Combination Report Einstein Robot



Download 10.84 Mb.
Page1/41
Date conversion08.07.2018
Size10.84 Mb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   41
Combination Report

Einstein Robot

(formally Bohr Robot)

2009 - 2015


Index

2009 ……………………………………………2

2010……………………………………………83

2015…………………………………………100





Final Report ECE578

Group 1

Fall Semester 2009



Authors: 

David Gaskin(d.b.gaskin@gmail.com)

Nathan Makowski(nathan.makowski@gmail.com)

Caroline Stepnowski(kestpur@comcast.net)

Roger Bingham(roger.bingham@gmail.com)

Matt Blackmore(blackmom@pdx.edu)

Shaun Ochsner(scochsner@gmail.com)

Jacob Furniss(jacob.furniss@gmail.com).


Table of Contents

1 Problem Description..............................................................................4 1.1 Introduction...........................................................................4

1.2 Description by Module............................................................4

1.2.1 Head.......................................................................4

1.2.2 Base........................................................................4

1.2.3 Arm........................................................................4

1.3 Global Description..................................................................4

2 Hardware Technical Documentation.......................................................5

2.1 Head......................................................................................5

2.1.1 Components and Subsystems...................................5

2.1.1.1 Servos.................................................................5 2.1.1.2 Communication.....................................................5

2.1.2 Assembly.................................................................6

2.1.3 Advice.....................................................................8

2.2 Base......................................................................................9

2.2.1 Hardware introduction.......................................................9 2.2.2 Components and Subsystems.....................................9

2.2.3 Ordering and Documentation..................................10

2.2.4 Assembly................................................................10

2.2.4.1 Base Assembly........................................10

2.2.4.2 Control System.......................................14

2.2.5 Technical Trouble/Troubleshooting.......................15

2.2.6 Advice...................................................................15

2.3 Arm.....................................................................................15

2.3.1 Hardware introduction............................................15

2.3.2 Mechanical Design and Components.......................15

2.3.3 Electrical Design and Components.........................17

2.3.4 System Modeling....................................................19

2.3.5 Performance...........................................................21

3 Software Technical Documentation.......................................................21

3.1 RobotC Setup.......................................................................21

3.2 NXT Brick Setup.................................................................23

3.2.1 Technical Problems and Troubleshooting................24

3.3 Code.....................................................................................24

3.3.1 Base code..............................................................24

3.3.1.1 Trouble Shooting....................................26


3.3.1.2 NXT HID Device.................................26

3.3.1.2.1 Code Setup.............................27

3.3.1.1.2 Trouble Shooting....................32


3.3.2 Arm Software.........................................................32

3.3.3 Head Code............................................................34

3.3.4 Complete Code......................................................37

4. Group interaction ...............................................................................38

5. Knowledge to be carried over to ECE479/579......................................38

6. To-Do.................................................................................................40

6.1 Base "To-Do" List.................................................................40

6.2 Head "To-Do" List................................................................41

6.3 Arm "To-Do" List................................................................42

7 Head Appendix ...................................................................................44

8 Base Appendix ....................................................................................46

9 Arm Appendix.....................................................................................79


1 Problem Description

1.1 Introduction


This paper describes the robotics project for ECE 578 during the fall of 2009 for Group 1. We explored technologies that would allow us to create a versatile robot, suitable for office, home, and social environments. The robot was to have a human like head and hand, an arm, and a base. Each of the modules of this project were to take consideration for future additions to the project, and create firm foundation that could be built on by future students. The goal of this semester, was to create a robot that could interact socially with humans, and follow instructions for navigation and arm use.
1.2 Description by Module

1.2.1 Head


The head portion of this project had several objectives. Their goals were to retrofit the current lion head structure and create a human-form robot head, attach a Niels Bohr latex face mask to the structure, animate the mask to produce believable emotions, allow for future additions of emotions, and make the head robust enough to be used by future students. This paper will delve into the design decisions made, the problems encountered, and the solutions that were found.
This report will give in detail the initial development of a robot face that can interact with humans though the imitation of two emotions: happy and sad. These emotions are intended to be conveyed through facial expression, artificial emotions, sounds , and personality. As the entire development can and will take several months to fully

develop
1.2.2 Base


The base team was responsible for creating a mobile base platform that could transport the arm, head and everything needed to allow it to operate wirelessly. It needed to transport them in such a way that the robot would be able to grab objects with the human-like hand, and display emotions with the human-like head. These objectives had to be accomplished wirelessly, and allow all the modules to communicate.

In this paper, we will outline the technical specifications of the mobile base. These specifications will include the hardware needed to make it mobile, communicate wirelessly, and communicate with other groups. The software specifications will also show how we used RobotC to implement a control and communication system on the robot.


1.2.3 Arm
This paper will detail the design and development of the arm and hand assembly. The arm and hand, henceforth referred to as arm, were designed to meet the following requirements. First, it must have the ability to grasp an object and place it in a different location. Second, it must be similar in scale to that of a human arm and be able to reproduce similar motions. The final design was made with standard components, such that it could be easily reproduced and mirrored to create left and right versions. Finally, the arm should be easily mounted to the mobile base.

1.3 Global Description


The target audience of this paper are the future students of ECE478/578. By reading the contents of this document, Individuals should be able reproduce what we have done, and have a firm understanding of this project. Our goal is for students to be able to understand this project so that they will be able to build onto it in the future.
2 Hardware Technical Documentation

2.1 Head


2.1.1 Components and Subsystems
The existing robot head (a lion head) from a previous class was modified to be fitted with new controllers and some additional servos to act as a human-form head for robot-human interaction. The head had appropriate control attachments added to the existing servos and new servos were added to control eyebrows, mouth-corners, and mouth-opening. A Latex mask modelling the physicist Niels Bohr was attached to the head using Velcro pads which facilitated installation, removal, and re-positioning of the mask as required without damage to the delicate latex material. Emotional control was implemented using the ESRA-style controller and VSA software. The movement sequences were saved to disk and were invoked via command-line calls to batch files. The resulting motions included sound and created two emotional states for the robot head, 'happy' and 'sad'.
2.1.1.1 Servos

Our goal for servo control was to:



  • Allow a minimum of 12 servos to be controlled

  • Allow synchronization between audio sounds and motion

  • Allow a simplified control and programming scheme to interactively adjust servo settings until desired facial expression is achieved.

The controllers which met all of the criteria and were used to control the servos are the Mini-SSC II serial servo controller by Scott Edwards Electronics, Inc. (www.seetron.com) These are the same controllers used by the ESRA robot and are very popular because of the low cost ($44.00 each at time of purchase), small size, and ease of use. Each controller is capable of controlling 8 servos and two controllers can be daisy-chained on one serial communications port for a total of 16 servo control channels.
The controller requires two power sources.

  • 9 Volts (transistor type battery with snap-on connectors) used to power the microcontroller

  • 5 Volts (depending on servo requirements). If the servo specifications have a high enough rating, the power for the servos may be supplied by a 6 volt lantern battery or even a 7.2 volt rechargeable battery pack. We chose to use a lantern battery as all of our servos allowed for a higher voltage rating, but for bench testing, we used a plug-in 5 Volt, 3 Ampere power supply. In-use measurements showed that the draw from 12 servos, on average, was only a few hundred milliamperes.

We connected two controllers together as per the instructions that came with the controller. This required a jumper wire pair between the 'serial in' jumpers on one board and the 'serial in' jumpers on the other board. The address of the board was then changed by placing a shorting jumper on pins I (identification) which allowed the second board to address servos 8-15 while the first board addressed servos 0-7.
The power wires for the 9 volt supply were attached together (red to red and black to black) to allow a single 9 Volt battery to supply power to both boards. Similarly, the servo power was connected together (again red to red and black to black) to allow a single source for servo power.
2.1.1.2 Communication

Communication with the controller from the computer requires a serial port capable of 2400 baud or (better yet) 9600 baud rate. The higher 9600 baud rate will allow for smoother control of motion as the command transfer time is shorter and therefore successive control of the attached servos is achieved in more rapid succession.


We had a laptop for control which did not have any serial ports (they have quickly become the exception rather than the norm on new computer equipment). We purchased and used a USB to serial adapter which we found readily available at most computer shops. The adapter carried no brand name and was about $13.00 at the time of purchase. The drivers for the adapter came with the adapter and installed smoothly on Windows XP.
The installed communications (COM) port installed as COM1 on the laptop we were using. The port number was found by looking in 'device manager' (figure 2-1) and expanding the listing 'Ports (COM & LPT) and finding it listed as 'Communications Port (COM1)'. The port number will have to be known to set up the software to communicate with the hardware.

2.1.2 Assembly


The Bohr mask was slowly and painstakingly attached to a wooden base (Figure 2-2). The mask was attached using Velcro fasteners, so that it could be easily removed and/or adjusted. The attachment of the servos to each of the mask locations was difficult and more like an art than a science at this point, though if a skull is built up much like is done for identification recovery of old skulls it might be possible to change that.
One of the issues with attaching the Bohr mask properly for emotional movement, is working out how the servos actuator arms need to be attached to the mask, and how those arms need to be moved so that the mask moves in the proper direction rather than just in and out – which was a problem with the eyebrow motion.


The eyebrow line of the mask did not have good support and made it difficult to achieve good eyebrow movement. We ended up having to attach an extra wood extension out at the brow line for better positioning of control lines and support of the brow area. We also ended up having to make a mounting system for mouth-corner movements which would have dual Velcro dots that moved the corners of the mouth in a slightly twisting fashion to achieve subtle effects in mouth shape which was found (by observation) to be very important in imparting meaning to an emotional state.


Another issue with attaching the mask was the release of the adhesive tape from the mask after repeated removals. As work progressed with mask placement, it was required to place and remove the mask many times and the adhesive tape on the back of the Velcro dots tended to separate after many of these operations. This made things very difficult as any change in placement of the Velcro resulted in drastically different or ineffective mask movements. It was decided that we would try contact cement as it has a flexible nature which would fit well with mask movement requirements and yet adhere strongly.

  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   41


The database is protected by copyright ©dentisty.org 2016
send message

    Main page