedder John, and Carol Scott, “Covariation Assessment by Consumers,” JCR, 13 (December 1986), 316326.
*2. John Deighton, “How to Solve Problems that Don’t Matter: Some Heuristics for Uninvolved Thinking,” Adv.Consum. Res., 10, 314319, 1983.
3. Stephen J. Hoch and YoungWon Ha, “Consumer Learning: Advertising and the Ambiguity of Product Experience,” JCR, 13 (September 1986), 221233.
4. Greg Carpenter and Kent Nakamoto, “Consumer Preference Formation and Pioneering Advantage,” JMR, 26 (August 1989), 285-298.
5. Frank Kardes and Gurumurthy Kalyanaram, “Order-of-Entry Effects on Consumer Memory and Judgment: An Information Integration Perspective,” JMR, 29 (August 1992), 343-357.
6. Terence A. Shimp, Elnora W. Stuart, and Randall W. Engle, “A Program of Classical Conditioning Experiments Testing Variations in the Conditioned Stimulus and Contents,” JCR, 18 (June 1991), 112.
7. Jennifer Gregan-Paxton and Deborah Roedder John, “Consumer Learning by Analogy: A Model of Internal Knowledge Transfer,” JCR, 24 (December 1997), 266-284.
*8. Patricia West, Christina Brown, and Stephen Hoch, “Consumption Vocabulary and Preference Formation,” JCR, 23 (September 1996), 120-135.
*9. Marcus Cunha Jr. and Juliano Laran, “Asymmetries in the Sequential Learning of Brand Associations: Implications for the Early Entrant Advantage,” JCR, 35 (February 2009), 788-799.
*10. Kathryn A. Latour and Michael S. Latour, “Bridging Aficianados’ Perceptual and Conceptual Knowledge to Enhance How They Learn from Experience,” JCR, 37 (December 2010), 688-697.

11/17 Session 12  Group and Interpersonal Influence
1. David Midgley and Grahame Dowling, “Innovativeness: The Concept and Its Measurement,” JCR, 4 (March 1978), 229242.
2. Harry Davis and Benny Rigaux, “Perception of Marital Roles in Decision Processes,” JCR, 1 (June 1974), 5162.
3. James C. Ward and Peter H. Reingen, “Sociocognitive Analysis of Group Decision Making among Consumers,” JCR, 17 (December 1990), 245-262.
4. Kelly Tepper, “The Role of Labeling Processes in Elderly Consumers’ Responses to Age Segmentation Cues,” JCR, 20 (March 1994), 503-519.
*5. Albert M. Muniz and Thomas C. O’Guinn, “Brand Community,” JCR, 27 (March 2001), 412-432.
*6. Dan Ariely and Jonathan Levav, “Sequential Choice in Group Settings: Taking the Road Less Traveled and Less Enjoyed,” JCR, 27 (December 2000), 279-290.
7. Escalas, Jennifer Edson and James R. Betman, “Self-Construal, Reference Groups, and Brand Meaning,” JCR, 32 (December 2005), 378-389.
*8. Jonah Berger and Chip Heath, “Where Consumers Diverge from Others: Identity Signaling and Product Domains,” JCR, 34 (August 2007), 121-134.
*9. Brent McFerran, Darren W. Dahl, Gavan J. Fitzsimons, and Andrea C. Morales, “I’ll Have What She’s Having: Effects of Social Influence and Body Type on the Food Choices of Others,” JCR, 36 (April 2010), 915-929.
10. Lisa A. Cavanaugh, “Because I (Don’t) Deserve It: How Relationship Reminders and Deservingness Influence Consumer Indulgence,” JMR, 51 (April 2014), 218-232.
11/24 Session 13 – Interpretive Approaches and Other Topics
1. Morris Holbrook and Elizabeth Hirschman, “The Experiential Aspects of Consumption: Consumer Fantasies, Feelings, and Fun,” JCR, 9 (September 1982), 132140.
*2. Russell Belk, Melanie Wallendorf, and John Sherry, “The Sacred and the Profane in Consumer Behavior: Theodicy on the Odyssey,” JCR, 16 (June 1989), 1-38.
*3. Grant McCracken, “Who Is the Celebrity Endorser? Cultural Foundations of the Endorsement Process,” JCR, 16 (December 1989), 310-321.
4. Thomas O’Guinn and Ronald Faber, “Compulsive Buying: A Phenomenological Exploration,” JCR, 16 (September 1989), 147-157.
5. Douglas Holt, “Does Cultural Capital Structure American Consumption?” JCR, 25 (June 1998), 1-25.
*6. Mark Ritson and Richard Elliott, “The Social Uses of Advertising: An Ethnographic Study of Adolescent Advertising Audiences,” JCR, 26 (December 1999), 260-277.
*7. Nina Mazar, On Amir, and Dan Ariely, “The Dishonesty of Honest People: A Theory of Self-Concept Maintenance,” JMR, 45 (December 2008), 633-644.
8. Russell W. Belk, “Extended Self in a Digital World,” JCR, 40 (October 2013), 477-500.
9. Caleb Warren and Margaret C. Campbell, “What Makes Things Cool? How Autonomy Influences Perceived Coolness,” JCR, 41 (August 2014), 543-563.
10. Marsha L. Richins and Lan Nguyen Chaplin, “Material Parenting: How the Use of Goods in Parenting Fosters Materialism in the Next Generation,” JCR, 41 (April 2015), 1333-1357.




Importance - big picture - knowing the literature and important issues

State purpose early and often

Issue in marketing/conceptual issue/combination of the two

Not “no one has studied this” (as the main reason)

Overview of the paper

Literature Review and Hypotheses

Use only what you need for the case at hand

Use subheads and overviews of coming points - try to have a logical flow

Summarize main points you want the reader to get

Hypotheses - explicit or not?


Sections - see psychology journals

Ss, Design, Procedure, Measures, Analyses


Only present results relevant to hypotheses

Organize by H (repeat) or by major dependent variable

Try to present in some logical flow

Use tables and figures

Discuss after presenting - discussion section for each study

Overall Discussion


Relate back to introduction and purpose - conclusions

Some issues better in discussion than up front


Pick a style and stick with it - either the journal you’ve targeted or APA

General issues

Top down vs. bottom up writing – write using a powerpoint “outline”

You are telling a story – it must be coherent and simple (not too many “Main points”), write using reader expectations (what does the reader know by this point, what does the reader need to know to get what I am saying)

See Heath and Heath, Made to Stick; Peracchio and Escalas, JCP (2008), 18, 3, pp. 197-204; Bem (see reference in Peracchio and Escalas).

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