Chapters 28, 29, and 31: The Enlightenment Key terms

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HUM 2230 Instructor: Paloma Rodriguez
Study Guide for Final Exam 1
The final exam is comprehensive. Here is a list of topics, people, places and works of art you need to know.
Chapters 28, 29, and 31: The Enlightenment
Key terms

Absolutism Rococo Social Contract Parliamentary Monarchy

Reason Philosophes Natural Law

People and Works


(political and philosophical thought)


(political and philosophical thought)

Jonathan Swift

Gulliver Travels

A Modest Proposal

Alexander Pope

An Essay on Man

Isaac Newton

(Laws of Physics)




Social Contract




Declaration of Independence

Olaudah Equiano

Declaration of Independence

28.3 and 28.4 John Locke, pp. 904 and 922-923

28.2 Thomas Hobbes, pp. 920-921

28.8 Alexander Pope, p. 909-910

28.6 Jonathan Swift, pp. 925-928

Handout with readings from Diderot, and Concorcet

29.3 and 29.4 by Rousseau, pp. 948-949

29.5 Candide pp. 962-964

31.1 Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence, p. 1001

31.3 Olaudah Equiano on p. 1017-1018 and handout

  1. Hobbes vs. Locke. Compare what these authors think about the following issues:

What is the true nature of humans?

What motivates humans to subject themselves to one ruler?

What is the nature of the social contract?

What are the rights and responsibilities of ruler? What about the subjects?

  1. The Philosophes: definition, cultural context, social extraction, views on religion, society, education and progress. Cultural achievements and historical repercussions of their thought.

  1. Satire in the Enlightenment (Voltaire’s Candide and Swift’s A Modest Proposal): What motivates these authors to write satire? What is their purpose? What aspects of society do they criticize and ridicule?

  1. Slave trade: provide a depiction of the process, its magnitude and its economic significance. Explain why the British found the American “hypocritical” regarding slavery. Provide examples of contradictions on this issue in Jefferson’s writings.

Chapters 25, 26, and 27: The Baroque

  1. People and Works

  1. Authors and Works: Baroque in Italy


Façade of Saint Peter’s Basilica


San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane


Colonnade of Saint Peter’s Basilica


Ecstasy of Saint Theresa



Judith beheading Holofernes

The Calling of Saint Matthew

The Supper at Emmaus

Artemisia Gentileschi

Judith beheading Holofernes

Susanna and the Elders

  1. Authors and Works: Baroque in the North


    Woman with a Pearl Necklace


    The Anatomy Lesson

  2. Authors and Works: The Baroque Court

Peter Paul Rubens The Kermis

Poussin The Shepherds of Arcadia

Moliere Tartuffe

Velazquez Las Meninas

The Triumph of Bacchus

  1. Cities

Rome (Vatican City, fountains)

Amsterdam and the landscape of the Netherlands

Paris and Versailles

  1. Topics

-Features of Baroque architecture. Differences and similarities between Classical, Renaissance and Baroque architecture. Useful terms: dynamism, chiaroscuro, spectator’s space, concave, convex, curvilinear, oval, emotional, exuberant, ornate, original…
-Features of Baroque sculpture: Differences and similarities between Renaissance and Baroque sculpture. The spirit of the Counter-Reformation. Useful terms: emotional, theatrical, diagonal, excitement, sensuality, contrast, action, invisible complement (viewer’s participation), naturalism…
-Features of Baroque painting: The spirit of the Counter-Reformation. Light and religious experience (Caravaggio’s Tenebrism), art as an expression of personal experiences (Artemisia Gentileschi), the inclusion of low characters and the demystification of the gods (Caravaggio, Velazquez).
- Features of the Baroque Painting in the North: landscapes, still natures and domestic interiors. Why these themes? Do they hide a deeper religious or moral message? Can you think of examples of the artistic origins of these domestic scenes?
- Versailles inside and out. The gardens, the palace, life at Versailles.
Chapters 20, 21, 22, and 24: the North, the Reformation and the Spanish Empire


Key words

Iconoclasm Mannerism (Spanish) Inquisition

Calvinism Protestantism The “Other”

Printing Press Council of Trent Peasant Wars

Artists and Works
Ghent Altarpiece (Van Eyck) Last Judgment (Michelangelo)

Arnolfini Marriage (Van Eyck) Feast in the House of Levi, Wedding of Cana (Veronese)

Merode Altarpiece (Campin) Rape of Sabine Women (Giovanni Bologna)

Garden of Earthly Delights (Bosch) Perseus (Cellini)

Table of Seven Deadly Sins (Bosch)

Isabella of Castile Thomas More

Ferdinand of Aragon Erasmus of Rotterdam

Charles V William Shakespeare

Philip II Francisco Pizarro

Henry VIII Christopher Columbus

Anne Boleyn Hernan Cortes

Mary Tudor Martin Luther

Elizabeth I John Calvin

Bruges Antwerp El Escorial Granada Potosi

Tenochtitlan Cuzco

Topics and Readings

  1. The 95 Theses and Luther’s address to the German princes:

Main criticisms of the Church: salvation by faith or works, indulgences, interpretation of the scripture, irrelevance of the authority of the Church.

  1. The Mission:

Historical background, evangelization and conquest, Jesuit missions (pros and cons), clash of cultures, the treatment of the other.

About the movie: symbolic value of the waterfall, music, contrasts (civilization and barbarism, harmony and violence, redemption and damnation).

  1. Cortes’ letter to the Queen of Spain:

State of development of the conquered civilizations, view of the other, treatment of religious practices and art, contrast between the cultures.

  1. Romeo and Juliet:

Treatment of the following themes: night and day, love and hatred, time (rush), name, fame and violence. Juliet’s assertiveness in the social context of Shakespeare’s time.

  1. The social, religious and artistic impact of the Protestant reformation: social conflicts that ensued, political divisions, religious prosecution, the Council of Trent and the Counter-reformation, iconoclasm and religious and secular art.


  1. Northern Renaissance vs. Italian Renaissance:

Stylistic, technical, and thematic differences. Situate the art of the Northern Renaissance in its historical context (trade, middle class, domestic realm, individual wealth…)

  1. High Renaissance vs. Mannerism

What is the Mannerism? How does it affect the distribution of the figures in a painting, the centrality and saliency of the main subject, the depiction of the human body, the overall harmony of the works of art (paintings, sculptures, architecture).

Chapters 17, 18, and 19: Renaissance in Italy


Key words

Middle Ages


Trompe l’oeil



Vanishing point




Scientific/linear perspective

Atmospheric/aerial perspective



  1. Florence, Venice, Rome..

  2. Landmarks and cities where they stand (Florence, Venice, Rome):

Piazza della Signoria

Loggia dei Lanzi

Palazzo Medici-Ricardi

Saint Peter’s Basilica

Piazza di San Marco

Ponte Vecchio

Palazzo Ducale (doge’s)

Saint Marks’s Basilica

Piazza di San Pietro

Grand Canal

Arno River

Tiber River

Santa Maria del Fiore (duomo)

Ca’ d’Oro


Sistine Chapel


  1. The ceiling of the Sistine chapel. Author, structure, themes and philosophical reading of the frescoes.

  2. Florence and the Medici. Explain who the Medici were, his family landmarks (business, dwelling, religious/ civic representation) and his role as patrons of the arts. Name works they commissioned, artists who worked for them, cultural achievements and their personal views (philosophy…).

  3. From the Medieval mind to the Renaissance. Explain the changes and evolution of ideas from the late Middle Ages into the Renaissance. Discuss the importance of the Classical World during the Renaissance and provide specific examples of its revival during the Renaissance (themes, iconography, religion, artistic models…).



Gates of Paradise




Dome of Florence’s cathedral

Panel with the Sacrifice of Isaac



Birth of Venus

Adoration of the Magi

Leonardo da Vinci


Last Supper

Lorenzo de’ Medici

(Cultural and political activities)



Sistine Chapel

Staircase of the Medici Library

Saint Peter’s Basilica




Laura Cereta

Defense of Liberal Instruction of Women


Venus of Urbino


Villa Rotunda


Castiglione The courtier

Machiavelli The Prince

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