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Speech and Hearing Science 2105

Anatomy and Physiology for Speech and Hearing I

Credits: 3

Fall 2015

Class: Tuesday/Thursday, 9:35-10:50

CONTACT INFORMATION

Course Instructor: Craig W. Linebaugh, Ph.D.

Professor of Speech and Hearing Science

Research Professor of Medicine

Telephone: 202.994.0724

e-mail: cline@gwu.edu

Office hours: Wednesdays, 10:00am-12:00pm; Thursdays, 2:00-3:00pm

Graduate Assistant:
COURSE MATERIALS

Required text:

Hixon, T.J., Weismer, G., & Hoit, J.D. (2014). Preclinical speech science: anatomy, physiology,

acoustics, perception. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing.
Extensive materials will be placed on the course Blackboard site (http://blackboard.gwu.edu). You are responsible for all information posted on the site.
COURSE DESCRIPTION

Speech production is a uniquely human phenomenon. While many other animals have systems for exchanging information, none is capable of producing a complex stream of sounds that not only convey sophisticated semantic information but rich emotional content as well. Moreover, human speech production is accomplished using systems whose primary purposes support basic life functions such as breathing and eating. Yet, without instruction, the vast majority of people learn to speak – to express thoughts and feelings – in a manner that is comprehensible to others.


This course is an exploration of the phenomenon of human speech. What structures are involved in speech production? What are the essential life support functions of these structures, and how is their use adapted to produce intelligible speech? The answers to these questions will deepen your appreciation for this unique human ability that we most often take for granted. For those of you contemplating careers in speech-language pathology, medicine, or advanced education in a wide variety of fields, this course focuses on information that will be essential to your future endeavors.

COURSE POLICIES
Class attendance: The course will be taught using active learning pedagogies that depend greatly on collaboration with peers to “discover” knowledge through in-class activities. This will include making inferences about anatomical structures, physiological principles, solving problems, etc. based on readings and review of material prior to class. Many class “challenges” will be conducted using Turing Point, an electronic response system. Accountability for preparation for class will be assessed through Random Quizzes (see below) administered at the start of class. On some occasions, the quiz may be repeated at the end of class.
Lab attendance: Lab sessions will be conducted in a manner similarly to regular lecture sessions; i.e., the teaching approach being used for a particular segment of the course will be used in both “lectures” and labs. All “learning sessions” for a given segment will be essentially the same. On the class schedule, Tuesday “labs” are identified as “afternoon.”
Attendance will be recorded for all class sessions, but will not contribute to the course grade.
Examinations and Quizzes:
Baseline quizzes: The course will be divided into 5 segments as follows:

  1. Peripheral Nervous System and Respiration

  2. Phonation

  3. Velopharyngeal function and Resonance

  4. Oro-mandibular function and Speech Articulation

  5. Deglutition

A baseline quiz will be administered at the beginning of each of the 5 segments. All 5 baseline quizzes will be identical and will contain information that has not yet been discussed in class. You are not expected to score well on these quizzes. THEY WILL NOT FACTOR INTO YOUR COURSE GRADE. They will be used solely to determine your attainment of specific information over the course of the semester and to guide the instructor in adjusting the presentation of course material.


Segment posttest/exam: A posttest/exam will be administered at the end of each of the 5 course

segments. Each posttest/exam will be worth 40 points toward your grade for the course – 5

posttests/exams x 40 points = 200 points.
Dates of these examinations are as follows:

Peripheral Nervous System and Respiration: September 12

Phonation: October 3

Velopharyngeal mechanism and resonance: October 17

Pharyngeal-oral mechanism and speech articulation: November 7

Deglutition: November 21


These dates are subject to change with one week’s notice should the pace of the course require a

change.
November 26 and December 5 are currently scheduled as review sessions in preparation for the final

examination. However, these classes may be needed to complete the syllabus or to reschedule the

exam on deglutition.
Final examination: A 100 point final examination will be administered at the end of the course on the

date assigned by the Registrar. This exam will be cumulative; i.e., it will cover material from all 5



segments of the course.
Course Grading: Your grade for the course will be based on a total of 300 points earned from posttests/exams and from the final exam. Course grades will be assigned as follows:


Letter grade

Percent of points earned

Minimum points earned

A

95

279

A-

90

270

B+

87

261

B

83

249

B-

80

240

C+

77

231

C

73

219

C-

70

210

D+

67

201

D

63

189

D-

60

180

F

< 60

< 180

It is expected that ALL quizzes and exams, including baseline quizzes, will be made up within one week unless otherwise justified by an official excuse. The course instructor should be notified of any planned absences for university events (e.g., athletic competitions, fine arts performances, debate competitions) within the first two weeks of the semester.

University Policy on Religious Holidays:

1. Students should notify faculty during the first week of the semester of their intention to be absent from class on their day(s) of religious observance;

2. Faculty should extend to these students the courtesy of absence without penalty on such occasions, including permission to make up examinations;

3. Faculty who intend to observe a religious holiday should arrange at the beginning of the semester to reschedule missed classes or to make other provisions for their course-related activities

ACADEMIC INTEGRITY

This course will be conducted according to the principles and provisions of the GW Code of Academic Integrity. The Code states that “Academic dishonesty is defined as cheating of any kind, including misrepresenting one’s own work, taking credit for the work of others without crediting them and without appropriate authorization, and the fabrication of information.” The full code may be viewed at http://www.gwu.edu/~ntegrity/code.html.



SUPPORT FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM

DISABILITY SUPPORT SERVICES (DSS)

Any student who may need an accommodation based on the potential impact of a disability should contact the Disability Support Services office at 202-994-8250 in the Phillips Hall, Suite 102, to establish eligibility and to coordinate reasonable accommodations. For additional information please refer to: http://gwired.gwu.edu/dss/



UNIVERSITY COUNSELING CENTER (UCC)  202-994-5300

The University Counseling Center (UCC) offers 24/7 assistance and referral to address students’ personal, social, career, and study skills problems. Services for students include:



  • crisis and emergency mental health consultations

  • confidential assessment, counseling services (individual and small group), and referrals

http://gwired.gwu.edu/counsel/CounselingServices/AcademicSupportServices

SECURITY

In the case of an emergency, if at all possible, the class should shelter in place. If the building that the class is in is affected, follow the evacuation procedures for the building. After evacuation, seek shelter at a predetermined rendezvous location.



STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Explicit learning outcomes are provided in the following sections of the course syllabus. Students should regard these learning outcome statements as conveying the information and skills that they are expected to master in this course. All page references in the following sections of the course syllabus are from the required text – Hixon, Weismer, Hoit (2nd edition, 2014).


Fundamental Terminology
Levels of Observation: define each of the following levels of observation: (pp. 1-3)

Neural


Muscular

Structural/Anatomical

Aeromechanical/Physiological

Acoustic


Perceptual

Define and use each of the following terms in locating and describing anatomical structures:

Planes of reference (p. 283)

Frontal – coronal

Transverse – horizontal

Sagittal

Mid-sagittal

Para-sagittal

Directional relationships (pp. 284-286)

Ventral Superior Medial

Dorsal Inferior Lateral

Anterior Superficial Central

Posterior Deep Peripheral

Cranial External Proximal

Caudal Internal Distal

Define, describe, and use in descriptive statements the following types of tissues:

Tissues


Epithelium

Bone


Condyle Neck

Crest Process

Foramen Tubercle

Head Meatus

Joints – articulation

Muscle


Striated muscle

Somatic


Muscle fibers

Smooth muscle

5 key points of information about muscles:

Origin


Insertion

Fiber course

Innervation

Action


Functional relationships among muscles:

Agonist


Antagonist

Synergist

Cartilage

Connective tissue

Tendon

Ligament


Aponeurosis

Fascia


Additional terms

Fasciculus

Commissure

Ipsilateral

Contralateral

Intrinsic

Extrinsic

Peripheral Nervous System Primer


Innervation: describe the fundamental principles of muscle innervation using the terminology in the following section:

Upper motor neurons vs. lower motor neurons (“final common pathway”)

Efferent vs. afferent nerve fibers (p. 288)

Motor unit

Lower motor neuron (p. 342)

Axon (pp. 348-349)

Neuromuscular (myoneural) junction (pp. 356-357)

Muscle fibers



Central vs. peripheral nervous systems (p. 282): differentiate between the central and peripheral nervous systems; state the primary components of each

Brainstem (pp. 317-323): identify and locate each of the following components of the brainstem

Midbrain

Pons


Medulla

Spinal cord (pp. 343-344): identify, locate, and state the significance of each of the following structures and terms relative to motor and sensory function

Spinal cord segments

Gray matter

White matter

Cranial nerves (pp. 319, 323-325): indicate the primary structures of the speech production mechanism to which the following cranial nerves provide motor and/or sensory innervation; locate the motor

nuclei of these cranial nerves:

Trigeminal (V) (pp. 327-332)

Facial (VII) (pp. 332-334)

Glossopharyngeal (IX) (335-336)

Vagus (X) (107; 337-338)

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

Superior laryngeal nerve

Accessory (XI) (pp. 338-339)

Hypoglossal (XII) (pp. 339-340)

Spinal nerves (pp. 344-345): identify each of the divisions of the spinal nerves and the number of nerves in each division; use standard nomenclature to identify specific spinal nerves; identify the location of the lower motor neurons for each spinal nerve:

Cervical: C1-C8

Thoracic: T1-T12

Lumbar: L1-L5

Sacral: S1-S5

Coccygeal: Cx

Planned volitional movement: Corticobulbar and corticospinal fibers (pp. 305-309)

Somatosensory input – receptor types (pp. 35, 108, 242)

Touch: light and deep

Pressure

Vibration

Muscle spindles (p. 329-330; Figure 6-25)

Joint receptors

Chemoreceptors
Fundamentals of Speech Production
Describe the main components of the speech production system (pp. 3-4).

Drive (power supply) – respiration

Source (vibrating elements) – phonation

Filter (valves and filters) – articulation and resonance

Source-filter theory of speech production (p. 429-433)

Describe the vocal tract. (p. 160, Figure 4-3; pp. 220-222, Figure 5-7)

Pharynx


Faucial isthmus (fauces) (p. 160)

Oral cavity

Oral vestibule

Buccal cavity

Nasal cavities

Describe the role of feedback systems in speech production.

Hearing


Tactile

Kinesthetic/Proprioceptive

Self-regulating system (servosystem): describe the speech production mechanism as a self-

regulating system.


Respiration
Anatomy of the respiratory system

Skeletal framework of the respiratory system: define, describe, and locate the following structures (pp. 9-10):

Thorax

Vertebral column



Cervical

Thoracic


Lumbar

Sacral (Sacrum)

Coccygeal (Coccyx)

Sternum


Manubrium

Corpus


Ensiform (xiphoid) process

Ribs


Costal cartilages

Rib cage joints (p. 20)

Costosternal joints

Costovertebral joints

Pectoral girdle

Clavicles

Scapulae

Diaphragm (p. 12)

Abdomen (p. 12)

Pelvic girdle

Sacral and coccygeal vertebrae

Ilium


Ischium

Pubis


Abdominal aponeurosis (p. 12)

Lumbodorsal fascia (p. 12)

Pulmonary system: define, describe, and locate each of the following structures:

Respiratory airways

Upper airways

Oral cavity

Nasal cavity

Pharynx


Larynx

Pulmonary (lower) airways (pp. 11-12)

Trachea

Tracheal rings

Main stem bronchi

Bifurcation (p. 60)

Lungs (p. 12)

Bronchial tree (arborization)

Lobar bronchii (p. 11)

Terminal bronchioles (p. 12)

Alveolar ducts (p. 12)

Alveoli (p. 12)

Visceral pleura (p. 12)

Parietal pleura (p. 12)

Serous fluid (p. 12)

Pleural linkage (p. 12)

Surface tension

Forces of respiration

Passive (p. 13)

Recoil of muscles, cartilages, ligaments, and lung tissue

Surface tension of the alveoli

Gravity

Expansion vs. contraction of the thorax relative to its resting position



Active (p. 13)

Muscular force


Respiratory musculature (pp. 13-20)

Primary muscles of inspiration: describe; locate; and state the origin, insertion, fiber course,

innervation and action of each of the following muscles

Diaphragm (p. 17)

External intercostals (pp. 15-16)

Secondary muscles of inspiration: describe; locate; and state the action of each of the following

muscles:

Sternocleidomastoid (p. 13-15)

Scalene muscles (p. 15)

Scalenus anterior

Scalenus medium

Scalenus posterior

Pectoralis major (p. 15)

Pectoralis minor (p. 15)

Subclavius (p. 15)

Serratus anterior (p. 15)

Transversus thoracis

Latissimus dorsi

Serratus posterior superior

Levatores costarum

Primary muscles of expiration: describe; locate; and state the origin, insertion, fiber course,

innervation, and action of each of the following muscles

Internal intercostals (p. 16)

Rectus abdominus (p. 17)

External oblique (p. 17)

Internal oblique (p. 17)

Transversus abdominus (p. 19)

Secondary muscles of expiration: describe; locate; and state the action of each of the following

muscles:

Transverse thoracis (p. 16)

Subcostals (p. 17)

Serratus posterior inferior (p. 16)

Quadratus lumborum (p. 17)

Latissimus dorsi (p. 16)


Physiology of normal respiration

Movements of the respiratory mechanism: describe the movements that may occur in the three components of the respiratory mechnism (pp. 20-27).

Rib cage

Diaphragm

Abdominal wall

Mechanical interplay: describe the interplay among the three components

Movement of air: describe the movement of air into and out of the lungs using the following terms and concepts to explain volume-pressure relationships (pp. 36-38)

Inspiration vs. Expiration

Respiratory pressures

Boyle’s Law

Atmospheric (Patm)

Intraoral (Po)

Subglottal (Psg)

Alveolar (Palv)

Intrapleural (Ppl)

Changing volumes – changing pressures

Resting expiratory level (REL) – resting lung volume: define and state the percent of vital capacity (see below) at which REL normally occurs.

Lung volumes (p. 28): define and state the average volume of each of the following:

Tidal volume (TV)

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

Residual volume (RV)

Lung capacities (p. 28): define and state the average volume of each of the following:

Vital capacity (VC)

Functional reserve (residual) capacity (FRC)

Inspiratory capacity (IC)

Total lung capacity (TLC)

Volume-pressure relationships

Define Relaxation pressure (Pr) (pp. 29-30):

Volume-pressure diagram (pp. 29-31): define and use to determine Palv at a given percent of VC

Relaxation-pressure curve (pp. 29-31): define and use to determine Palv at a given percent of VC

Tidal respiration (pp. 36-38): describe the tidal respiratory cycle

Rate of tidal respiration

Durations of inspiratory and expiratory phases

Volume of air exchanged per cycle

Forces involved in tidal respiration

Describe the relationships between Patm and Palv during inspiration and expiration.

Describe the expansion of the thorax and lungs during inspiration.

Muscular forces

Dimensions along which the thorax expands

“Pleural linkage”

Forces opposing the action of the inspiratory muscles

Describe the role of the nonmuscular forces of expiration.

Pr

Elasticity of the lungs and thorax



Untorquing of the costal cartilages

Gravity


Describe the effects of the various expiratory muscles.

Describe the relative contributions of the muscular and nonmuscular forces with respect to REL.


Physiology of respiration for speech production

Discuss respiration for a sustained utterance (pp. 38-43)

Aerodynamic events

State the average Palv required for speech.

Describe the patterns of Palv, airflow, and lung volume change during the production of a

steady utterance.

Respiratory forces

Describe the relationships between REL, Palv, and Patm.

List the factors which determine the muscular pressure (Pmus) required at any given

moment during sustained phonation.

Discuss the determination of net inspiratory or expiratory forces with respect to Pr and the

required Palv.

Discuss the relative contributrions of Pr and Pmus to the generation of a given Palv with

respect to vital capacity and REL.

Determine the Pmus (including sign) required to genearate a given Palv from a diagram

depicting Palv and Pmus relative to loudness.

Muscular activity

Describe the role of the following muscles in speech production:

Diaphragm

Abdominal hydraulic: define and state the function

External intercostals

Internal intercostals

Abdominal muscles

Mechanical tuning (p. 46)

Define “braking (checking) action”: discuss its role in speech production with respect to Palv

` and Pr and cite the muscles primarily responsible (p. 41 ).

Running speech: discuss the volume, pressure, and muscular aspects of running speech (pp. 43-46)

Aerodynamic events

Describe the differences in the relative lengths of the inspiratory and expiratory phases of

respiration between tidal breathing and running speech.

Discuss the influences of utterance (breath group) length and loudness on the range of lung

volumes used, the durations of the inspiratory and expiratory phases of respiration, Pr, and

Pmus.

Respiratory forces



Discuss the roles of the nonmuscular and muscular forces of respiration in running speech.

Discuss the role of pulsatile changes in Pmus including the mechanisms by which these

changes can be achieved.

Frequency requirements: Discuss alternations in respiratory rate relative to speech production.

Body position and speech breathing (pp. 47-53)

Describe the effects of supine body position on REL and Pr.

Describe the adjustments in inspiratory and expiratory muscular effort (Pmus) to produce a steady

utterance in supine.

Speech breathing and respiratory “drive” (pp. 53-55)

Describe the adjustments in speech breathing under “high drive” conditions.

Cognitive-linguistic influences in speech breathing (pp. 55-56)

Describe the influences of breath group length, grammatical structure, and cognitive-linguistic

formulation on speech breathing.

Development and speech breathing, birth to 16 years of age (pp. 57-59)

Effects of aging on speech breathing (p. 59)

Measuring respiratory volumes, pressures, air flow rates, and muscle activity: describe the role of each of the following instruments in measuring respiratory variables important for speech production: (pp. 59-63)

Wet spirometer

Pneumotachometer

Pressure transducer

Respiratory magnetometers

Inductance plethysmograph

Esophageal balloon

Electromyography (EMG)
Phonation
The Phonatory Mechanism

Define phonation.

Larynx: describe, locate, and state the functions of the larynx (p. 109).

Laryngeal cartilages (pp. 75-78): describe and locate the cartilages and the component

parts of each cartilage as listed below:

Cricoid cartilage

Lamina


Arch

Cricoarytenoid articulator facets

Cricothyroid articulator facets

Thyroid cartilage

Lamina

Angle


Notch

Laryngeal prominence

Oblique line

Superior cornua

Inferior cornua

Cricothyroid articulator facets

Arytenoid cartilages

Vocal process

Muscular process

Apex


Superior fossa

Inferior fossa

Cricoarytenoid articulator facets

Corniculate cartilages

Cuneiform cartilages (p. 83)

Epiglottis



Hyoid bone (pp. 78-80): describe and locate the hyoid bone and its prominent components

Body


Greater (major) cornua

Lesser (minor) cornua



Laryngeal joints (pp. 80-83): state the cartilages involved, their points of articulation, the ligaments

holding the joints together, and the directions and ranges of motion permitted by the joint.

Cricothyroid joints (pp. 80-81; Fig. 3-7)

Anterior ceratocricoid ligaments

Lateral ceratocricoid ligaments

Posterior ceratocricoid ligaments

Cricoarytenoid joints (p. 82; p. 86, Fig. 3-9)

Anterior cricoarytenoid ligaments

Posterior cricoarytenoid ligaments

Cavities of the larynx (pp. 83-86): describe and locate the following cavities of the larynx.

Laryngeal aditus

Vestibule

Ventricle

Glottis

Cartilaginous portion



Membranous portion

Subglottal space


Ligaments and membranes of the larynx: describe, locate, and state the function of a given

ligament or membrane (pp. 86-88).

Intrinsic

Aryepiglottic folds (p. 83)

Conus elasticus

Middle (medial) cricothyroid ligament

Lateral cricothyroid membrane

Vocal ligaments

Vocal folds (pp. 83-85)

Layers of the Vocal Folds

Squamous epithelium

Superficial lamina propria

Vocal ligament

Intermediate lamina propria

Deep lamina propria

Vocalis muscle

Thyroarytenoid muscle (Thyromuscularis)

Quadrangular membrane

Ventricular folds (“ false vocal folds”) (p. 85)

Ventricular ligaments

Thyroepiglottic ligament

Extrinsic

Cricotracheal ligament

Hyoepiglottic ligament

Hyothyroid (thyrohyoid) membrane

Middle hyothyroid ligament

Lateral hyothyroid ligaments
Laryngeal musculature: state the origin, insertion, innervation, fiber course, and action of each of

the following muscles:

Intrinsic laryngeal muscles (pp. 88-93)

Thyroarytenoid

Vocalis (thyrovocalis)

Thyromuscularis

Posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA)

Lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA)

Interarytenoid

Transverse arytenoid

Oblique arytenoid

Aryepiglottic

Cricothyroid

Extrinsic laryngeal muscles (pp.93-96)

Direct insertion

Sternothyroid

Thyrohyoid

Infrahyoid

Sternohyoid

Omohyoid


Posterior (lower) belly

Anterior (upper) belly

Suprahyoid

Digastricus

Anterior belly

Posterior belly

Stylohyoid

Mylohyoid

Geniohyoid
Movements of the laryngeal apparatus: describe the movements of the following components of the laryngeal apparatus and of the larynx as a whole (pp. 96-102)

Vocal folds (pp. 97-101)

Abduction

Adduction

Lengthening/shortening

Ventricular folds (pp. 97, 101)

Epiglottis (pp. 97, 101)

Laryngeal housing (pp. 97, 101-102)



Laryngeal sound production

Describe the production of transient sounds (e.g., cough, throat clearing, glottal stop-plosive) at the level of the glottis (pp. 109-110).

Describe the production of sustained turbulent sound at the level of the glottis: /h/; whisper. (pp.

111-112; whisper: p. 105, Fig. 3-32, panel D).

Describe the production of voice by vibration of the vocal folds.

Mechanics of vocal fold vibration (pp. 112-115)

Describe the vibratory cycle of the vocal folds in terms of a traveling wave.

Vertical phase difference (p. 113)

Define the following terms relative to the vocal fold vibratory cycle (p. 416-419):

Glottal area function (Ag)

Opening phase

Closing phase

Closed phase

Glottal air flow (\dot vg)

Significance of the \dot vg waveform

Periodicity

Ratio of open (Opening phase + closed phase) to closed phase(s)

Discuss the aerodynamic-myoelastic theory of vocal fold vibration including each

of the following:

Vocal fold adduction

Medial compression of the vocal folds (laryngeal opposing pressure)(pp. 102-103)

Glottal resistance (Rg)

Trachael (subglottal) pressure (Psg)

Transglottal pressure differential

Intraglottal pressure

Mechanical coupling stiffness

Elasticity of the vocal folds

Bernoulli effect

Initiation of Voice – vocal attack (pp. 115-117)

Describe the roles of vocal fold adduction, medial compression, and tracheal pressure in the

onset of voice production.

Describe the timing relationships between vocal fold adduction and release of expiratory airflow

in the following types of vocal attack:

Simultaneous vocal attack

Hard vocal attack (Glottal attack, coup de glotte)

Breath vocal attack

Glottal source spectrum

Describe the acoustic characteristics of the glottal source spectrum, including the following:

Fundamental frequency (F0) (pp. 117, 419-420)

Harmonics (pp. 117, 419-420)

Intensity roll-off (p. 420)

Quasiperiodic (p. 420)

State the significance of the closing phase waveform (pp. 421-423).

Regulation of vocal fundamental frequency (pp. 117-120)

State the average range of F0s that can be produced by a young adult.

Describe the changes in the shape (mass) of the vocal folds that accompany changes in F0.

Discuss the role of vocal fold tension (stiffness) in the regulation of F0 and the mechanism by

which it can be modified. Include the following in your discussion:

Cricothyroid muscle

Thyroarytenoid muscles

Vocalis muscles

Thyromuscularis

Vertical larynx position: describe the impact on the vocal folds.

Thyrohyoid muscle

Sternothyroid muscle

Regulation of vocal intensity (sound pressure level) (pp. 120-122)

State the typical range of vocal intensity (SPL) that can be produced by a young adult.

Discuss the mechanisms underlying the regulation of vocal intensity with respect to F0. Include

the following in your discussion:

Medial compression

Glottal resistance (Rg)

Trachael pressure (Psg)

Closed vs. open phase of the vocal fold vibratory cycle

Expiratory muscles

Upper airway influences

State the changes in the opening, closing, and closed phases of the vocal fold vibratory cycle

associated with increasing vocal intensity.

Voice registers: describe the frequency characteristics and the vocal fold configuration and

vibratory characteristics of each of the following (pp. 123-125):

Modal register

Loft register (falsetto)

Pulse (vocal or glottal fry)

Describe the following during running speech:

Fundamental frequency (p. 126)

Vocal intensity (sound pressure level) (p. 127)

Glottal source spectrum (pp. 1270128)

Laryngeal articulation

Describe the position of the arytenoid cartilages and the state of the glottis for each of the

following classes of phonemes:

Vowels


Voiced fricatives

Voiceless fricatives

Voiced plosives

Aspirated, voiceless plosives

Describe the activity of the posterior cricoarytenoid, lateral cricoarytenoid, interarytenoid, and

vocalis muscles for each of the following classes of phonemes:

Voiceless consonants

Voiced consonants

Vowels

State the approximate mean F0 for adult male and female speakers.



Laryngeal structure and function differences with respect to age and sex (pp. 128-134)

Describe the changes in laryngeal structure that occur from infancy through old age.

Describe typical changes in F0 and voice quality during puberty and with advancing age.

Describe the following methods for examining laryngeal function (pp. 134-)

Endoscopy

Electroglottography



Velopharyngeal Function and Resonance
Anatomy of the Velopharyngeal and Nasal apparatus
Bones of the cranium and and face: describe and locate each of the following bones (pp. 157-):

Cranium


Frontal

Temporal


Mastoid process

Styloid process

Mandibular fossa

Parietal


Occipital

Ethmoid


Sphenoid

Hamulus


Face

Maxilla


Palatine bones

Zygomatic

Nasal bones

Vomer


Pharynx:

Describe the location and shape of the pharynx and the composition of the pharyngeal walls (p.

159).

Pharyngeal lumen



Pharyngeal aponeurosis

Describe and locate each of the following sections of the pharynx (pp. 159-161).

Laryngopharynx

Oropharynx

Nasopharynx

Describe the movements of the pharyngeal walls (pp. 172, 234, 235).

Fauces/faucial isthmus (p. 160)

Velum: describe the shape and composition of the velum and locate it and the following related structures (p. 161).

Anterior faucial pillar

Posterior faucial pillar

Uvula

Velar arches



Velopharyngeal port

Describe the movements of the velum (pp. 172-173).


Hard palate

Palatine processes of the maxilla

Palatine bones

Nasal cavities: describe and locate the nasal cavities and related structures (p. 162)

Nasal choanae (posterior/interior nares) (p. 160)

Nasal septum

Cartilage

Ethmoid bone

Vomer

Nasal conchae (turbinates)



Superior

Middle


Inferior

Nasal vestibule

Outer nose: describe and locate the parts of the nose (pp. 162-163).

Bridge


Apex

Alae


Septum

Anterior nares


Muscles of the pharynx: locate; identify; and state the origin, insertion, fiber course, innervation, and action of each of the following muscles (pp. 164-166):

Superior constrictor

Middle constrictor

Inferior constrictor

Salpingopharyngeus

Stylopharyngeus

Palatopharyngeus

Muscles of the velum: locate; identify; and state the origin, insertion, fiber course, innervation, and action of each of the following muscles (pp. 167-171):

Palatal levator (levator veli palatini)

Palatal tensor (tensor veli palatine)

Uvulus

Glossopalatine



Pharyngopalatine

Movements of the Pharynx and Velum: describe the movements of the pharynx, including the muscles and passive forces that effect these movements (pp. 172-173)

Coupling of the Oral and Nasal Cavities – Velopharyngeal closure: describe the opening and closing of the velopharyngeal port, including the range of openings and the muscular and passive forces that produce these various degrees of opening (pp. 173-175).

Velar elevation

Lateral and posterior pharyngeal walls

Variability of movement patterns to achieve velopharyngeal closure

Anatomical influences

Intra-person variability

“Coordinative system”

Velopharyngeal-Nasal function during Speech Production

Sustained Vowels and Consonants: describe the differences in velar height, velopharyngeal

closure, and relevant muscle activity for each of the following: (pp. 184-187)

High vs. Low vowels

Oral vs. nasal consonants

Running speech: describe velopharyngeal function in running speech (pp. 181-188).

Pressure consonants

Nasal assimilation/Nasalization (pp. 461-465)

Describe the influences of body position and gravity on velopharyngeal closure (pp. 188-190).

Describe the acoustic consequences of an open velopharyngeal port (pp. 178-170, 457-461).

Nasal murmurs

Antiresonances

Measurement of velopharyngeal function: describe each of the following measurements of velopharyngeal function and their significance relative to speech production (pp. 196-200):

Direct visualization

X-ray imaging

Aeromechanical methods

Nasal airflow

Pressure-flow recordings

Acoustic observations

Sound spectrography

Nasalance (not exactly)

Embryologic development of the facial region and palate

Identify the 3 layers of embryologic tissue

Ectoderm

Mesoderm


Endoderm

Describe the three key processes of embryonic development:

Cell differentiation

Cell proliferation

Cell migration

Identify the primary structures that develop from each of the following:

Mandibular or first branchial arch

Hyoid or second branchial arch

Third branchial arch

Fourth and fifth branchial arches

Describe the development of the oral region during the third to tenth weeks of gestation,

including the following:

Stomodeum

Frontal processes

Maxillary processes

Nasal pits

Globular processes

Mandibular arch

Primary palate

Secondary palate

Philtrum

Tongue


Palatine processes

Premaxilla

Mesoderm penetration

Medial nasal process

Lateral nasal process
Pharyngeal-Oral Function and Speech Articulation
Define speech articulation in terms of sound generation and filtering (p. 243).

Structure of the Pharyngeal-Oral Apparatus: define and locate each of the following (pp. 215-222):

Maxilla


Palatine Processes

Alveolar arch (process)

Mandible

Arch


Ramus

Condyle (Condylar process)

Coronoid process

Temporomandibular joints (TMJ): describe the structure and the following components of the

TMJ. Describe the functional significance of each of the components. (pp. 218-219)

Mandibular fossa

Ligaments of the TMJ: describe the location and the functional significance form movement of

the mandible of each ligament (p. 218)

Temporomandibular ligament

Sphenomandibular ligament

Stylomandibular ligament

Movements of the mandible: describe the three main directions of movement of the

mandible (pp. 218-220, 234, 235-236)

Teeth: state the number and location of each of the following subsets of the permanent teeth Central incisors

Lateral incisors

Cuspids


Bicuspids

Molars


Deciduous teeth

Hard palate: describe and locate each of the following:

Maxilla

Palatine bones



Alveolar ridge

Midline raphe

Incisive foramen

Premaxilla

Rugae

Soft palate: describe and locate each of the following:



Velum

Uvula


Tongue: describe and locate each of the following: (p. 221)

Tip


Blade

Dorsum


Root

Body


Lingual frenulum

Lips: describe and locate each of the following:

Vermilion border

Philtrum


Columella

Angle of the mouth

Oral cavity: state the boundaries of the oral cavity (p. 221)

Oral vestibule (p. 221)

Buccal cavity: state the boundaries of the buccal cavity (p. 222)

Mucosal coverings (p. 222)



Muscles of articulation: state the location, origin, insertion, fiber course, innervation, and action of each of the following muscles:

Mandible (pp. 223-225)

Elevators

Masseter


Temporalis

Internal pterygoid

Depressors

External Pterygoid

Digastric

Mylohyoid

Geniohyoid

Tongue (pp. 226-229)

Intrinsic

Superior longitudinal

Inferior longitudinal

Vertical


Transverse

Extrinsic

Styloglossus

Palatoglossus (glossopalatine)

Hyoglossus

Genioglossus

Lips (pp. 229-232): state the location, origin, insertion, fiber course, innervation, and action of each

of the following muscles:

Orbicularis oris

Buccinator

Risorius

Mentalis


State the location and action of each of the following muscles:

Levator labii superioris

Levator labii superioris aleque nasi

Zygomatic major

Zygomatic minor

Depressor labii inferioris

Levator anguli oris

Depressor anguli oris (triangularis)

Incisivus labii superioris

Incisivus labii inferoris

Platysma
Movements of the articulators/Oral Pharyngeal Apparatus: describe the primary movements of each of the following structures (pp. 234-240):

Pharynx


Mandible

Tongue


Lips

Articulatory phonetics [The Speech Production Code]: state the place, manner, and voicing characteristics of each of the phonemes of English (pp. 243-247).

Vowels


Place of major constriction of the vocal tract: front, central, back

Degree of major constriction: high, mid, low

Lip rounding

Diphthongs

Consonants

Manner of articulation: stop-plosive, fricative, affricate, nasal, semivowel, lateral

Place of articulation: (bi)labial, labiodental, (inter)dental, alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal

Voicing


Cognates

Describe, locate, and state the function of each articulator in the production of various phonemes of English.

State the likely primary muscle(s) for achieving each place of articulation.

Speech production stream: describe the nature of the speech production stream and the implications for articulatory phonetics (pp. 247-248).

Coarticulation: describe coarticulation and the different forms it may take (pp. 248-253).

Velopharyngeal closure (pp. 187-188)

Feature spreading

Forward coarticulation

Right-to-left coarticulation

Backward coarticulation

Left-right coarticulation

Anticipatory coarticulation

“Look-ahead operator”

Carryover coarticulation

Articulatory phonology – Gesture theory: describe how articulatory phonology differs from the

traditional theory of feature spreading in explaining coarticulation/coproduction.



Aeromechanical Characteristics of the Vocal Tract: describe how the aeromechanical characteristics of the vocal tract shape the sounds of English (pp. 423-429)

Vocal tract as a tube resonator closed at one end

Vocal tract configurations: constrictions

Area function of the vocal tract

Input spectrum

Filter function

Output spectrum

Describe the vocal tract configurations/adjustments that produce each of the following types of phonemes:

Vowels: (pp. 434-453)

Formant frequencies: define and describe their significance for vowel production

Vocal tract adjustments: describe the impacts of changes in each of the following features of

vowels on vowel formant patterns (F pattern)

Tongue height (pp. 443-444)

Tongue advancement (p. 444)

Configuration of the lips (pp. 444-446)

State the three Stevens and House rules and their significance for vowel production. (p. 447)

Consonants: describe the aeromechanical adjustments that produce each of the following types

of consonants: (pp. 455-488); define the relevant terms under each consonant and state their

significance for consonant production.

Nasals (murmurs) (pp. 456-461)

Nasalization (pp. 461-462)

Lateral sounds (pp. 465-467)

Fricatives (pp. 467-475)

Laminar air flow

Turbulence

Stop-plosives (pp. 478-487)

Closure (silent) interval

Release (burst) interval

Frication interval

Aspiration interval

Voice onset time (VOT): describe and state the general differences in VOT between voiced

and voiceless plosives.\

Affricates

Describe the following methods for examining speech articulation (pp. 260-267):

x-ray imaging

Strain guage

x-ray microbeam

Electromagnetic imaging

Electropalatography

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Ultrasonic imaging

Air pressure transducer

Pneumotachometer

Sound spectrography
Deglutition (Swallowing)
Anatomy of swallowing
Describe the following structures involved in swallowing (pp. 625-626)

Lips


Oral cavity

Tongue


Mandible

Teeth


Velum

Pharynx


Epiglottis

Epiglottic valleculae

Pyriform sinuses

Esophagus

State the location and length (in adults) of the esophagus.

Describe the muscular composition over the length of the esophagus.

Upper esophageal sphincter: state its location and function.

Cricopharyngeus muscle

Lower esophageal sphincter: state its location and function.

Stomach: state its location and composition.

Pyloric sphincter

Forces and Movements of Swallowing (pp. 727-

Define bolus (p. 627)

State the four phases of swallowing:

Oral preparatory phase

Oral transport (transit) phase

Pharyngeal transport phase

Esophageal transport phase

Describe the pressure relationships along the “swallowing tract,” including the following (pp. 627-628):

Oral cavity

Upper esophageal sphincter

Esophagus

Lower esophageal sphincter

Stomach

State the passive forces that contribute to swallowing (p. 627)



Connective tissue recoil

Surface tension

Gravity

Aeromechanical



Describe the movements, the muscles involved in producing the movements, and the average duration of each of the four phases of swallowing (pp. 628-633).

Oral preparatory phase

Oral transport (transit) phase

Pharyngeal transport phase

Swallow reflex

Closure of the larynx

Elevation of the hyolaryngeal complex

Cricopharyngeus muscle

Esophageal transport phase

Describe the relationships between breathing and swallowing (pp. 633-634).

Apneic interval

REL


Neural control of swallowing (pp. 635-637)
Describe the differences in swallowing movements relative to bolus consistency (liquid, puree, solid) and volume (pp. 637-638).

Describe the influences of the following factors on swallowing:

Single vs. sequential swallows (pp. 639-640)

Cued vs. uncued swallows (p. 640)

Body position (p. 640)

Describe the development of swallowing from birth to age two (pp. 641-642).

Describe the effects of aging on swallowing (p. 642).

Describe the following methods for examining swallowing (pp. 642-646):

Videofluoroscopy

Endoscopy

Ultrasonography

Manometry





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