|Speech and Hearing Science 2105
Anatomy and Physiology for Speech and Hearing I
Class: Tuesday/Thursday, 9:35-10:50
Course Instructor: Craig W. Linebaugh, Ph.D.
Professor of Speech and Hearing Science
Research Professor of Medicine
Office hours: Wednesdays, 10:00am-12:00pm; Thursdays, 2:00-3:00pm
Hixon, T.J., Weismer, G., & Hoit, J.D. (2014). Preclinical speech science: anatomy, physiology,
acoustics, perception. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing.
Extensive materials will be placed on the course Blackboard site (http://blackboard.gwu.edu). You are responsible for all information posted on the site.
Speech production is a uniquely human phenomenon. While many other animals have systems for exchanging information, none is capable of producing a complex stream of sounds that not only convey sophisticated semantic information but rich emotional content as well. Moreover, human speech production is accomplished using systems whose primary purposes support basic life functions such as breathing and eating. Yet, without instruction, the vast majority of people learn to speak – to express thoughts and feelings – in a manner that is comprehensible to others.
This course is an exploration of the phenomenon of human speech. What structures are involved in speech production? What are the essential life support functions of these structures, and how is their use adapted to produce intelligible speech? The answers to these questions will deepen your appreciation for this unique human ability that we most often take for granted. For those of you contemplating careers in speech-language pathology, medicine, or advanced education in a wide variety of fields, this course focuses on information that will be essential to your future endeavors.
Class attendance: The course will be taught using active learning pedagogies that depend greatly on collaboration with peers to “discover” knowledge through in-class activities. This will include making inferences about anatomical structures, physiological principles, solving problems, etc. based on readings and review of material prior to class. Many class “challenges” will be conducted using Turing Point, an electronic response system. Accountability for preparation for class will be assessed through Random Quizzes (see below) administered at the start of class. On some occasions, the quiz may be repeated at the end of class.
Lab attendance: Lab sessions will be conducted in a manner similarly to regular lecture sessions; i.e., the teaching approach being used for a particular segment of the course will be used in both “lectures” and labs. All “learning sessions” for a given segment will be essentially the same. On the class schedule, Tuesday “labs” are identified as “afternoon.”
Attendance will be recorded for all class sessions, but will not contribute to the course grade.
Examinations and Quizzes:
Baseline quizzes: The course will be divided into 5 segments as follows:
Peripheral Nervous System and Respiration
Velopharyngeal function and Resonance
Oro-mandibular function and Speech Articulation
A baseline quiz will be administered at the beginning of each of the 5 segments. All 5 baseline quizzes will be identical and will contain information that has not yet been discussed in class. You are not expected to score well on these quizzes. THEY WILL NOT FACTOR INTO YOUR COURSE GRADE. They will be used solely to determine your attainment of specific information over the course of the semester and to guide the instructor in adjusting the presentation of course material.
Segment posttest/exam: A posttest/exam will be administered at the end of each of the 5 course
segments. Each posttest/exam will be worth 40 points toward your grade for the course – 5
posttests/exams x 40 points = 200 points.
Dates of these examinations are as follows:
Peripheral Nervous System and Respiration: September 12
Phonation: October 3
Velopharyngeal mechanism and resonance: October 17
Pharyngeal-oral mechanism and speech articulation: November 7
Deglutition: November 21
These dates are subject to change with one week’s notice should the pace of the course require a
November 26 and December 5 are currently scheduled as review sessions in preparation for the final
examination. However, these classes may be needed to complete the syllabus or to reschedule the
exam on deglutition.
Final examination: A 100 point final examination will be administered at the end of the course on the
date assigned by the Registrar. This exam will be cumulative; i.e., it will cover material from all 5
segments of the course.
Course Grading: Your grade for the course will be based on a total of 300 points earned from posttests/exams and from the final exam. Course grades will be assigned as follows:
Percent of points earned
Minimum points earned
It is expected that ALL quizzes and exams, including baseline quizzes, will be made up within one week unless otherwise justified by an official excuse. The course instructor should be notified of any planned absences for university events (e.g., athletic competitions, fine arts performances, debate competitions) within the first two weeks of the semester.
University Policy on Religious Holidays:
1. Students should notify faculty during the first week of the semester of their intention to be absent from class on their day(s) of religious observance;
2. Faculty should extend to these students the courtesy of absence without penalty on such occasions, including permission to make up examinations;
3. Faculty who intend to observe a religious holiday should arrange at the beginning of the semester to reschedule missed classes or to make other provisions for their course-related activities
This course will be conducted according to the principles and provisions of the GW Code of Academic Integrity. The Code states that “Academic dishonesty is defined as cheating of any kind, including misrepresenting one’s own work, taking credit for the work of others without crediting them and without appropriate authorization, and the fabrication of information.” The full code may be viewed at http://www.gwu.edu/~ntegrity/code.html.
SUPPORT FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM
DISABILITY SUPPORT SERVICES (DSS)
Any student who may need an accommodation based on the potential impact of a disability should contact the Disability Support Services office at 202-994-8250 in the Phillips Hall, Suite 102, to establish eligibility and to coordinate reasonable accommodations. For additional information please refer to: http://gwired.gwu.edu/dss/
UNIVERSITY COUNSELING CENTER (UCC) 202-994-5300
The University Counseling Center (UCC) offers 24/7 assistance and referral to address students’ personal, social, career, and study skills problems. Services for students include:
crisis and emergency mental health consultations
confidential assessment, counseling services (individual and small group), and referrals
In the case of an emergency, if at all possible, the class should shelter in place. If the building that the class is in is affected, follow the evacuation procedures for the building. After evacuation, seek shelter at a predetermined rendezvous location.
STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Explicit learning outcomes are provided in the following sections of the course syllabus. Students should regard these learning outcome statements as conveying the information and skills that they are expected to master in this course. All page references in the following sections of the course syllabus are from the required text – Hixon, Weismer, Hoit (2nd edition, 2014).
Levels of Observation: define each of the following levels of observation: (pp. 1-3)
Define and use each of the following terms in locating and describing anatomical structures:
Planes of reference (p. 283)
Frontal – coronal
Transverse – horizontal
Directional relationships (pp. 284-286)
Ventral Superior Medial
Dorsal Inferior Lateral
Anterior Superficial Central
Posterior Deep Peripheral
Cranial External Proximal
Caudal Internal Distal
Define, describe, and use in descriptive statements the following types of tissues:
Joints – articulation
5 key points of information about muscles:
Functional relationships among muscles:
Peripheral Nervous System Primer
Innervation: describe the fundamental principles of muscle innervation using the terminology in the following section:
Upper motor neurons vs. lower motor neurons (“final common pathway”)
Efferent vs. afferent nerve fibers (p. 288)
Lower motor neuron (p. 342)
Axon (pp. 348-349)
Neuromuscular (myoneural) junction (pp. 356-357)
Central vs. peripheral nervous systems (p. 282): differentiate between the central and peripheral nervous systems; state the primary components of each
Brainstem (pp. 317-323): identify and locate each of the following components of the brainstem
Spinal cord (pp. 343-344): identify, locate, and state the significance of each of the following structures and terms relative to motor and sensory function
Spinal cord segments
Cranial nerves (pp. 319, 323-325): indicate the primary structures of the speech production mechanism to which the following cranial nerves provide motor and/or sensory innervation; locate the motor
nuclei of these cranial nerves:
Trigeminal (V) (pp. 327-332)
Facial (VII) (pp. 332-334)
Glossopharyngeal (IX) (335-336)
Vagus (X) (107; 337-338)
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Superior laryngeal nerve
Accessory (XI) (pp. 338-339)
Hypoglossal (XII) (pp. 339-340)
Spinal nerves (pp. 344-345): identify each of the divisions of the spinal nerves and the number of nerves in each division; use standard nomenclature to identify specific spinal nerves; identify the location of the lower motor neurons for each spinal nerve:
Planned volitional movement: Corticobulbar and corticospinal fibers (pp. 305-309)
Somatosensory input – receptor types (pp. 35, 108, 242)
Touch: light and deep
Muscle spindles (p. 329-330; Figure 6-25)
Fundamentals of Speech Production
Describe the main components of the speech production system (pp. 3-4).
Drive (power supply) – respiration
Source (vibrating elements) – phonation
Filter (valves and filters) – articulation and resonance
Source-filter theory of speech production (p. 429-433)
Describe the vocal tract. (p. 160, Figure 4-3; pp. 220-222, Figure 5-7)
Faucial isthmus (fauces) (p. 160)
Describe the role of feedback systems in speech production.
Self-regulating system (servosystem): describe the speech production mechanism as a self-
Anatomy of the respiratory system
Skeletal framework of the respiratory system: define, describe, and locate the following structures (pp. 9-10):
Ensiform (xiphoid) process
Rib cage joints (p. 20)
Diaphragm (p. 12)
Abdomen (p. 12)
Sacral and coccygeal vertebrae
Abdominal aponeurosis (p. 12)
Lumbodorsal fascia (p. 12)
Pulmonary system: define, describe, and locate each of the following structures:
Pulmonary (lower) airways (pp. 11-12)
Main stem bronchi
Bifurcation (p. 60)
Lungs (p. 12)
Bronchial tree (arborization)
Lobar bronchii (p. 11)
Terminal bronchioles (p. 12)
Alveolar ducts (p. 12)
Alveoli (p. 12)
Visceral pleura (p. 12)
Parietal pleura (p. 12)
Serous fluid (p. 12)
Pleural linkage (p. 12)
Forces of respiration
Passive (p. 13)
Recoil of muscles, cartilages, ligaments, and lung tissue
Surface tension of the alveoli
Expansion vs. contraction of the thorax relative to its resting position
Active (p. 13)
Respiratory musculature (pp. 13-20)
Primary muscles of inspiration: describe; locate; and state the origin, insertion, fiber course,
innervation and action of each of the following muscles
Diaphragm (p. 17)
External intercostals (pp. 15-16)
Secondary muscles of inspiration: describe; locate; and state the action of each of the following
Sternocleidomastoid (p. 13-15)
Scalene muscles (p. 15)
Pectoralis major (p. 15)
Pectoralis minor (p. 15)
Subclavius (p. 15)
Serratus anterior (p. 15)
Serratus posterior superior
Primary muscles of expiration: describe; locate; and state the origin, insertion, fiber course,
innervation, and action of each of the following muscles
Internal intercostals (p. 16)
Rectus abdominus (p. 17)
External oblique (p. 17)
Internal oblique (p. 17)
Transversus abdominus (p. 19)
Secondary muscles of expiration: describe; locate; and state the action of each of the following
Transverse thoracis (p. 16)
Subcostals (p. 17)
Serratus posterior inferior (p. 16)
Quadratus lumborum (p. 17)
Latissimus dorsi (p. 16)
Physiology of normal respiration
Movements of the respiratory mechanism: describe the movements that may occur in the three components of the respiratory mechnism (pp. 20-27).
Mechanical interplay: describe the interplay among the three components
Movement of air: describe the movement of air into and out of the lungs using the following terms and concepts to explain volume-pressure relationships (pp. 36-38)
Inspiration vs. Expiration
Changing volumes – changing pressures
Resting expiratory level (REL) – resting lung volume: define and state the percent of vital capacity (see below) at which REL normally occurs.
Lung volumes (p. 28): define and state the average volume of each of the following:
Tidal volume (TV)
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
Residual volume (RV)
Lung capacities (p. 28): define and state the average volume of each of the following:
Vital capacity (VC)
Functional reserve (residual) capacity (FRC)
Inspiratory capacity (IC)
Total lung capacity (TLC)
Define Relaxation pressure (Pr) (pp. 29-30):
Volume-pressure diagram (pp. 29-31): define and use to determine Palv at a given percent of VC
Relaxation-pressure curve (pp. 29-31): define and use to determine Palv at a given percent of VC
Tidal respiration (pp. 36-38): describe the tidal respiratory cycle
Rate of tidal respiration
Durations of inspiratory and expiratory phases
Volume of air exchanged per cycle
Forces involved in tidal respiration
Describe the relationships between Patm and Palv during inspiration and expiration.
Describe the expansion of the thorax and lungs during inspiration.
Dimensions along which the thorax expands
Forces opposing the action of the inspiratory muscles
Describe the role of the nonmuscular forces of expiration.
Elasticity of the lungs and thorax
Untorquing of the costal cartilages
Describe the effects of the various expiratory muscles.
Describe the relative contributions of the muscular and nonmuscular forces with respect to REL.
Physiology of respiration for speech production
Discuss respiration for a sustained utterance (pp. 38-43)
State the average Palv required for speech.
Describe the patterns of Palv, airflow, and lung volume change during the production of a
Describe the relationships between REL, Palv, and Patm.
List the factors which determine the muscular pressure (Pmus) required at any given
moment during sustained phonation.
Discuss the determination of net inspiratory or expiratory forces with respect to Pr and the
Discuss the relative contributrions of Pr and Pmus to the generation of a given Palv with
respect to vital capacity and REL.
Determine the Pmus (including sign) required to genearate a given Palv from a diagram
depicting Palv and Pmus relative to loudness.
Describe the role of the following muscles in speech production:
Abdominal hydraulic: define and state the function
Mechanical tuning (p. 46)
Define “braking (checking) action”: discuss its role in speech production with respect to Palv
` and Pr and cite the muscles primarily responsible (p. 41 ).
Running speech: discuss the volume, pressure, and muscular aspects of running speech (pp. 43-46)
Describe the differences in the relative lengths of the inspiratory and expiratory phases of
respiration between tidal breathing and running speech.
Discuss the influences of utterance (breath group) length and loudness on the range of lung
volumes used, the durations of the inspiratory and expiratory phases of respiration, Pr, and
Discuss the roles of the nonmuscular and muscular forces of respiration in running speech.
Discuss the role of pulsatile changes in Pmus including the mechanisms by which these
changes can be achieved.
Frequency requirements: Discuss alternations in respiratory rate relative to speech production.
Body position and speech breathing (pp. 47-53)
Describe the effects of supine body position on REL and Pr.
Describe the adjustments in inspiratory and expiratory muscular effort (Pmus) to produce a steady
utterance in supine.
Speech breathing and respiratory “drive” (pp. 53-55)
Describe the adjustments in speech breathing under “high drive” conditions.
Cognitive-linguistic influences in speech breathing (pp. 55-56)
Describe the influences of breath group length, grammatical structure, and cognitive-linguistic
formulation on speech breathing.
Development and speech breathing, birth to 16 years of age (pp. 57-59)
Effects of aging on speech breathing (p. 59)
Measuring respiratory volumes, pressures, air flow rates, and muscle activity: describe the role of each of the following instruments in measuring respiratory variables important for speech production: (pp. 59-63)
The Phonatory Mechanism
Larynx: describe, locate, and state the functions of the larynx (p. 109).
Laryngeal cartilages (pp. 75-78): describe and locate the cartilages and the component
parts of each cartilage as listed below:
Cricoarytenoid articulator facets
Cricothyroid articulator facets
Cricothyroid articulator facets
Cricoarytenoid articulator facets
Cuneiform cartilages (p. 83)
Hyoid bone (pp. 78-80): describe and locate the hyoid bone and its prominent components
Greater (major) cornua
Lesser (minor) cornua
Laryngeal joints (pp. 80-83): state the cartilages involved, their points of articulation, the ligaments
holding the joints together, and the directions and ranges of motion permitted by the joint.
Cricothyroid joints (pp. 80-81; Fig. 3-7)
Anterior ceratocricoid ligaments
Lateral ceratocricoid ligaments
Posterior ceratocricoid ligaments
Cricoarytenoid joints (p. 82; p. 86, Fig. 3-9)
Anterior cricoarytenoid ligaments
Posterior cricoarytenoid ligaments
Cavities of the larynx (pp. 83-86): describe and locate the following cavities of the larynx.
Ligaments and membranes of the larynx: describe, locate, and state the function of a given
ligament or membrane (pp. 86-88).
Aryepiglottic folds (p. 83)
Middle (medial) cricothyroid ligament
Lateral cricothyroid membrane
Vocal folds (pp. 83-85)
Layers of the Vocal Folds
Superficial lamina propria
Intermediate lamina propria
Deep lamina propria
Thyroarytenoid muscle (Thyromuscularis)
Ventricular folds (“ false vocal folds”) (p. 85)
Hyothyroid (thyrohyoid) membrane
Middle hyothyroid ligament
Lateral hyothyroid ligaments
Laryngeal musculature: state the origin, insertion, innervation, fiber course, and action of each of
the following muscles:
Intrinsic laryngeal muscles (pp. 88-93)
Posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA)
Lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA)
Extrinsic laryngeal muscles (pp.93-96)
Posterior (lower) belly
Anterior (upper) belly
Movements of the laryngeal apparatus: describe the movements of the following components of the laryngeal apparatus and of the larynx as a whole (pp. 96-102)
Vocal folds (pp. 97-101)
Ventricular folds (pp. 97, 101)
Epiglottis (pp. 97, 101)
Laryngeal housing (pp. 97, 101-102)
Laryngeal sound production
Describe the production of transient sounds (e.g., cough, throat clearing, glottal stop-plosive) at the level of the glottis (pp. 109-110).
Describe the production of sustained turbulent sound at the level of the glottis: /h/; whisper. (pp.
111-112; whisper: p. 105, Fig. 3-32, panel D).
Describe the production of voice by vibration of the vocal folds.
Mechanics of vocal fold vibration (pp. 112-115)
Describe the vibratory cycle of the vocal folds in terms of a traveling wave.
Vertical phase difference (p. 113)
Define the following terms relative to the vocal fold vibratory cycle (p. 416-419):
Glottal area function (Ag)
Glottal air flow (g)
Significance of the g waveform
Ratio of open (Opening phase + closed phase) to closed phase(s)
Discuss the aerodynamic-myoelastic theory of vocal fold vibration including each
of the following:
Vocal fold adduction
Medial compression of the vocal folds (laryngeal opposing pressure)(pp. 102-103)
Glottal resistance (Rg)
Trachael (subglottal) pressure (Psg)
Transglottal pressure differential
Mechanical coupling stiffness
Elasticity of the vocal folds
Initiation of Voice – vocal attack (pp. 115-117)
Describe the roles of vocal fold adduction, medial compression, and tracheal pressure in the
onset of voice production.
Describe the timing relationships between vocal fold adduction and release of expiratory airflow
in the following types of vocal attack:
Simultaneous vocal attack
Hard vocal attack (Glottal attack, coup de glotte)
Breath vocal attack
Glottal source spectrum
Describe the acoustic characteristics of the glottal source spectrum, including the following:
Fundamental frequency (F0) (pp. 117, 419-420)
Harmonics (pp. 117, 419-420)
Intensity roll-off (p. 420)
Quasiperiodic (p. 420)
State the significance of the closing phase waveform (pp. 421-423).
Regulation of vocal fundamental frequency (pp. 117-120)
State the average range of F0s that can be produced by a young adult.
Describe the changes in the shape (mass) of the vocal folds that accompany changes in F0.
Discuss the role of vocal fold tension (stiffness) in the regulation of F0 and the mechanism by
which it can be modified. Include the following in your discussion:
Vertical larynx position: describe the impact on the vocal folds.
Regulation of vocal intensity (sound pressure level) (pp. 120-122)
State the typical range of vocal intensity (SPL) that can be produced by a young adult.
Discuss the mechanisms underlying the regulation of vocal intensity with respect to F0. Include
the following in your discussion:
Glottal resistance (Rg)
Trachael pressure (Psg)
Closed vs. open phase of the vocal fold vibratory cycle
Upper airway influences
State the changes in the opening, closing, and closed phases of the vocal fold vibratory cycle
associated with increasing vocal intensity.
Voice registers: describe the frequency characteristics and the vocal fold configuration and
vibratory characteristics of each of the following (pp. 123-125):
Loft register (falsetto)
Pulse (vocal or glottal fry)
Describe the following during running speech:
Fundamental frequency (p. 126)
Vocal intensity (sound pressure level) (p. 127)
Glottal source spectrum (pp. 1270128)
Describe the position of the arytenoid cartilages and the state of the glottis for each of the
following classes of phonemes:
Aspirated, voiceless plosives
Describe the activity of the posterior cricoarytenoid, lateral cricoarytenoid, interarytenoid, and
vocalis muscles for each of the following classes of phonemes:
State the approximate mean F0 for adult male and female speakers.
Laryngeal structure and function differences with respect to age and sex (pp. 128-134)
Describe the changes in laryngeal structure that occur from infancy through old age.
Describe typical changes in F0 and voice quality during puberty and with advancing age.
Describe the following methods for examining laryngeal function (pp. 134-)
Velopharyngeal Function and Resonance
Anatomy of the Velopharyngeal and Nasal apparatus
Bones of the cranium and and face: describe and locate each of the following bones (pp. 157-):
Describe the location and shape of the pharynx and the composition of the pharyngeal walls (p.
Describe and locate each of the following sections of the pharynx (pp. 159-161).
Describe the movements of the pharyngeal walls (pp. 172, 234, 235).
Fauces/faucial isthmus (p. 160)
Velum: describe the shape and composition of the velum and locate it and the following related structures (p. 161).
Anterior faucial pillar
Posterior faucial pillar
Describe the movements of the velum (pp. 172-173).
Palatine processes of the maxilla
Nasal cavities: describe and locate the nasal cavities and related structures (p. 162)
Nasal choanae (posterior/interior nares) (p. 160)
Nasal conchae (turbinates)
Outer nose: describe and locate the parts of the nose (pp. 162-163).
Muscles of the pharynx: locate; identify; and state the origin, insertion, fiber course, innervation, and action of each of the following muscles (pp. 164-166):
Muscles of the velum: locate; identify; and state the origin, insertion, fiber course, innervation, and action of each of the following muscles (pp. 167-171):
Palatal levator (levator veli palatini)
Palatal tensor (tensor veli palatine)
Movements of the Pharynx and Velum: describe the movements of the pharynx, including the muscles and passive forces that effect these movements (pp. 172-173)
Coupling of the Oral and Nasal Cavities – Velopharyngeal closure: describe the opening and closing of the velopharyngeal port, including the range of openings and the muscular and passive forces that produce these various degrees of opening (pp. 173-175).
Lateral and posterior pharyngeal walls
Variability of movement patterns to achieve velopharyngeal closure
Velopharyngeal-Nasal function during Speech Production
Sustained Vowels and Consonants: describe the differences in velar height, velopharyngeal
closure, and relevant muscle activity for each of the following: (pp. 184-187)
High vs. Low vowels
Oral vs. nasal consonants
Running speech: describe velopharyngeal function in running speech (pp. 181-188).
Nasal assimilation/Nasalization (pp. 461-465)
Describe the influences of body position and gravity on velopharyngeal closure (pp. 188-190).
Describe the acoustic consequences of an open velopharyngeal port (pp. 178-170, 457-461).
Measurement of velopharyngeal function: describe each of the following measurements of velopharyngeal function and their significance relative to speech production (pp. 196-200):
Nasalance (not exactly)
Embryologic development of the facial region and palate
Identify the 3 layers of embryologic tissue
Describe the three key processes of embryonic development:
Identify the primary structures that develop from each of the following:
Mandibular or first branchial arch
Hyoid or second branchial arch
Third branchial arch
Fourth and fifth branchial arches
Describe the development of the oral region during the third to tenth weeks of gestation,
including the following:
Medial nasal process
Lateral nasal process
Pharyngeal-Oral Function and Speech Articulation
Define speech articulation in terms of sound generation and filtering (p. 243).
Structure of the Pharyngeal-Oral Apparatus: define and locate each of the following (pp. 215-222):
Alveolar arch (process)
Condyle (Condylar process)
Temporomandibular joints (TMJ): describe the structure and the following components of the
TMJ. Describe the functional significance of each of the components. (pp. 218-219)
Ligaments of the TMJ: describe the location and the functional significance form movement of
the mandible of each ligament (p. 218)
Movements of the mandible: describe the three main directions of movement of the
mandible (pp. 218-220, 234, 235-236)
Teeth: state the number and location of each of the following subsets of the permanent teeth Central incisors
Hard palate: describe and locate each of the following:
Soft palate: describe and locate each of the following:
Tongue: describe and locate each of the following: (p. 221)
Lips: describe and locate each of the following:
Angle of the mouth
Oral cavity: state the boundaries of the oral cavity (p. 221)
Oral vestibule (p. 221)
Buccal cavity: state the boundaries of the buccal cavity (p. 222)
Mucosal coverings (p. 222)
Muscles of articulation: state the location, origin, insertion, fiber course, innervation, and action of each of the following muscles:
Mandible (pp. 223-225)
Tongue (pp. 226-229)
Lips (pp. 229-232): state the location, origin, insertion, fiber course, innervation, and action of each
of the following muscles:
State the location and action of each of the following muscles:
Levator labii superioris
Levator labii superioris aleque nasi
Depressor labii inferioris
Levator anguli oris
Depressor anguli oris (triangularis)
Incisivus labii superioris
Incisivus labii inferoris
Movements of the articulators/Oral Pharyngeal Apparatus: describe the primary movements of each of the following structures (pp. 234-240):
Articulatory phonetics [The Speech Production Code]: state the place, manner, and voicing characteristics of each of the phonemes of English (pp. 243-247).
Place of major constriction of the vocal tract: front, central, back
Degree of major constriction: high, mid, low
Manner of articulation: stop-plosive, fricative, affricate, nasal, semivowel, lateral
Place of articulation: (bi)labial, labiodental, (inter)dental, alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal
Describe, locate, and state the function of each articulator in the production of various phonemes of English.
State the likely primary muscle(s) for achieving each place of articulation.
Speech production stream: describe the nature of the speech production stream and the implications for articulatory phonetics (pp. 247-248).
Coarticulation: describe coarticulation and the different forms it may take (pp. 248-253).
Velopharyngeal closure (pp. 187-188)
Articulatory phonology – Gesture theory: describe how articulatory phonology differs from the
traditional theory of feature spreading in explaining coarticulation/coproduction.
Aeromechanical Characteristics of the Vocal Tract: describe how the aeromechanical characteristics of the vocal tract shape the sounds of English (pp. 423-429)
Vocal tract as a tube resonator closed at one end
Vocal tract configurations: constrictions
Area function of the vocal tract
Describe the vocal tract configurations/adjustments that produce each of the following types of phonemes:
Vowels: (pp. 434-453)
Formant frequencies: define and describe their significance for vowel production
Vocal tract adjustments: describe the impacts of changes in each of the following features of
vowels on vowel formant patterns (F pattern)
Tongue height (pp. 443-444)
Tongue advancement (p. 444)
Configuration of the lips (pp. 444-446)
State the three Stevens and House rules and their significance for vowel production. (p. 447)
Consonants: describe the aeromechanical adjustments that produce each of the following types
of consonants: (pp. 455-488); define the relevant terms under each consonant and state their
significance for consonant production.
Nasals (murmurs) (pp. 456-461)
Nasalization (pp. 461-462)
Lateral sounds (pp. 465-467)
Fricatives (pp. 467-475)
Laminar air flow
Stop-plosives (pp. 478-487)
Closure (silent) interval
Release (burst) interval
Voice onset time (VOT): describe and state the general differences in VOT between voiced
and voiceless plosives.\
Describe the following methods for examining speech articulation (pp. 260-267):
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Air pressure transducer
Anatomy of swallowing
Describe the following structures involved in swallowing (pp. 625-626)
State the location and length (in adults) of the esophagus.
Describe the muscular composition over the length of the esophagus.
Upper esophageal sphincter: state its location and function.
Lower esophageal sphincter: state its location and function.
Stomach: state its location and composition.
Forces and Movements of Swallowing (pp. 727-
Define bolus (p. 627)
State the four phases of swallowing:
Oral preparatory phase
Oral transport (transit) phase
Pharyngeal transport phase
Esophageal transport phase
Describe the pressure relationships along the “swallowing tract,” including the following (pp. 627-628):
Upper esophageal sphincter
Lower esophageal sphincter
State the passive forces that contribute to swallowing (p. 627)
Connective tissue recoil
Describe the movements, the muscles involved in producing the movements, and the average duration of each of the four phases of swallowing (pp. 628-633).
Oral preparatory phase
Oral transport (transit) phase
Pharyngeal transport phase
Closure of the larynx
Elevation of the hyolaryngeal complex
Esophageal transport phase
Describe the relationships between breathing and swallowing (pp. 633-634).
Neural control of swallowing (pp. 635-637)
Describe the differences in swallowing movements relative to bolus consistency (liquid, puree, solid) and volume (pp. 637-638).
Describe the influences of the following factors on swallowing:
Single vs. sequential swallows (pp. 639-640)
Cued vs. uncued swallows (p. 640)
Body position (p. 640)
Describe the development of swallowing from birth to age two (pp. 641-642).
Describe the effects of aging on swallowing (p. 642).
Describe the following methods for examining swallowing (pp. 642-646):