Columns: minireviews bone mineral density in cone beam computed tomography: Only a few shades of gray



Download 127.65 Kb.
Date conversion22.11.2016
Size127.65 Kb.


Name of journal: Word Journal of Radiology

ESPS Manuscript NO: 8409

Columns: MINIREVIEWS
Bone mineral density in cone beam computed tomography: Only a few shades of gray
Campos MJS et al. Determination of mineral density in CBCT
Marcio José da Silva Campos, Thainara Salgueiro de Souza, Sérgio Luiz Mota Júnior, Marcelo Reis Fraga, Robert Willer Farinazzo Vitral
Marcio José da Silva Campos, Thainara Salgueiro de Souza, Sérgio Luiz Mota Júnior, Marcelo Reis Fraga, Robert Willer Farinazzo Vitral, Department of Orthodontics, Juiz de Fora Federal University, 36036-900, Minas Gerais, Brasil
Author contributions: Campos MJS and Souza TS contributed equally to this work, drafted and wrote the manuscript; Mota Júnior SL and Fraga MR revised the manuscript; Campos MJS and Vitral RWF were responsible for final approval of the version to be published.
Correspondence to: Robert Willer Farinazzo Vitral, DDS, MD, PhD, Professor and Chair of Orthodontics, Department of Orthodontics, Juiz de Fora Federal University, Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Minas Gerais, Brasil. robertvitral@gmail.com
Telephone: +55-32-21023879 Fax: +55-32-21023879
Received: December 27, 2013 Revised: March 11, 2014

Accepted: April 25, 2014

Published online:
Abstract

Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been often used to determine the quality of craniofacial bone structures through the determination of mineral density, which is based on gray scales of the images obtained. However, there is no consensus regarding the accuracy of the determination of the gray scales in those exams. This study aims at making a literature review concerning the reliability of CBCT to determine bone mineral density. The gray values obtained with CBCT show a linear relationship with the attenuation coefficients of the materials, HU values obtained with medical computed tomography (CT), and density values from dual energy X-ray absorciometry (DEXA). However, errors are expected when CBCT images are used to define the quality of the scanned structures because these images show inconsistencies and arbitrariness in the gray values, particularly when related to: abrupt change in the density of the object, X-ray beam hardening effect, scattered radiation, projection data discontinuity-related effect, differences between CBCT devices, changes in the volume of the field of view (FOV), and changes of the relationships of size and position between the FOV and the object evaluated. A few methods of mathematical correction of the gray scales in CBCT have been proposed, however, they do not generate consistent values that are independent of the devices and their configurations or of the scanned objects. Thus, CBCT should not be considered the examination of choice for the determination of bone and soft tissue mineral density at the current stage, particularly when values obtained are to be compared to predetermined standard values. Comparisons between symmetrically positioned structures inside the FOV and in relation to the exomass of the object, as it occurs with the right and left sides of the skull, seem to be viable because the effects on the gray scale in the regions of interest are the same.


© 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved.
Key words: Tomography; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Bone mineral density; Reproducibility of results
Core tip: The development of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) allowed more frequent use of these images in dentistry for the evaluation of dentomaxillofacial structures. Yet, there is no consensus regarding the accuracy of CBCT to determine mineral density of craniofacial bone structures, although this technique has been used for this purpose in several types of analyses. According to the studies available to date, it may be concluded that CBCT should not be considered as the examination of choice for the determination of mineral density of osseous and soft tissues, especially when values obtained should be compared with predetermined standard values.
Campos MJS, Souza TS, Mota Júnior SL, Fraga MR, Vitral RWF. Bone mineral density in cone beam computed tomography: Only a few shades of gray.

Available from:

DOI:
INTRODUCTION

Bidimensional radiographic methods (periapical, occlusal, panoramic and cephalometric radiographs) are widely used in dentistry, however, they do not provide visualization of the regions of interest without the superimposition of structures and consequent camouflage of anatomic details. The advent of images acquired from computed tomography (CT) made possible more precise quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the adjacent structures[1,2].

Although the use of CT is routine in medical practice, this examination has not been extensively widespread in dentistry, especially owing to the presence of image artifacts, high cost, complexity of the examination and high dose radiation[3].

The development of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), which is addressed to the evaluation of dentomaxillofacial structures, allowed more frequent use of these images in dentistry because it is a less complex device that produces images with satisfactory resolution, with little artifact incidence and lower dose of radiation[4].

Multislice and cone beam CT images are frequently used to determine mineral density of craniofacial bone structures[5-10]. Yet, there is no consensus regarding the accuracy of CBCT for this type of analysis. While some studies advocate its use[10-15], others advocate that CBCT is not an adequate tool for this type of evaluation because the intensity values of CBCT are influenced by the characteristics of the system[4,13,16] and by the scanned object[16-18]. This study aims at making a literature review concerning the reliability of CBCT for the determination of bone mineral density of craniofacial structures.
BONE MINERAL DENSITY

Mineral density is determined by the amount of mineral mass contained in a certain volume of a structure, being described in units of mass per area (in bidimensional images) or per volume (in tridimensional images), where only mineral content is considered[19]. Several methods may be used to determine bone mineral density, including digital image analysis of microradiographs, single photon absorciometry (SPA), dual photon absorciometry (DPA), dual energy X-ray absorciometry (DEXA), and quantitative ultrasound[20-22]. However, these procedures present limitations inherent to the techniques used, because density is determined through images of superimposed structures, not producing tridimensional information[23,24].

Nowadays, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) is one of the most useful medical imaging techniques for the acquisition of data regarding not only bone density, but the density of all the tissues of the body. In these examinations, density is described in Hounsfield Units (HU) and represents the relative density of a body tissue according to a calibrated gray-level scale based on HU values of the air (- 1000 HU), water (0HU), and dense bone (+ 1000HU)[25]. HU values are directly related with the mass absorption coefficient of different tissues[26], and despite some variation[27], these values may be used for the determination of density of the tissues with high degree of accuracy[10] and sensitivity, detecting density differences of 1% or less[28]. However, the gray scale can vary between different scanners and with different energies on the same MSCT scanner[25]. The factor with the highest influence on the determination of the gray scale is the energy of the X-ray beam (kVp), which is directly related to the capacity of penetration of the primary beam. The bigger the energy of the X-ray beam, the bigger and more uniform will be its penetration, resulting in smaller variation of attenuation, smaller contrast of images, and smaller density of the structures evaluated. The adequate setting of the energy applied allows the determination of a correct density[29].
CONE BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

After the development of CBCT, a less complex device, with low operational cost and reduced radiation emission[30-32], addressed to the acquisition of tridimensional images of dentomaxillofacial structures by Mozzo et al[33], the indication of medical CT for the evaluation of these structures decreased considerably, especially due to the higher radiation dose applied to the patient during image acquisition[10,32]. Thus, CBCT has been proposed as a diagnostic method for the determination of bone mineral density[10,11,18,34-36]. Gray values obtained with CBCT are used in an analog way as the HU values for the determination of mineral density[16] and show a linear relationship with the attenuation coefficients of the materials[13,15], HU values obtained with medical CT[11,12,37,38], and density values from DEXA[14].

Despite the correlation between gray values obtained with MSCT and CBCT, errors are expected when CBCT images are used to define the density of scanned structures[39], because these images present inconsistencies and arbitrariness of gray values[16,40], especially when related to abrupt changes of density in the object[41,42], X-ray beam hardening effect[39,43], scattered radiation[43], and projection data discontinuity-related effect[16], making questionable the validity of the measurements obtained (Table 1).

In CBCT, the abrupt and discrepant variation of the attenuation coefficient of the X-rays in the scanned structures, as occurs in the presence of metallic structures, creates artifacts in the images, which are characterized by dark and bright streaks in the vicinity of the metal object. Once these artifacts exhibit a different color from that of the structure to be analyzed, they are responsible for the inconsistencies in the gray values in the areas where they are present[15,41,42].

Another source of artifacts in CBCT images is the phenomenon of X-ray beam hardening. In CBCT, when the beam of X-rays, made up of broad spectrum photons, reaches a certain material, the low energy photons are easily absorbed, altering the spectrum of the beam. Once the X-ray beam reaches a specific point or area of the object by different angles, varied alterations in the intensity of its energy spectrum occur before it strikes the detector, generating different readings of the attenuation coefficient of this point, what may produce dark streaks in the images obtained[41]. Besides causing artifacts in the images, when the low energy photons are absorbed, the X-ray beam gains energy, passing through the tissues more easily, causing an underestimation of the attenuation coefficient and producing dark areas in the images[42].

An underestimation of the attenuation coefficient due to the occurrence of darker gray values also occurs as a consequence of scattered radiation. When the X-rays beam interact with the object being evaluated some amount of photons are diffracted from their original position and strike the detector in a random way. This scattered radiation is added to the primary radiation of the X-ray beam, overestimating the intensity measured by the system and underestimating the attenuation coefficient of the object, what affects the values of density obtained[41]. CBCT devices have bigger detectors than the MSCT, because the X-rays beam of the former is conical and of the latter is in the shape of a fan, favoring the occurrence of scattered radiation[44].

Another type of artifact related to CBCT images is known as projection data discontinuity-related artifact, which occurs when FOV is smaller than the scanned object. First, during the system rotation for the image acquisition, the X-rays beam strikes the parts of the object located outside the FOV, creating peripheral bright-band near the boundary of the FOV[16,39], being this effect directly related to the mass and spatial distribution of materials or tissues outside the FOV[17].

Besides the presence of artifacts and of the inconsistency of the gray values attributed to the characteristics of CBCT, variation in the devices[4,13,16], image-acquisition settings[4,16], and relationship between the object evaluated and FOV[4,16-18] may also influence in the images obtained, because alterations of these variables are associated with low reproducibility of gray values. Due mainly to the integration existing between some of these characteristics, in most instances, variables are not adequately controlled in the studies of reliability of values of density in CBCT.

At present, there are several models of CBCT devices in the market and significant fluctuations in gray values were demonstrated when different equipment was compared[4,13]. Each CBCT scanner has its own factors of exposition and image reconstruction (FOV, kVp, mA, voxel size, exposure time). Some are fixed, others are variable[13,39], what makes it difficult or even impossible for studies on determination of density in CBCT to draw conclusions for all the systems used[39].

According to Pauwels et al[39], some CBCT devices with specific protocols of exposition generate stable gray values which may be related with HU and density. However, as it is with medical CT, the determination of gray values is specific of the scanner, depending on the calibration of the devices.

The determination of the dimensions of the FOV in CBCT is very variable due to its different applicabilities in dentistry. This adaptation of the size of the FOV according to the demand of the examination is a great advantage of the system, because it exposes the patient to a minimum amount of radiation in order to evaluate the region of interest. However, it may have significant implications in the gray values of the structures, being small volume FOVs associated with reduced values of density[18].

The decrease of gray values in the smallest FOV may be explained by the reduction of the diameter of the X-ray beam so as to irradiate only the region of interest[45-48]. This X-ray beam limitation may lead to the decrease of the amount of low-energy photons and to the increase in the capacity of penetration of X-rays[49], resulting in a relative reduction of the value of attenuation of X-rays and gray values[43].

The manipulation of the dimensions of the FOV may also alter the amount of exomass, mass present outside the FOV during image acquisition, what is associated with the variability of the gray values in CBCT examinations[17,18]. Katsumata et al[18] reported a significant variation of the gray values when objects of different mass were evaluated with different FOV volumes, where the greater volume FOV provided the elimination of the exomass, resulting in less variability of the gray values. The variability of the gray values associated with the exomass may be explained by the projection data discontinuity, caused by the variation of the superimpositions of the non-homogeneous and non-symmetrical tissues outside the FOV along the rotation of the X-rays beam during image acquisition[16,39].

Another factor that may be related to the variability of the gray values in CBCT is the position held by the region of interest (specific area of measurement of density) inside the FOV. This variability occurred when density was determined in various places of a homogeneous structure[4,50], and, with more intensity, when the same object was scanned repeated times in different positions inside the FOV, under the same exposure conditions[4].

Despite the many variables that may affect image quality and the determination of gray values in CBCT examinations, great effort has been made in obtaining valid gray values in these images. Studies have described methods for mathematical correction of gray levels in CBCT examination using as reference X-ray attenuation coefficients of standardized materials[13,15], gray values obtained in conventional CT examination[50;51], and even correction algorithms during or after image acquisition[51,52]. Yet, owing to different configurations of image acquisition, which may be specific for each CBCT device or altered for several applications of these examinations in dentistry, the correction methods of gray values obtained in CBCT still do not generate consistent values which are independent of the devices and their configurations or of the scanned objects[15,50].
CONCLUSION

According to the studies available to date, it may be concluded that CBCT should not be considered as the examination of choice for the determination of mineral density of osseous and soft tissues, especially when values obtained should be compared with predetermined standard values. Comparisons between symmetrically positioned structures inside the FOV and in relation to the exomass of the object, as it occurs with the right and left sides of the skull, seem to be viable because the effects on the gray values in the regions of interest are the same.


REFERENCES

Schwarz MS, Rothman SL, Rhodes ML, Chafetz N. Computed tomography: Part I. Preoperative assessment of the mandible for endosseous implant surgery. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1987; 2: 137-141 [PMID: 3481354]

Velvart P, Hecker H, Tillinger G. Detection of the apical lesion and the mandibular canal in conventional radiography and computed tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2001; 92: 682-688 [PMID: 11740486 DOI: 10.1067/moe.2001.118904]

Marques AP, Perrella A, Arita ES, Pereira MF, Cavalcanti Mde G. Assessment of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions by cone beam computed tomography. Braz Oral Res 2010; 24: 467-474 [PMID: 21180970 DOI: 10.1590/S1806-83242010000400016]

Nackaerts O, Maes F, Yan H, Couto Souza P, Pauwels R, Jacobs R. Analysis of intensity variability in multislice and cone beam computed tomography. Clin Oral Implants Res 2011; 22: 873-879 [PMID: 21244502 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2010.02076.x]

Lindh C, Obrant K, Petersson A. Maxillary bone mineral density and its relationship to the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and hip. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004; 98: 102-109 [PMID: 15243479 DOI: 10.1016/S1079-2104(03)00460-8]

Turkyilmaz I, Tözüm TF, Tumer C. Bone density assessments of oral implant sites using computerized tomography. J Oral Rehabil 2007; 34: 267-272 [PMID: 17371564 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2006.01689.x]

de Oliveira RC, Leles CR, Normanha LM, Lindh C, Ribeiro-Rotta RF. Assessments of trabecular bone density at implant sites on CT images. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008; 105: 231-238 [PMID: 18230392 DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2007.08.007]

Park HS, Lee YJ, Jeong SH, Kwon TG. Density of the alveolar and basal bones of the maxilla and the mandible. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2008; 133: 30-37 [PMID: 18174068 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.01.044]

Choi JH, Park CH, Yi SW, Lim HJ, Hwang HS. Bone density measurement in interdental areas with simulated placement of orthodontic miniscrew implants. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009; 136: 766.e1-76612; discussion 766.e1-76612 [PMID: 19962594 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2009.04.019]

10 Hsu JT, Chang HW, Huang HL, Yu JH, Li YF, Tu MG. Bone density changes around teeth during orthodontic treatment. Clin Oral Investig 2011; 15: 511-519 [PMID: 20393863 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-010-0410-1]

11 Aranyarachkul P, Caruso J, Gantes B, Schulz E, Riggs M, Dus I, Yamada JM, Crigger M. Bone density assessments of dental implant sites: 2. Quantitative cone-beam computerized tomography. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2005; 20: 416-424 [PMID: 15973953]

12 Lagravère MO, Carey J, Ben-Zvi M, Packota GV, Major PW. Effect of object location on the density measurement and Hounsfield conversion in a NewTom 3G cone beam computed tomography unit. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2008; 37: 305-308 [PMID: 18757714 DOI: 10.1259/dmfr/65993482]

13 Mah P, Reeves TE, McDavid WD. Deriving Hounsfield units using grey levels in cone beam computed tomography. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2010; 39: 323-335 [PMID: 20729181 DOI: 10.1259/dmfr/19603304]

14 Marquezan M, Lau TC, Mattos CT, Cunha AC, Nojima LI, Sant'Anna EF, Souza MM, Araújo MT. Bone mineral density. Angle Orthod 2012; 82: 62-66 [PMID: 21774580 DOI: 10.2319/031811-192.1]

15 Reeves TE, Mah P, McDavid WD. Deriving Hounsfield units using grey levels in cone beam CT: a clinical application. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2012; 41: 500-508 [PMID: 22752324 DOI: 10.1259/dmfr/31640433]

16 Katsumata A, Hirukawa A, Okumura S, Naitoh M, Fujishita M, Ariji E, Langlais RP. Effects of image artifacts on gray-value density in limited-volume cone-beam computerized tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2007; 104: 829-836 [PMID: 17448704]

17 Bryant JA, Drage NA, Richmond S. Study of the scan uniformity from an i-CAT cone beam computed tomography dental imaging system. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2008; 37: 365-374 [PMID: 18812597 DOI: 10.1259/dmfr/13227258]

18 Katsumata A, Hirukawa A, Okumura S, Naitoh M, Fujishita M, Ariji E, Langlais RP. Relationship between density variability and imaging volume size in cone-beam computerized tomographic scanning of the maxillofacial region: an in vitro study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 107: 420-425 [PMID: 18715805 DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2008.05.049]

19 NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy. Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. JAMA 2001; 285: 785-795 [PMID: 11176917 DOI: 10.1001/jama.285.6.785]

20 Genant HK, Engelke K, Fuerst T, Glüer CC, Grampp S, Harris ST, Jergas M, Lang T, Lu Y, Majumdar S, Mathur A, Takada M. Noninvasive assessment of bone mineral and structure: state of the art. J Bone Miner Res 1996; 11: 707-730 [PMID: 8725168 DOI: 10.1002/jbmr.5650110602]

21 Jäger A, Radlanski RJ, Taufall D, Klein C, Steinhöfel N, Döler W. Quantitative determination of alveolar bone density using digital image analysis of microradiographs. Anat Anz 1990; 170: 171-179 [PMID: 2375496]

22 Hans D, Fuerst T, Uffmann M. Bone density and quality measurement using ultrasound. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1996; 8: 370-375 [PMID: 8864591 DOI: 10.1097/00002281-199607000-00016]

23 Choël L, Duboeuf F, Bourgeois D, Briguet A, Lissac M. Trabecular alveolar bone in the human mandible: a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2003; 95: 364-370 [PMID: 12627111 DOI: 10.1067/moe.2003.119]

24 Chang HW, Huang HL, Yu JH, Hsu JT, Li YF, Wu YF. Effects of orthodontic tooth movement on alveolar bone density. Clin Oral Investig 2012; 16: 679-688 [PMID: 21519883 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-011-0552-9]

25 White SC, Pharoah MJ. Oral radiology: principles and interpretation. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby, 2004

26 Homolka P, Beer A, Birkfellner W, Nowotny R, Gahleitner A, Tschabitscher M, Bergmann H. Bone mineral density measurement with dental quantitative CT prior to dental implant placement in cadaver mandibles: pilot study. Radiology 2002; 224: 247-252 [PMID: 12091691 DOI: 10.1148/radiol.2241010948]

27 Lecomber AR, Yoneyama Y, Lovelock DJ, Hosoi T, Adams AM. Comparison of patient dose from imaging protocols for dental implant planning using conventional radiography and computed tomography. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2001; 30: 255-259 [PMID: 11571544 DOI: 10.1038/sj.dmfr.4600627]

28 Kravitz ND, Kusnoto B. Risks and complications of orthodontic miniscrews. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007; 131: S43-S51 [PMID: 17448385 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.04.027]

29 Wolbarst AB, Biwer BM, Cady R, Chen SY, Domotor S, Egidi P, LePoire DJ, Mo T, Peterson J, Walker S. ISCORS Catalog of References to Parameter Values and Distributions Used in Environmental Pathway Modeling for Cleanup of Sites Contaminated with Radioactivity. Health Phys 2005; 89: S91-S99 [PMID: 16224267 DOI: 10.1097/01.HP.0000177683.93443.f4]

30 Mah J, Hatcher D. Three-dimensional craniofacial imaging. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004; 126: 308-309 [PMID: 15356493 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2004.06.024]

31 Scarfe WC, Farman AG, Sukovic P. Clinical applications of cone-beam computed tomography in dental practice. J Can Dent Assoc 2006; 72: 75-80 [PMID: 16480609]

32 Ludlow JB, Ivanovic M. Comparative dosimetry of dental CBCT devices and 64-slice CT for oral and maxillofacial radiology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008; 106: 106-114 [PMID: 18504152 DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2008.03.018]

33 Mozzo P, Procacci C, Tacconi A, Martini PT, Andreis IA. A new volumetric CT machine for dental imaging based on the cone-beam technique: preliminary results. Eur Radiol 1998; 8: 1558-1564 [PMID: 9866761 DOI: 10.1007/s003300050586]

34 Lee S, Gantes B, Riggs M, Crigger M. Bone density assessments of dental implant sites: 3. Bone quality evaluation during osteotomy and implant placement. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2007; 22: 208-212 [PMID: 17465345]

35 Campos MJ, de Albuquerque EG, Pinto BC, Húngaro HM, Gravina MA, Fraga MR, Vitral RW. The role of orthodontic tooth movement in bone and root mineral density: a study of patients submitted and not submitted to orthodontic treatment. Med Sci Monit 2012; 18: CR752-CR757 [PMID: 23197239 DOI: 10.12659/MSM.883604]

36 Salimov F, Tatli U, Kürkçü M, Akoğlan M, Oztunç H, Kurtoğlu C. Evaluation of relationship between preoperative bone density values derived from cone beam computed tomography and implant stability parameters: a clinical study. Clin Oral Implants Res 2013; 1-6  [PMID: 23772811 DOI: 10.1111/clr.12219]

37 Naitoh M, Hirukawa A, Katsumata A, Ariji E. Evaluation of voxel values in mandibular cancellous bone: relationship between cone-beam computed tomography and multislice helical computed tomography. Clin Oral Implants Res 2009; 20: 503-506 [PMID: 19250241 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2008.01672.x]

38 Nomura Y, Watanabe H, Honda E, Kurabayashi T. Reliability of voxel values from cone-beam computed tomography for dental use in evaluating bone mineral density. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010; 21: 558-562 [PMID: 20443807 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2009.01896.x]

39 Pauwels R, Nackaerts O, Bellaiche N, Stamatakis H, Tsiklakis K, Walker A, Bosmans H, Bogaerts R, Jacobs R, Horner K. Variability of dental cone beam CT grey values for density estimations. Br J Radiol 2013; 86: 20120135 [PMID: 23255537 DOI: 10.1259/bjr.20120135]

40 Hassan B, Metska ME, Ozok AR, van der Stelt P, Wesselink PR. Comparison of five cone beam computed tomography systems for the detection of vertical root fractures. J Endod 2010; 36: 126-129 [PMID: 20003950 DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2009.09.013]

41 Schulze R, Heil U, Gross D, Bruellmann DD, Dranischnikow E, Schwanecke U, Schoemer E. Artefacts in CBCT: a review. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2011; 40: 265-273 [PMID: 21697151 DOI: 10.1259/dmfr/30642039]

42 Pauwels R, Stamatakis H, Bosmans H, Bogaerts R, Jacobs R, Horner K, Tsiklakis K. Quantification of metal artifacts on cone beam computed tomography images. Clin Oral Implants Res 2013; 24: 94-99 [PMID: 22168574 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2011.02382.x]

43 Goodsitt MM, Chan HP, Way TW, Larson SC, Christodoulou EG, Kim J. Accuracy of the CT numbers of simulated lung nodules imaged with multi-detector CT scanners. Med Phys 2006; 33: 3006-3017 [PMID: 16964879 DOI: 10.1118/1.2219332]

44 Kalender WA, Kyriakou Y. Flat-detector computed tomography (FD-CT). Eur Radiol 2007; 17: 2767-2779 [PMID: 17587058 DOI: 10.1007/s00330-007-0651-9]

45 Palomo JM, Rao PS, Hans MG. Influence of CBCT exposure conditions on radiation dose. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008; 105: 773-782 [PMID: 18424119 DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2007.12.019]

46 Pauwels R, Beinsberger J, Collaert B, Theodorakou C, Rogers J, Walker A, Cockmartin L, Bosmans H, Jacobs R, Bogaerts R, Horner K. Effective dose range for dental cone beam computed tomography scanners. Eur J Radiol 2012; 81: 267-271 [PMID: 21196094 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2010.11.028]

47 Siewerdsen JH, Jaffray DA. Cone-beam computed tomography with a flat-panel imager: magnitude and effects of x-ray scatter. Med Phys 2001; 28: 220-231 [PMID: 11243347 DOI: 10.1118/1.1339879]

48 Spies L, Evans PM, Partridge M, Hansen VN, Bortfeld T. Direct measurement and analytical modeling of scatter in portal imaging. Med Phys 2000; 27: 462-471 [PMID: 10757598 DOI: 10.1118/1.598914]

49 Kheruka S, Naithani U, Maurya A, Painuly N, Aggarwal L, Gambhir S. A study to improve the image quality in low-dose computed tomography (SPECT) using filtration. Indian J Nucl Med 2011; 26: 14-21 [PMID: 21969774 DOI: 10.4103/0972-3919.84595]

50 Liu Y, Bäuerle T, Pan L, Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss A, Strauss LG, Heiss C, Schnettler R, Semmler W, Cao L. Calibration of cone beam CT using relative attenuation ratio for quantitative assessment of bone density: a small animal study. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2013; 8: 733-739 [PMID: 23225074 DOI: 10.1007/s11548-012-0803-5]

51 Naitoh M, Aimiya H, Hirukawa A, Ariji E. Morphometric analysis of mandibular trabecular bone using cone beam computed tomography: an in vitro study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010; 25: 1093-1098 [PMID: 21197484]

52 Kachelriess M, Sourbelle K, Kalender WA. Empirical cupping correction: a first-order raw data precorrection for cone-beam computed tomography. Med Phys 2006; 33: 1269-1274 [PMID: 16752561 DOI: 10.1118/1.2188076]
P-Reviewers: Chang Z, Kamishima T, Kwok YM, Neves FS, Peremans K S-Editor: Ji FF

L-Editor: E-Editor:


Table 1 Factors that might lead to inconsistencies and arbitrariness of grey values on cone beam computed tomography images

Ref.

Fatores

Nackaerts et al[4]

Variation in the devices

Image-acquisition settings

Relationship between the object evaluated and FOV

The position held by the region of interest



Mah et al[13]

Variation in the devices

Reeves et al[15]

Abrupt changes of density in the object

Katsumata et al[16]

Projection data discontinuity-related effect

Variation in the CBCT devices

Image-acquisition settings

Relationship between the object evaluated and FOV



Bryant et al[17]

Projection data discontinuity-related effect

Relationship between the object evaluated and FOV

The amount of exomass


Katsumata et al[18]

The dimensions of the FOV

The amount of exomass



Pauwels et al[39]

X-ray beam hardening effect

Projection data discontinuity-related effect

Variation in the devices


Schulze et al[41]

Abrupt changes of density in the object

X-ray beam hardening effect

Scattered radiation


Pauwels et al[42]

Abrupt changes of density in the object

Goodsitt et al[43]

X-ray beam hardening effect

Scattered radiation



Liu et al[50]

The position held by the region of interest

CBCT: Cone beam computed tomography; FOV: Field of view.



The database is protected by copyright ©dentisty.org 2016
send message

    Main page