Countries visited during the voyage of h. M. S beagle bound the world



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496 BAHÍA, BRAZIL. [chap. xxi.

on which numerous boats and canoes show their white sails. Excepting from these points, the scene is extremely limited ; following the level pathways, on each hand, only glimpses into the wooded valleys below can be obtained. The houses, I may add, and especially the sacred edifices, are built in a peculiar and rather fantastic style of architecture. They are all whitewashed 5 so that when illumined by the brilliant sun of midday, and as seen against the pale blue sky of the horizon, they stand out more like shadows than real buildings.

Such are the elements of the scenery, but it is a hopeless attempt to paint the general effect. Learned naturalists describe these scenes of the tropics by naming a multitude of objects, and mentioning some characteristic feature of each. To a learned traveller this possibly may communicate some definite ideas: but who else from seeing a plant in an herbarium can imagine its appearance when growing in its native soil ? Who from seeing choice plants in a hothouse, can magnify some into the dimensions of forest trees, and crowd others into an entangled jungle ? "Who when examining in the cabinet of the entomologist the gay exotic butterflies, and singular cicadas, will associate with these lifeless objects, the ceaseless harsh music of the latter, and the lazy flight of the former,—the sure accompaniments of the still, glowing noonday of the tropics? It is when the sun has attained its greatest height, that such scenes should be viewed: then the dense splendid foliage of the mango hides the ground with its darkest shade, whilst the upper branches are rendered from the profusion of light of the most brilliant green. In the temperate zones the case is different—the vegetation there is not so dark or so rich, and hence the rays of the declining sun, tinged of a red, purple, or bright yellow colour, add most to the beauties of those climes.

When quietly walking along the shady pathways, and admiring each successive view, I wished to find language to express my ideas. Epithet after epithet was found too weak to convey to those who have not visited the intertropical regions, the sensation of delight which the mind experiences. I have said that the plants in a hothouse fail to communicate a just idea of the vegetation, yet I must recur to it. The land is one great wild, untidy, luxuriant hothouse, made by Nature for herself, but taken

] TROPICAL SOENERY. 497

possession of by man, who has studded it with gay houses and formal gardens. How great would be the desire in every admirer of nature to behold, if such were possible, the scenery of another planet! yet to every person in Europe, it may be truly said, that at the distance of only a few degrees from his native soil, the glories of another world are opened to him. In my last walk I stopped again and again to gaze on these beauties, and endeavoured to fix in my mind for ever, an impression which at the time I knew sooner or later must fail. The form of the orange-tree, the cocoa-nut, the palm, the mango, the tree-fern, the banana; will remain clear and separate; but the thousand beauties which unite these into one perfect scene must fade away; yet they will leave, like a tale heard in childhood, a picture full of indistinct, but most beautiful figures.

August 6th.—In the afternoon we stood out to sea, with the intention of making a direct course to the Cape de Verd Islands. Unfavourable winds, however, delayed us, and on the 12th we ran into Pernambuco,—a large city on the coast of Brazil, in latitude 8° south. We anchored outside the reef; but in a short time a pilot came on board and took us into the inner harbour, where we lay close to the town.

Pernambuco is built on some narrow and low sand-banks, which are separated from each other by shoal channels of salt water. The three parts of the town are connected together by two long bridges built on wooden piles. The town is in all parts disgusting, the streets being narrow, ill-paved, and filthy ; the houses, tall and gloomy. The season of heavy rains had hardly come to an end-, and hence the surrounding country, which is scarcely raised above the level of the sea, was flooded with water; and I failed in all my attempts to take long walks.

The flat swampy land on which Pernambuco stands is surrounded, at the distance of a few miles, by a semicircle of low hills, or rather by the edge of a country elevated perhaps two hundred feet above the sea. The old city of Olinda stands on one extremity of this range. One day I took a canoe, and proceeded up one of the channels to visit it; I found the old town from its situation both sweeter and cleaner than that of Pernambuco. I must here commemorate what happened for the first time during our nearly five years' wandering, namely, having

493 PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL. [chap, xxt

met with a want of politeness : I was refused in a sullen manner at two different houses, and obtained with difficulty from a third, permission to pass through their gardens to an uncultivated hill, for the purpose of viewing the country. I feel glad that this happened in the land of the Brazilians, for I bear them no good will—a land also of slavery, and therefore of moral debasement. A Spaniard would have felt ashamed at the very thought of refusing such a request, or of behaving to a stranger with rudeness. The channel by which we went to and returned from Olinda, was bordered on each side by mangroves, which sprang like a miniature forest out of the greasy mud-banks. The bright green colour of these bushes always reminded me of the rank grass in a churchyard: both are nourished by putrid exhalations; the one speaks of death past, and the other too often of death to come.

The most curious object which I saw in this neighbourhood, was the reef that forms the harbour. I doubt whether in the whole world any other natural structure has so artificial an appearance.* It runs for a length of several miles in an absolutely straight line, parallel to, and not far distant from, the shore. It varies in width from thirty to sixty yards, and its surface is level and smooth; it is composed of obscurely-stratified hard sandstone. At high water the waves break over it; at low water its summit is left dry, and it might then be mistaken for a breakwater erected by Cyclopean workmen. On this coast the currents of the sea tend to throw up in front of the land, long spits and bars of loose sand, and on one of these, part of the town of Pernambuco stands. In former times a long spit of this nature seems to have become consolidated by the percolation of calcareous matter, and afterwards to have been gradually upheaved ; the outer and loose parts during this process having been worn away by the action of the sea, and the solid nucleus left as we now see it. Although night and day the waves of the open Atlantic, turbid with sediment, are driven against the steep outside edges of this wall of stone, yet the oldest pilots know of no tradition of any change in its appearance. This durability is much the most curious fact in its history: it is due to a tough

* I have described this Bar in detail, in the Lond. and Edin. Phil. Mag,, vo*. xix. (1841), p. 257

1836.] SLAVERY. 499

layer, a few inches thick, of calcareous matter, wholly formed by the successive growth and death of the small shells of Serpulas, together with some few barnacles and nulliporee. These nulli-aorse, which are hard, very simply-organized sea-plants, play an analogous and important part in protecting the upper surfaces of coral-reefsrbehind and within the breakers, where the true corals, during the outward growth of the mass, become killed by exposure to the sun and air. These insignificant organic beings, especially the Serpulse, have done good service to the people of Pernambuco; for without their protective aid the bar of sandstone would inevitably have been long ago worn away, and without the bar, there would have been no harbour.

On the 19th of August we finally left the shores of Brazil. I thank God, I shall never again visit a slave-country. To this day, if I hear a distant scream, it recalls with painful vividness my feelings, when passing a house near Pernambuco, I heard the most pitiable moans, and could not but suspect that some poor slave was being tortured, yet knew that I was as powerless as a child even to remonstrate. I suspected that these moans were from a tortured slave, for I was told that this was the case in another instance. Near Rio de Janeiro I lived opposite to an old lady, who kept screws to crush the fingers of her female slaves. I have staid in a house where a young household mulatto, daily and hourly, was reviled, beaten, and persecuted enough to break the spirit of the lowest animal. I have seen a little boy, six or seven years old, struck thrice with a horse-whip (before I could interfere) on his naked head, for having handed me a glass of water not quite clean; I saw his father tremble at a mere glance from his master's eye. These latter cruelties were witnessed by me in a Spanish colony, in which it has always been said, that slaves are better treated than by the Portuguese, English, or other European nations. I have seen at Bio Janeiro a powerful negro afraid to ward off a blow directed, as he thought, at his face. I was present when a kind-hearted man was on the point of separating for ever the men, women, and little children of a large number of families wrho had long lived together. I will not even allude to the many heart-sickening atrocities which I authentically heafd of;—nor would I have mentioned the above revolting details, had I not

I836.J RETROSPECT. 501

left the Beagle, having lived on board the good little vessel nearly five years.

Our Voyage having come to an end, I will take a short retrospect of the advantages and disadvantages, the pains and pleasures, of our circumnavigation of the world. If a person asked my advice, before undertaking a long voyage, my answer would depend upon his possessing a decided taste for some branch of knowledge, which could by this means be advanced. No doubt it is a high satisfaction to behold various countries and the many races of mankind, but the pleasures gained at the time do not counterbalance the evils. It is necessary to look forward to a harvest, however distant that may be, when some fruit will be reaped, some good effected.

Many of the losses which must be experienced are obvious; such as that of the society of every old friend, and of the sight of those places with which every dearest remembrance is so intimately connected. These losses, however, are at the time partly relieved by the exhaustless delight of anticipating the long wished-for day of return. If, as poets say, life is a dream, I am sure in a voyage these are the visions which best serve to pass away the long night. Other losses, although not at first felt, tell heavily after a period : these are the want of room, of seclusion, of rest; the jading feeling of constant hurry ; the privation of small luxuries, the loss of domestic society, and even of music and the other pleasures of imagination. "When such trifles are mentioned, it is evident that the real grievances, excepting from accidents, of a sea-life are at an end. The short space of sixty years has made an astonishing difference in the facility of distant navigation. Even in the time of Cook, a man who left his fireside for such expeditions underwent severe privations. A yacht now, with every luxury of life, can circumnavigate the globe. Besides the vast improvements in ships and naval resources, the whole western shores, of America are thrown open, and Australia has become the capital of a rising continent. How different are the circumstances to a man shipwrecked at the present day in the Pacific, to what they were in the time of Cook! Since his voyage a hemisphere has been added to the civilized world.

If a person suffer much from sea-sickness, let him weigh it

502 RETliOSPECT. [chap. xxi.

heavily in the balance. I speak from experience: it is no trifling evil, cured in a week. If, on the other hand, he take pleasure in naval tactics, he will assuredly have full scope for his taste. But it must be borne in mind, how large a proportion of the time, during a long voyage, is spent on the water, as compared with the days in harbour. And what are the boasted glories of the illimitable ocean ? A tedious waste, a desert of water, as the Arabian calls it. No doubt there are some delightful scenes. A moonlight night, with the clear heavens and the dark glittering sea, and the white sails filled by the soft air of a gently-blowing trade-wind; a dead calm, with the heaving surface polished like r mirror, and all still except the occasional flapping of the canvass. It is well once to behold a squall with its rising arch and coming fury, or the heavy gale of wind and mountainous waves. I confess, however, my imagination had painted something more grand, more terrific in the full-grown storm. It is an incomparably finer spectacle when beheld on shore, where the waving trees, the wild flight of the birds, the dark shadows and bright lights, the rushing of the torrents, all proclaim the strife of the unloosed elements. At sea the albatross and little petrel fly as if the storm were their proper sphere, the water rises and sinks as if fulfilling its usual task, the ship alone and its inhabitants seem the objects of wrath. On a forlorn and weather-beaten coast, the scene is indeed different, but the feelings partake more of horror than of wild delight.

Let us now look at the brighter side of the past time. The pleasure derived from beholding the scenery and the general aspect of the various countries we have visited, has decidedly been the most constant and highest source of enjoyment. It is probable that the picturesque beauty of many parts of Europe exceeds anything which we beheld. But there is a growing pleasure in comparing the character of the scenery in different countries, which to a certain degree is distinct from merely admiring its beauty. It depends chiefly on an acquaintance with the individual parts of each view: I am strongly induced to believe that, as in music, the person who understands every note will, if he also possesses a proper taste, more thoroughly enjoy the whole, so he who examines each part of a fine view, may also thoroughly comprehend the full and combined effect. Hence, a traveller

1836.] RETROSPECT. 503

should be a botanist, for in all views plants form the chief embellishment. Group masses of naked rock even in the wildest forms, and they may for a time afford a sublime spectacle, but they will soon grow monotonous. Paint them with bright and varied colours, as in Northern Chile, they will become fantastic; clothe them with vegetation, they must form a decent, if not a beautiful picture.

When I say that the scenery of parts of Europe is probably superior to anything which we beheld, I except, as a class by itself, that of the intertropical zones. The two classes cannot be compared together ; but I have already often enlarged on the grandeur of those regions. As the force of impressions generally depends on preconceived ideas, I may add, that mine were taken from the vivid descriptions in the Personal Narrative of Humboldt, which far exceed in merit anything else which I have read. Yet with these high-wrought ideas,, my feelings were far from partaking of a tinge of disappointment on my first and final landing on the shores of Brazil.

Among the scenes which are deeply impressed on my mind, none exceed in sublimity the primeval forests undefaced by the hand of man; whether those of Brazil, where the powers of Life are predominant, or those of Tierra del Fuego, where Death and Decay prevail. Both are temples filled with the varied productions of the God of Nature :—-no one can stand in these solitudes unmoved, and not feel that there is more in man than the mere breath of his body. In calling up images of the past, I find that the plains of Patagonia frequently cross before my eyes; yet these plains are pronounced by all wretched and useless. They can be described only by negative characters; without habita-tions, without water, without trees, without mountains, they support merely a few dwarf plants. "Why then, and the case is not peculiar to myself, have these arid wastes taken so firm a hold on my memory ? "Why nave not the still more level, the greener and more fertile Pampas, which are serviceable to mankind, produced an equal impression? I can scarcely analyze these feelings : but it must be partly owing to the free scope given to the imagination. The plains of Patagonia are boundless, for they are scarcely passable, and hence unknown: they bear the stamp of having lasted, as they are now, for ages, and there appears no

504 RETROSPECT. [chap. xxi.

limit to their duration through future time. If, as the ancients supposed, the flat earth was surrounded by an impassable breadth of water, or by deserts heated to an intolerable excess, who would not look at these last boundaries to man's knowledge with deep but ill-defined sensations?

Lastly, of natural scenery, the views from lofty mountains, though certainly in one sense not beautiful, are very memorable. When looking down from the highest crest of the Cordillera, the mind, undisturbed by minute details, was filled with the stupendous dimensions of the surrounding masses.

Of individual objects, perhaps nothing is more certain to create astonishment than the first sight in his native haunt of a barbarian,—of man in his lowest and most savage state. One's mind hurries back over past centuries, and then asks, could our progenitors have been men like these ?—men, whose very signs and expressions are less intelligible to us than those of the domesticated animals; men, who do not possess the instinct of those animals, nor yet appear to boast of human reason, or at least of arts consequent on that reason. I do not believe it is possible to describe or paint the difference between savage and civilized man. It is the difference between a wild and tame animal: and part of the interest in beholding a savage, is the same which would lead every one to desire to see the lion in his desert, the tiger tearing his prey in the jungle, or the rhinoceros wandering over the wild plains of Africa.

Among the other most remarkable spectacles which we have beheld,"may be ranked the Southern Cross, the cloud of Magellan, and the other constellations of the southern hemisphere—the water-spout—the glacier leading its blue stream of ice, overhanging the sea in a bold precipice-—a lagoon-island raised by the reef-building corals*—an active volcano—and the overwhelming effects of a violent earthquake. These latter phenomena, perhaps, possess for me a peculiar interest, from their intimate connexion with the geological structure of the world. The earthquake, however, must be to every one a most impressive event: the earth, considered from our earliest childhood as the type of solidity, has oscillated like a thin crust beneath our feet; and in seeing the laboured works of man in a moment overthrown, we feel the insignificance of his boasted power.

1836.J RETROSPECT. 505

It has been said, that the love of the chase is an inherent delight in man—a relic of an instinctive passion. If so, I am sure the pleasure of living in the open air, with the sky for a roof and the ground for a table, is part of the same feeling; it is. the savage returning to his wild and native habits. I always look back to our boat cruises, and my land journeys, when through unfrequented countries, with an extreme delight, which no scenes of civilization could have created. I do not doubt that every traveller must remember the glowing sense of happiness which he experienced, when he first breathed in a foreign clime, where the civilized man had seldom or never trod.

There are several other sources of enjoyment in a long voyage, which are of a more reasonable nature. The map of the world ceases to be a blank; it becomes a picture full of the most varied and animated figures. Each part assumes its proper dimensions: continents are not looked at in the light of islands, or islands considered as mere specks, which are, in truth, larger than many kingdoms of Europe. Africa, or North and South America, are well-sounding names, and easily pronounced; but it is not until having sailed for weeks along small portions of their shores, that one is thoroughly convinced what vast spaces on our immense world these names imply.

From seeing the present state, it is impossible not to look forward with high expectations to the future progress of nearly an entire hemisphere. The march of improvement, consequent on the introduction of Christianity throughout the South Sea, probably stands by itself in the records of history. It is the more striking when we remember that only sixty years since, Cook, whose excellent judgment none will dispute, could foresee no prospect of a change. Yet thes.e changes have now been effected by the philanthropic spirit of the British nation.

In the same quarter of the globe Australia is rising, or indeed may be said to have risen, into a grand centre of civilization, which, at some not very remote period, will rule as empress over the southern hemisphere. It is impossible for an Englishman to behold these distant colonies, without a high pride and satisfaction. To hoist the British flag, seems to draw with it as a certain consequence, wealth, prosperity, and civilization.

In conclusion it appears to me that nothing can be more

506 KETROSPECT. [chap, xxi

improving to a young naturalist, than a journey in distant countries. It both sharpens, and partly allays that want and craving, which, as Sir J. Herschel remarks, a man experiences although every corporeal sense be fully satisfied. The excitement from the novelty of objects, and the chance of success, stimulate him to increased activity. Moreover, as a number of isolated facts soon become uninteresting, the habit of comparison leads to generalization. On the other hand, as the traveller stays but a short time in each place, his descriptions must generally consist of mere sketches, instead of detailed observations. Hence arises, as I have found to my cost, a constant tendency to fill up the wide gaps of knowledge, by inaccurate and superficial hypotheses.

But I have too deeply enjoyed the voyage, not to recommend any naturalist, although he must not expect to be so fortunate in his companions as I have been, to take all chances, and to start, on travels by land if possible, if otherwise on a long voyage. He may feel assured, he will meet with no difficulties or dangers, excepting in rare cases, nearly so bad as he beforehand anticipates. In a moral point of view, the effect ought to be, to teach him good-humoured patience, freedom from selfishness, the habit of acting for himself, and of making the best of every occurrence. In short, he ought to partake of the characteristic qualities of most sailors. Travelling ought also to teach him distrust; but at the same time he will discover, how many truly kind-hearted people there are, with whom he never before had, or ever again will have any further communication, who yet are ready to offer him the most disinterested assistance.

Note.—The snake, described at page 96, with the curious habit of vibrating its tail, is a new species of Trigonocephalus, which M. Bibron proposes to call T. crepitans.

( 607 )

INDEX.

Abbott, Mr., on spiders, 35 Azara on range of carrion-hawks, 59
Aborigines banished from Van Die- on habits of carrion-hawks, 57
men's Land, 447j on a thunder-storm, 61
of Australia, 433 to 450 on ostrich-eggs, 91
Abrolhos, 14 on bows and arrows, 105
Absence of trees in Pampas, 46 on new plants springing up,
Aconcagua, volcano of, 253, 291 119
Actinia, stinging species, 464 on great droughts, 133
Africa, Southern part desert, yet sup- on hydrophobia, 353
ports large animals, 85
Agouti, habits of, 69 Bachman, Mr., on carrion-hawks, 185
Ague common in Peru, 365 Bahia Blanca, 76 to 105
Albemarle Island, 376 Bahia, Brazil, 11
Allan, Dr., on Diodon, 14 , scenery of, 495
. on Holuthurise, 465 Balbi on coral reefs, 470
Alluvium, saliferous, in Peru, 364 Bald Head, Australia, 450
, stratified, in Andes, 315 Ballenar, Chile, 349
Amblyrhynehus, 385, 394 Banda Oriental, 39, 142
Anas, species of, 199 Banks's Hill, 210
Animalculae, see Infusoria Barking-bird, 288
Antarctic islands, 248 Basaltic platform of Santa Cruz, 180
Antipodes, 417 Bathurst, Australia, 442
Ants at Keeling island, 456 Bats, vampire, 22
in Brazil, 34 Bay of Islands, New Zealand, 417
Apires, or miners, 340 Beads', hill of, 149
Aplysia, 6 Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego,
Apple-trees, 297 217
Aptenodytes demersa, 199 Beech-trees, 235, 281
Areas of alternate movements in the Beetles alive in sea, 159
Pacific and Indian oceans, 480 • —, dung-feeders, 490
Armadilloes, habits of, 95 • at St. Julian, 170
^ fossil animals allied to, in brackish water, 22
130, 155 ■ on a fungus, 32
Arrow-heads, ancient, 105, 357 Behrmg's Straits, fossils of, 132
Ascension, 491 Bell of Quillota, 255
Aspalax, blindness of, 52 Benchuca, 330
Athene, 70,125 Berkeley Sound, 188
Atolls, 465 , Rev. J.*, on Confervse, 14
Attagis, 94 , on Cyttaria, 236
Atwater, Mr., on the prairies, 118 Bibron, M., 381, 385
Audubon, M., on smelling-power of Bien-te-veo, 54
carrion-hawks, 184 Birds of the Galapagos Archipelago,
Australia, 43 L 378,394
Australian barrier, 474 Birds, tameness of, 398
Azara on spiders, 36-, 38 Birgos latro, 462
' on rain in La Plata, 47 Bizcacha, habits of, 70,124

508 INDEX.

Blackwall, Mr., on spiders, 161 Camelidse, fossil animal allied to, 172
Blindness of tucutuco, 52 Canis antarcticus, 193
Body, frozen, 89, 249 Canis fulvipes, 280
Bolabola, 469, 473 Capybara, or carpincho, 49, 287
Bolas, manner of using, 44, 111 , fossil allied to, 82
Bombs, volcanic, 493 Cape Horn, 211
Bones of the guanaco collected in cer- Cape of Good Hope, 85
tain spots, 167 Caracara, or Garrancha, 55
, fire made of, 194 Cardoon, beds of, 119, 148
, recent in Pampas, 134 Carcnichael, Capt., 392
, fossil, 81, 127, 130, 155,173 Carrion-hawks, 55,120, 184
Bory St. Vincent on frogs, 381 Casarita, 95
Boulders, 187, 247 Castro, Chiloe, 278, 294
Bramador, El, 361 Casts of trees, 450
Brazil, great area of granite, 12 Casuchas, 335
Breaches in coral-reefs, 476 Cathartes, 58, 184, 284
Breakwater of sea-weed, 240 Cats run wild, 120, 493
Brewster, Sir D., on a calcareous de- good to eat, 117
posit, 10 scratch trees, 136
Bridge of hide, 262 , cruelty to mice, 199
of Incas, 334, 356 Cattle, effects of their grazing on the
Buckland, Dr., on fossils, 132 vegetation, 118
Buenos Ayres, 121 killed by great droughts, 134,
Buffon on American animals, 173 146
Bug of Pampas, 330 know each other, 145
Buildings, Indian, 356 to 359, , curious breed of, 145
368 -, waste of, 149
Bulimus on desert places, 347 ■ wild at the Falkland Islands,
Burchell, Mr., on food of quadrupeds, 190, 192
87 Cauquenes, hot springs of, 263
, on ostrich-eggs, 91 Causes of extinction of species among
— —., on perforated stones, mammalia, 173
267 of discoloured sea, 14
Butterflies, flocks of, 158 Cavia Patagónica, 69
Butterfly producing clicking sound, Cervus campestris, 48
33 Ceryle Americana, 138
Button, Jemmy, 207 Chácao, Chiloe, 274
Byron's account of fox of Falklands, Chagos atolls, 478
194 Chalk-like mud, 465
on an Indian killing his child, Chamisso on drifted seeds and trees,
216 454,461
on coral reefs, 467
Cacti, 165, 261, 374 Changes in vegetation of Pampas,
Cactornis, 379, 394 120
Calasoma on wing out at sea, 158 —- in vegetation of St. Helena,
Calcareous casts of branches and roots 489
of trees at King George's Sound, Charles Island, Galapagos Archipe-
450 lago, 375
Calcareous incrustations on rocks of Cheese, salt required for, 66
Ascension, 9 Cheucau, 278, 288
Callao, 365 Chile, 252, 337
Calodera, 1-25 , features of country, 254
Calomys Uzcacha, 124 Chiloe, 273
Camarhvtichus, 379, 394 , forests of, and climate, 243

INDEX. 509

Chiloe, roads of, 274, 292 Cordillera, passage of, 314
, inhabitants of, 273, 276 , structure of valleys, 315
Chionis, 94 , geology of, 319, 332
Chonos Archipelago, 281 , rivers of, 316
f climate of, 243 , of Copiapd, 360
, ornithology of, Cormorant catching fish, 199
288 Corral, where animals are slaugh-
Chupat, Rio, 107 tered at Buenos Ayres, 121
Cladonia, 364 Coseguina, eruption of, 291
Clearness of atmosphere within An- Countries, unhealthy, 365
des, in Chile, 256 " Couthouy, Mr., on coral-reefs, 475
Climate of Tierra del .Fuego and Crabs, hermit species of, 457
Falkland Islands, 242 at Keeling Island, 462
Antarctic Islands, 248 at St. Paul's, 10
Galapagos, 373, 377 Craters, number of at the Galapagos
, change of, in Chile, 357 Archipelago, 373
Clouds of vapour after rain, 24 of Elevation, 485
on Corcovado, 28 Crisia, 202
hanging low, 367 Cruelty to animals, 152
at sea, 402 Crustacea, pelagic, 161
Coleoptera in Tropics, 34 Ctenomys Braziliensis, 50
out at sea, 159 , fossil species of, 82
of St. Julian, 170 Cucao, Chiloe, 294
Colias edusa, flocks of, 158 Cuckoo-like habits of Molothrus, 53
Colnett, Capt., on spawn in sea, 17 Cuentas, Sierra de, 149
, on a marine lizard, 386 Cumbre of Cordillera, 335
, on transport of seeds, Cuming, Mr., on shells, 391, 490
392 Cuttle-fish, habits of, 7, 288
Colonia del Sacramiento, 144 Cuvier on Diodon, 13
Colorado Rio, 70 Cynara, 119
Compound animals, 201 Cyttaria Darwinii, 236
Concepción, Chile, 302
Condor, habits of, 182,186, 269 Dacelo Jagoensis, 2
Confervse, pelagic, 14 Dasypus, three species of, 95
Conglomerate on the Ventana, 109 Deer, 49, 133
in Cordillera, 420 Degradation of tertiary formations,
Conurus, 138 344
Convicts of Mauritius, 484 Deinornis, 427
-, condition of, in New South Deserts, 349, 363
Wales, 445 Desmodus, 22
Cook, Capt., on Kelp, 239 Despoblado, valley of, 355
Copiapó, river and valley of, 350 Dieffenbach on Auckland Island,244,
-——, town of, 354 435
Coquimbo, 342 Diodon, habits of, 13
Coral formations, 402, 452 to 482 Discoloured sea, 14
—, stinging species of, 464 Diseases from miasma, 365, 435
——, dead, 460, 478 Distribution of mammalia in Ameri-
Corallines, 201 ca, 131
Corcovado, clouds on, 28 of animals opposite
, volcano, 291. sides of Cordillera, 326
Cordillera, appearance of, 258, 276, -— of frogs, 381
318 of Fauna of Galapagos,
—, different productions on 393
east and west side, 326 Dobrizhoffer on ostriches, 93

INDEX. 511

Falconer, Jesuit, on natural enclo- Fulgurites, 59
sures, 116 . . Fungus, edible, 236
Falkland Islands, 188 Furnarius, 95
—, birds tame at, 398
, absence of trees at, Galapagos Archipelago, 372; natural
48 history of, 377
., .-..-.. -, carrion-hawks of, — belongs to American Zoo-
57 logy, 377, 393
-..--, wild cattle and Gale of wind, 217, 281
horses of, 190 Gallegos Kiver, fossil bones at, 171
, climate of, 242 Gallinazo, 5 5
, peat of, 287 Gauchos, 42, 155
Fat, quantity eaten, 117 , character of, 156.
Fear, an acquired instinct, 399 live on meat, 117
Februa, 33 Gay, M., on floating islands, 265
Fennel, run wild, 119 » on shells in brackish water
Ferguson, Dr., on miasma, 366 21
Fern-trees 244 448 Geese at the Falkland Islands, 199 ^
Fernando Nororiha, 11, 374 Geographical distribution of Ameri-
Fields of dead coral, 460 can animals, 131, 326
Fire, art of making, 194, 409 of frogs.
Fish, eating coral, 4G4 381
of Galapagos, 390 | ■ — of fauna
—- emitting harsh sound, 136 of Galapagos, 393
Flamingoes, 66 Geology of Cordillera, 319,332
Fleas, 346 — of Patagonia, 170, 181
Floods after droughts, 134 of St. Jago, 6
clear after snow, 319 of St. Paul, 8
Flora of the Galapagos, 374, 392, of B. Blanca, 81
395 . of Pampas, 129
of Keeling island, 454 of Brazil, 12
of St. Helena, 487 Georgia, climate of, 248
Flustraceso, 201 Geospiza, 379, 395
Forests, absence of, in La Plata, 47 Gill, Mr., on an upheaved river-bed,
of Tierra del Fuego, 210, 358
243 286 Gillies, Dr., on the Cordillera, 323
1 of Chiloe, 243, 280, 286, 293 Glaciers in Tierra del Fuego, 224,
of Valdivia, 298, 361 245
of New Zealand, 427 m Cordillera, 324
of Australia, 433 in lat. 46° 40', 246
Fossil Mammalia, 81, 127, 130, 155, Glow-worms, 30 .
j 73 Goats, destructive to vegetation at St.
earthenware, 369 Helena, 489 •
Fox of the Falkland Islands, 193 , bones of, 168
of Chiloe, 280 Goitre, 314
Friendly Archipelago, 481 Gold-washing, 266
Frogs, noises of, 29 Good Success Bay, 204
. -, bladders of, 383 Gossamer spider, 159
and toads, not found on oceanic Gould, Mr., on the Calodera, 125
islands, 381 > on birds of Galapagos,
Frozen soil, 88, 248 3?? . . ooo
Fruit-trees, southern limit of, 243 Granite mountains, Tres Montes, 283
Fucus giganteus, 239 of Cordillera, 320
Fuegians, 204 to 234 Graspus, 10

512 INDEX.

Gravel, how far transported, 108 Horse, fossil, 82, 130
of Patagonia, 75, 171 Horsemanship of the Gauchos, 153,
Greenstone, fragments of, 257 195
Gryllus migratorius, 329 - Hot springs of Cauquenes, 263
Guanaco, habits of, 166 Huacas, 368, 370
, fossil allied genus, 172 Humboldt on burnished rocks, 12
Guantajaya, mines of, 363 on the atmosphere in
Guardia deí Monte, 118 tropics, 32
Guaseo, 348 •on frozen soil, 88
Guasos of Chile, 258 on hybernation, 98
Guava, imported into Tahiti, 403 on potatoes, 285
Guinea-fowl, 5, 493 on earthquakes and rain,
Gunnera scabra, 278 351
Gypsum, great beds of, 319 on miasma, 366, 435
in salt-lake, 66 Humming-birds of Rio de Janeiro, 32
in Patagonian tertiary- of Chile, 271
beds, 171 Hybernation of animals, 98
at Iquique with salt, 364 Hydrochserus capybara, 49
at Lima with shells, 369 Hydrophobia, 353
Hyla, 29
Hachette, M., on lightning-tubes, 60 Hymenophallus, 32
Hailstorm, 115
Hall, Capt. Basil, on terraces of Co- Jackson, Col., on frozen snow, 325
quimbo, 343 Jaguar, habits of, 135
Hare, Varying, 45 Jajuel, mines of, 259
Head, Capt, on thistle-beds, 119,124 James Island, Galapagos Archipe-
Height of snow-line on Cordillera, lago, 376
244 Juan Fernandez, volcano of, 310
Henslow, Prof., on potatoes, 285, flora of, 392
, on plants of Keeling
Island, 454 Ibis melanops, 165
Hermit crabs, 457 Ice, prismatic structure of, 325
Hill, emitting a noise, 361 Icebergs, 187, 224, 246 to 251
Himantopus, 114 Incas' bridge, 334, 356
Hdgoleu barrier-reef, 469 Incrustations on coast rocks, 9, 12
Holes made by a bird, 95 Indian fossil remains, 370
Holman on drifted seeds, 454 Indians, attacks of, 64, 77, 129
Holuthuriae feeding on coral, 465 , Patagonians, 231
Hooker, Sir J., on the Cardoon, 119 , Araucarians, 299
, Dr. J. D., on the Kelp, 239 of the Pampas, 100
, on Galapageian of Valdivia, 299
plants, 392, 395 , perforated stones used by, 267
Horn, Cape, 211 , powers of tracking, 328
Horner, Mr., on a calcareous deposit, , grave of, 169, 187
10 , ruins of houses of, in Cor-
Horse-fly, 170 ^ dillera, 356, 368
Horses difficult to drive, 110 — ^antiquities of, in La Plata,
drop excrement on paths, 119 46, 105
■ killed by great droughts, 134 decrease in numbers, 104
—, multiplication of, 233 Infection, 435
broken in, 151 Infusoria in dust in the Atlantic, 5
Horse, powers of swimming of, 143 in the sea, 15, 162
wild at the Falkland Islands, in Pampas, 82,130
191 ! in Patagonia, 170
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