Chapter two narratives



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Theogony, lines 42-47, 560-612, Works and Days, lines 42-105; Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound.

63 Hesiod, Theogony, lines 560-612.

64 Hesiod, Works and Days, lines 91-92.

65 Lebow, Tragic Vision of Politics, chs. 4, 9.

66 Homer, Iliad, 1.260-28 and 5.302-4, refer to a golden age


67 Pindar, Odae Pythiae, III, 1-6.

68 Hesiod, Works and Days, lines 109-21.


69 The nineteenth century British classicist George Grote observed that Hesiod’s story of the five ages represents a fusion of two distinct and incompatible myths. The first, which predates Hesiod, is the myth of the Four Ages, all bearing names of metals, and succeeding each other in declining order of value. The second is the age of heroes, which Hesiod or a precursor, inserted between the third and fourth age. Berlin, Crooked Timber of Humanity, p. 25.

70 Plutarch, Tiberius, 2.3.63-64; Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.95, 101-02, 123-24.

71 Virgil, Georgics, 1.125-26; Plutarch, Tiberius. 2.3.35-50; Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.113-62; Seneca, Octavia, 120-30; Evans, Utopia Antiqua, pp. 83-87.

72 Shakespeare, King Lear, 5.3.325-26.

73 Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice, 5.1.64.

74 Finley, “Utopianism Ancient and Modern.”

75 Evans, Utopia Antiqua, p. 3.

76 Bloch, Principle of Hope.

77 Manuel, “Toward a Psychological History of Utopias.”

78 Dawson, Cities of the Gods, for communist utopias in ancient Greece.

79 Logan, Meaning of More’s Utopia,” pp. 7-8.


80 Homer, Odyssey, Books IX-XII.

81 Plato, Republic, 9.592b.

82 Ibid., 414b-e.

83 Ibid., 373d-e.

84 Ibid, 506c and Statesman, 309c6-10.

85 Hexter, More’s Utopia, pp. 70-71.

86 Iambulus, Heliopolis.

87 Mumford, “Utopia.”

88 Finley, “Utopianism Ancient and Modern.”

89 Vergil, Ecologues, IV, 37-45, for a possible exception.

90 Logan, The Meaning of More’s Utopia,” p. 3, contends that More is aware of this double meaning. “Meter IV Verses in the Utopian Tongues,” which appears as an appendix to Utopia, reads in the sixteenth century English translation: “Wherefore not Utopie, but rather rightely/ My name is Eutopie: a place of felicitie.”

91 More, Utopia, p. 107.

92 Ibid., pp. 15-16.

93 Skinner, “Review Article,” and Foundations of Modern Political Thought, vo. 1., p. 256; Bouwsma, “Two Faces of Humanism.”

94 Greenblatt, Renaissance Self-Fashioning, ch. 1.

95 Machiavelli, Prince, ch. 19.

96 Ibid., pp. 45-46.

97 Ibid., pp. 54-55.

98 Plato, Critias, 120d6-121c4 and Timaeus, 19b-d, 22a, 25a-b6. See also his Phaedrus, 278d7, Laws, 676

99 Weinberger, “Introduction.”

100 Bacon, Advancement of Learning, II.47, p. 286.

101 Saint-Simon, “Sketch of a New Political System”.

102 Frye, “Varieties of Literary Utopias.”

103 Morris, House of the Wolfings and Roots of the Mountains.

104 Bellamy, Looking Backward, p. 261.

105 Strauss, “Gender, Class, and Race in Utopia.”

106 Bowman, Year 2000, p. 74.

107 Frye, “Varieties of Literary Utopias.”

108 Engels, “Socialism: Utopian and Scientific”; Marx and Engels, “Manifesto of the Communist Party.”

109 Marx, “After the Revolution” and Engels, “On Morality” are the principal sources and both are very short essays.

110 Mannheim, Ideology and Utopia.

111 Engels, “Socialism: Utopian and Scientific.”

112 Manuel, “Toward a Psychological History of Utopias”; Evans, Utopia Antiqua

113 Ortega y Gassett, xx; Popper, Open Society and Its Enemies; Ulam, “Socialism and Utopia.” Mumford, Story of Utopias, offers a more benign judgment.

114 Skinner, Walden Two, p. 226.

115 Skhlar, “Political Theory of Utopia.” On Skinner, see Kateb, Utopia and Its Enemies, pp. 141-47.

116 Rosenfeld, World Hitler Never Made, for a review of this literature.

117 Wells, When the Sleeper Wakes. This is a substantially revised version of The Sleeper Awakes, published in 1910.

118 Find cite XX

119 Huxley and Huxley, Aldous Huxley, p. 150.

120 Postman, Amusing Ourselves to Death, foreword.

121 Foucault, Language, pp. 153-54.



122 Shklar, After Utopia.

123 Bowman, Year 2000, p. 121.

124 Gray, Socialist Tradition, p. 62.





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