Chapter one introduction 1 Background to the Study

Figure 7: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Adapted from Huitt (2001)

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Figure 7: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Adapted from Huitt (2001)

According to Maslow, an individual is ready to act upon the growth needs if and only if the deficiency needs are met. Maslow's initial conceptualization included only one growth need-self-actualization. Self-actualized people are characterized by: i) being problem-focused; ii) incorporating an ongoing freshness of appreciation of life; iii) a concern about personal growth; and iv) the ability to have peak experiences (Maslow and Lowery, 1998).

Maslow's basic position is that as one becomes more self-actualized and self-transcendent, he or she becomes wiser (develops wisdom) and automatically knows what to do in a wide variety of situations. Daniels (2001) suggested that Maslow's ultimate conclusion that the highest levels of self-actualization are transcendent in their nature may be one of his most important contributions to the study of human behaviour and motivation. Each of these needs can motivate women into entrepreneurship. The stronger the urge to meet these needs, the higher the performance in one’s business. Maslow (1954) saw these needs as catalysts. The degree at which these factors motivate individual determines the degree of his or her performance in business. Also satisfaction in business is a function of the type of need an entrepreneur is able to derive from her entrepreneurial venture. To explain this further, Schermerhorn (2004) classify human needs into two categories; higher-order of needs and lower-order of needs. This he represented in the figure below.

Figure 8 : Opportunities for Satisfaction in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs

What Satisfies Higher –order needs

Self-actualization Needs

* Creative and Challenging Task

* Participation in Decision Making

* Job Flexibility and Autonomy

Esteem Needs

* Responsibility of an important Task

* Promotion to higher status job

* Praise and recognition

What Satisfies Lower-order Needs

* Friendly Colleagues

Social Needs
* Interaction with customers

* Pleasant supervision

Safety Needs

* Safe working condition

* Job security

* Base compensation and Benefits

Physiological Needs

* Rest and refreshment breaks

* Physical comfort on the business

* Reasonable work hour

Source: Schermerhorn (2004)

(b) ERG Theory

The ERG theory was propounded by Clayton Alderfer (1972). ERG is an acronym for existence, relatedness and growth. ERG theory of motivation says that people strive to meet a hierarchy of existence, relatedness, and growth needs; if efforts to reach one level of needs are frustrated, individuals will regress to a lower level (Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert, 1999). Alderfer in his theory, supported Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs but distinguished his theory from that of Maslow with two basic points. First, human needs can be broken down into three basic needs and not five or six according to Maslow. These he called Existence needs (fundamental needs), relatedness needs (needs for interpersonal relations), and growth needs (needs for personal creativity or productive influence). Also Alderfer advocated that human beings when confronted with a frustration from higher needs can resort to a lower need even though they have been satisfied. Relating this assertion to women motivation into business, the push factor model can be relevant in this situation. Negative circumstances such as demotion or discrimination in one’s place of work can force women into starting their own business just to satisfy a lower need.

Table 24: Alderfer's Hierarchy of Motivational Needs  

Level of Need




Impels a person to make creative or productive effects on himself and his environment

Satisfied through using capabilities in engaging problems; creates a greater sense of wholeness and fullness as a human being


Involves relationships with significant others

Satisfied by mutually sharing thoughts and feelings; acceptance, confirmation, under- standing, and influence are elements


Includes all of the various forms of material and psychological desires

When divided among people one person's gain is another's loss if resources are limited

 Alderfer (1972) developed a comparable hierarchy with his ERG (existence, relatedness, and growth) theory Adapted from Huitt (2001).

Alderfer recognized that not all personalities followed Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. While a variety of personality dimensions might be considered as related to motivational needs, one of the most often cited is that of introversion and extroversion (Huitt, 2001). Alderfer (1972) and Cole (2001) argued that individual needs were better explained as being on a continuum rather than in a hierarchy. He concluded that people were more likely to move up and down the continuum in satisfying needs at different levels. Relating this theory to women entrepreneurial motivation, Alderfer argues that women can go into entrepreneurial venture basically to satisfy three major needs namely: existence needs-desires for physiological and material well being; relatedness needs- desires for satisfying interpersonal and growth needs- desires for continued psychological growth and development (Schermerhorn, 2004).

Table 25: Reorganization of Maslow's and Alderfer's Hierarchies  





Self-Actualization (development of competencies [knowledge, attitudes, and skills] and character)

Transcendence (assisting in the development of others' competencies and character; relationships to the unknown, unknowable)


Personal identification with group, significant others (Belongingness)

Value of person by group (Esteem)


Physiological, biological (including basic emotional needs)

Connectedness,  security

Source: Huitt (2001) Reorganization of Maslow's and Alderfer's Hierarchies  
Reorganizing Maslow's hierarchy based on the work of Alderfer and considering the introversion/extraversion dimension of personality results in three levels, each with an introverted and extroverted component. This re-organization suggests that there may be two aspects of each level that differentiate how people relate to each set of needs (Huitt, 2001). Different personalities might relate more to one dimension than the other. For example, an introvert at the level of other/Relatedness might be more concerned with his or her own perceptions of being included in a group, whereas an extrovert at that same level would pay more attention to how others value that membership.

(c) Hertzberg’s Two Factor Theory

Two factor theory was propounded by Fredreck Hertzberg (1960). Hertzberg in his research was interested in identifying the factors that caused people to be satisfied with their work and the factors that make them dissatisfied. These factors he called hygiene factors or maintenance factors and the satisfiers or motivators respectively. While the hygiene factors focus on the job context, that is, the factors external to the business such as trade union, the satisfiers focus on the job content or the specific aspect of the business such as the job variety.

Hygiene factors include;

Company policy and Administrative practices

Technical supervision

Interpersonal relation with manager

The worker’s personal life

Physical conditions of the work setting

Satisfiers include;




The Task or work itself

The workers’ potential for personal learning or growth

The worker’s responsibility for result

The first sets of factors are also known as maintenance factors while the second sets are known as motivators (Koontz and Weihrich, 2001).

Relating the two factors to entrepreneurship, women are being motivated into entrepreneurship mainly based on the motivators or the satisfiers that is second factors. The absence of the hygine factors such as company policy, supervision, physical condition and others may lead to dissatisfaction which may lead to resignation from someone’s place of work for entrepreneurship as an alternative action. On the other hand, the presence of the satisfier may help women to reach their self-actualization stage and desire to be their own boss (entrepreneurship). Cole (2001) further classified these factors to the relationship between the hygiene factors and motivators.
Figure 9. Relationship Between the Hygiene Factors and Motivators.

Percentage frequency Percentage frequency

50% 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50%



Work Itself




Company policy and administration


Relationship with Supervisor

Work Condition


Relationship with peers

Personal life

Relationship with subordinates



Source: Cole (2001: 35) Factors leading to extreme dissatisfaction and satisfaction

Note: The overlap of the boxes across the centres line indicates:

  1. That motivators have their negative aspects, eg. Lack of achievement can lead to dissatisfaction which can serve as a motivator for women entrepreneurship.

  2. The hygiene factors have their positive aspects, eg. Salary can be a source of satisfaction which can also act as pull factor for women entrepreneurship.

In support of this, Schermerhorn, (2004) argued that every attempt on improving motivator factors, will lead to increase on job satisfaction and improvement on hygiene factors will lead to decrease in job dissatisfaction. To buttress this point further he represented his argument on a figure as below.

Figure 10 : Herzberg’s two Factor Theory

Job Dissatisfaction Herzberg’s Two Job Satisfaction

Influenced by

Motivator Factors

* Achievement

* Recognition

* Responsibility

* Work itself

* Advancement

* Personal growth

Influenced by

Hygiene Factors

* Working condition

* Coworkers relations

* Policies and rules

* Supervisor quality

* Base wage, salary

Factor Principles

Improving the

motivator factors

increases job


Improving the

hygiene factors


job dissatisfaction

Source: (Schermerhorn, 2004).

(d) Needs Theory of Motivation

This theory was propounded by David McClelland (1961). He identified three types of basic needs that motivate people into higher performance. He called these; need for power (n/PWR), need for affiliation (n/AFF), and need for achievement (n/ACH). Although these three needs are relevant to entrepreneurship, need for achievement has been recognized as the most relevant factor that motivates people to entrepreneurship. McClelland (1961) has argued that entrepreneurs tend to have a high need for achievement (n/ACH) and such individuals gravitate toward situations in which they can achieve relatively immediate feedback on how they are doing. However, evidence suggests that entrepreneurs do have a relatively high need for achievement, it also indicates that high n/ACH, by itself does not single out entrepreneurs, meaning that other factors such as need for power and affiliation must also be in place for high and effective performance of entrepreneurs (Bartol and Martin, 1998). McClelland (1961) argues that apart from employees, entrepreneurs also acquire needs through their life experiences and the needs that are acquire include;

      • Need for Achievement (n/ACH)

      • Need for Power (n/PWR)

      • Need for Affiliation (n/AFF)

Each of these needs can further be explained to show the variables involved:

    • Need for Achievement (n/ACH)

      • Desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks.

      • Entrepreneurs high in (n/ACH) prefer work that:

      • Involves individual responsibility for results.

      • Involves achievable but challenging goals.

      • Provides feedback on performance.

    • Need for Power (n/PWR)

      • Desire to control other persons, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for other people.

      • Personal power versus social power.

    • Entrepreneurs high in (n/PWR) prefer work that:

      • Involves control over other persons.

      • Has an impact on people and events.

      • Brings public recognition and attention.

    • Need for Affiliation (n/AFF)

      • Desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other persons.

    • Entrepreneurs high in (n/AFF) prefer work that:

      • Involves interpersonal relationships.

      • Provides for companionship

      • Brings social approval.

Applying these theories to women entrepreneurial activities, Schermerhorn (2004) further argues that there is relationship between Maslow’s, Alderfer’s, Herzberg’s and McClelland’s motivation theories and women’s entrepreneurial motivation can be as a result of either high-order needs or low-order needs. This can be represented in the figure below;
Figure 11: Comparison of Maslow’s, Alderfer’s, Herzberg’s and McClelland’s motivation theories



Satisfer Factors

Maslow Alderfer Herzberg McClelland







Hygiene Factors






Source: Schermerhorn, (2004)

(e) Theory X and Theory Y

Another theory of motivation is theory X and theory Y propounded by McGregor. According to McGregor (1960) human nature can be viewed from two perspectives. He developed two sets of assumptions in his attempt at describing human attitude to life and work.

Theory X Assumptions

The assumptions underlining theory X are;

  1. Average human beings dislike work and will avoid work if possible.

  2. People’s hatred to work results in them being coerced, controlled, directed and forced to achieve a particular goal.

  3. Average human being liked to be directed and will avoid responsibility, want little ambition and want security in their place of work.

Theory Y Assumptions

The assumptions under theory Y include the following;

  1. The use of physical and mental effort of people in execution of their work is as natural as play or rest.

  2. The use of force and punishment to make people work is not the only way of getting people to work because some people naturally like work and will exercise self control and self- direction to get their task being executed.

  3. The degree of commitment to work is in direct proportion with the degree of the rewards associated with the achievement such work.

  4. Average human being learn not only to accept responsibility but also to achieve responsibility.

  5. The ability to exercise a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational problems is broadly distributed.

  6. The intellectual potentiality of the average human being is only partially utilized under the condition of modern industrial life.

Relating McGregor’s theory X and Y to entrepreneurship, both theory X and Y are related to factors that influence women entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial concept which has to do with certain attributes such as hard work, competitiveness, drive and energy, etc. can only be identified with theory Y. On the other hand, theory X has a way of defining or determining women entrepreneurs’ choice of business ownership. Women under theory X will rather choose the type of enterprise that will not exact much stress on them.

(e) Expectancy Theory

Another theory of motivation is expectancy theory propounded by Vroom (1964). According to him, people will be motivated to do things if they believe in the worth of that goal and if they can see that what they do will help them in achieving it (Koontz and Weihrich, 2001). Considering Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory, people will be motivated to start business if they have the expectation that the outcome of such business will enable them to achieve a particular set of goals. Motivation is therefore a product of the anticipated worth that an individual places on a goal and the chances he or she sees of achieving that goal (Koontz and Weihrich, 2001). It is the value people place on the outcome of their effort whether positive or negative, multiplied by the confidence they have that their effort will materially aid achieving a goal that determines their motivation toward doing anything. To buttress more on this point, Vroom (1964) further demonstrated this in an equation as;

Motivation = Perceived Probability of Success (Expectancy) *
Connection of Success and Reward (Instrumentality) *
Value of Obtaining Goal (Valance, Value)


F = v x e where: f = force, v = valance, and e = expectancy

Force = valence X expectancy,

Where Force is the strength of someone’s motivation,

Valence is the strength of a person’s preference for an outcome.

Expectancy is the drive that leads to result/outcome. Schermerhorn (2004) further argued that expectancy is the probability that a particular action will lead to a desired outcome. In other words, Motivation (M), expectancy (E), instrumentality (I), and valence (V) are related to one another in a multiplicative fashion. That is

M = E x I x V , hence, if either E, I, or V is low, motivation to entrepreneurial activity will also be low.

Since this formula states that the three factors, expectancy, instrumentality, and Valance or Value are to be multiplied by each other, a low value in one will result in a low value of motivation. Therefore, all the three factors must be present in order for motivation to occur. That is, if an individual does not believe he or she can be successful at a task or the individual does not see a connection between his or her activity and success or the individual does not value the results of success, then the probability is lowered that the individual will engage in the required learning activity. From the perspective of this theory, the three variables must be high for motivation and the resulting entrepreneurial behaviour to be high also (Huitt, 2001).

The equation also means that the force a person exerted to do something depends on both the valance and expectancy. Relating this to entrepreneurship, the force women exerted to go into entrepreneurship will depend on their preference for an outcome and the probability that going into business will lead to the desired outcome which will propel action for high performance. Schermerhorn’s (2004) study further revealed three major elements that can affect entrepreneur’s performance. These include; entrepreneur’s exerts work effort, task performance and work related outcome. The diagram below explains this further;

Figure 12: Elements in the Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Entrepreneurs’ exerts work effort

Task performance

Work related outcome

To achieve and realize

Can I achieve the desired level of task performance

What work outcomes will be received as a result of motivation

How highly do I value work outcome

Source: Schermerhorn (2004)

Figure 12 above can be explained as key expectancy theory variables. Expectancy — belief that working hard will result in desired level of performance; Instrumentality — belief that successful performance will be followed by rewards and Valence value a woman entrepreneur assigns to rewards and other work related outcomes determines her entrepreneurial motivation (Schermerhorn, 2004). The implications of expectancy theory shows that each of the variables in the theory affects the entrepreneurial performance as explained thus: (i) to maximize expectancy, women entrepreneurs should: select workers with ability; train workers to use ability; support work efforts and clarify performance goals. (ii) to maximize instrumentality, women entrepreneurs should: clarify psychological contracts; communicate performance-outcome possibilities; identify rewards that are contingent on performance. (ii) To maximize valence in a positive direction, women entrepreneurs should: identify individual needs and adjust rewards to match individual needs (Schermerhorn, 2004). This can be further represented in a diagram as below;

Figure 13: Entrepreneurial implication of Expectancy Theory

To Maximize Expectancy

Make the person competent and capable of achieving life desired performance level

* Select workers with ability

* Train workers to use ability

* Support work efforts

* Clarify performance goals

To Maximize Instrumentality

Make the person confident in understanding which rewards and outcomes will follow performance accomplishments

* Clarify psychological contracts

* Communicate performance

outcome possibilities

*Demonstrate what rewards

are contingent on performance
To Maximize Valance

Make the person understand the value of various possible rewards and work outcome

* Identify individual needs

* Adjust rewards to match these needs

Source: Schermerhorn (2004)
(f) Equity Theory

Equity theory as a motivational theory is propounded by Stacey (1963). According to Stacey (1963) an individual’s perception of a reward structure as equity determines how he or she is being motivated in doing a particular work. This theory refers to an individual’s subjective judgments about the fairness of the reward he or she gets in, relation to the inputs (which include factors, such as effort, experience and education), in comparison with the rewards of others (Koontz and Weihrich, 2001). This theory can be written in an equation as:

Outcomes by a person = outcomes by another person

Inputs by a person inputs by another person

In other words, the outcomes and inputs relationship for one person in comparison with another person should balance. This can further be put in a model as;
Figure 14: Equity Theory
Inequitable reward



Output Departure from Organisation

Balance or imbalance of reward

Equitable reward

Satisfaction increases Output Departure from Organisation

More than equitable Reward

Dissatisfaction Reduced Output Departure from Organisation

Source: Koontz and Weihrich (2001, P.474)
According to equity theory, inequitable reward may lead to dissatisfaction which may lead to someone’s withdrawal from organization to start up his or her own business. This dissatisfaction which is usually regarded as a ‘push factor’ can lead women into entrepreneurship. Schermerhorn (2004) also argued that entrepreneur’s expectation for personal rewards affects her performance in the business and her perceived inequity motivates her unto higher performance to eliminate such inequity. This can be demonstrated in the figure below.

Figure 15 : Equity Theory and the Role of Social Comparison

Personal rewards


Personal inputs

are compared to

Others’ rewards


Others’ inputs

with the result

Perceived Equity
The individual is satisfied and does not change behaviour

Perceived Inequity
The entrepreneur feels discomfort and acts to eliminate the inequity

Source: Schermerhorn (2004)

(g) Reinforcement Theory

Reinforcement theory of motivation is developed by Skinner (1976) a psychologist. This is also called positive rein enforcement or behaviour modification. According to him, people can be motivated by proper design of their work environment and praise for their performance and that punishment for poor performance produces negative results that can motivate someone into doing something else e.g reseignation, withdrawal, entrepreneurship (Koontz and Weihrich, 2001). This theory emphasized more on the use of recognition, reward system and praise to improve both good and bad performance. Specific goals are set with workers’ participation and assistance, prompt and regular feedback of results is made available, and performance improvements are rewarded with recognition. When performance does not equal goals, ways are found to help people and praise them for the good things they do (Koontz and Weihrich, 2001). Relating this theory to women entrepreneurial motivation, proper enforcement from their family, environment, past experience, desire for financial gain and recognition can influence women’s attitude and behaviour towards starting entrepreneurial venture. Through empowerment programmes, seminars and workshops, women who are either dissatisfied with her work place or discrimination from promotion exercise can be reinenforced into entrepreneurial activity.

2.2.3 Feminist Theories

The motivation patterns of women entrepreneurs in SMEs sub-sector can be better understood by looking at the feminist theories. Feminist theory is focused around the concept of change; change in organizations, society, and the transformation of understanding. A core precept of the feminist perspective is that women entrepreneurs should not be generalized as they are a complicated and varied collection with multiple characteristics and motivation’s (Sarri and Trihopoulou, 2005). Feminist theory has often emphasized the impact of a male dominated patriarchy, assuming a socially constructed condition of gender relations (Martin, 1984; Hurley, 1999). Fisher, Reuber and Dyke (1993) viewed feminist theory from three perspectives; liberal, social and radical feminism. While quite distinct from each other, the various feminist theories share commonality in their emphasis on historical domination of women by men and male-oriented social policies (Flax, 1990; Ferguson, 1989). These theories explain the bases and the concepts that underline the emergence, behaviour and performance of women in the business world.

(a) Liberal Feminist Theory

Liberal feminism discuses how sex and gender are intimately related to socialization. It sees women as disadvantaged relative to men due to overt discrimination and to systemic factors that deprive them of vital resources required for business and economic decisions such as; finance, education and experience (Fisher, Reuber and Dyke, 1993). This theory works towards an egalitarian society which would uphold the right of each individual to fulfill their potential (Kutanis and Bayraktaroglu, 2003). Liberal feminism advocates that social and economic reform can only be possible if women are given the opportunities and status as their men counterpart to participate in economic developmental issues. The treatment of liberal theory is conventional in terms of established feminist theory, evoking the idea that men’s and women’s ways of knowing and coping with the world are essentially the same, so that the main task of feminist research and policies is to allow women’s estate to reach a state of similarity with men’s via the removal of overt or systemic forms of discrimination against women. Liberal feminism somehow supports the nineteenth-century feminists, and ‘new’ feminism, which argued that equality between male and female gender could not be achieved by legislation. This is based on the fact that men and women’s social needs differ in many ways due to their biological and psychological differences. In as much that liberal feminists are responsible for welfare, education and health reforms that have benefited the lives of millions of women, women are usually seen as inferior to men and should be subordinate to them.

(b) Social Feminist Theory

On the other hand, social feminist theory is of the suggestion that due to differences in early and ongoing socialization, women and men do differ inherently but this does not mean that women are inferior to men. Social feminism regards power relations as central to defining gender and concludes that socialization experienced throughout life creates inherent differences between genders. This theory views men and women as different individuals with different but equally effective potentials. The differences in men and women’s traits and values were seen as the reason behind women nature, size of businesses and their experiences in business. Social feminism is of the opinion that there are differences between male and female experiences through deliberate socialization methods from the earliest moments of life that result in fundamentally different ways of viewing the world.

This theory accepts that “the furthering of one’s capacity for autonomous agency is only possible within the confines of a solidarity community, which sustains one’s identity through mutual recognition (Tong, 1989). According to Kutanisi and Bayraktaroglu, 2003) social feminism is guided by maternal thinking that tries to protect the private life by preserving and protecting its ‘moral imperatives’. It seeks increases in privacy as opposed to liberal feminism. Social feminists argued that women’s ways of doing things and specifically female approaches to business ownership, need to be celebrated in their own right (Jaggar, 1983; Tong, 1989) . In social theory of feminism, sex and gender are seen with different views. Sex is a biological variable that comes through birth while gender is a socially constructed and contested characteristic, which is accepted through someone’s lifestyle and involvement in social issues. As a result, a human being with the female sex might adapt into a male gender accepting during life. The fact that a person has male or female sex organ does not make the person a contributor to economic and social matters or otherwise.

Sex is therefore not the major different between men and women perspectives to business and does not stand as a hindrance to someone’s level of success and contribution to economic development. However, women increased participation and success in the business world, could result in changes in certain demographic variables, such as higher degrees of residential mobility, new lifestyle and nutritional habits, increased duration of work time, possible higher rates of divorce cases or of never-married women, postponement of childbearing or lower fertility, overall increase of social stress, or higher emotional/psychological satisfaction increase in the level of education and well-being. Nigerian female entrepreneurs perceive themselves as domestic and conventional women, and they think that they can balance all the functions on their own.

(c) Radical Feminists Theory

Radical feminism explores the role of culture and tradition in giving greater worth to the male experience, and suggests that, if anything, the female experience warrants the greater emphasis (Scott, 1986). Radical feminism theorists perceived that women live under conditions of inequality in most systems of economic production regardless of whether capitalist, socialist or communist. Patriarchy, women’s oppression and domination by men, is the fundamental oppression and at the root of others. Patriarchy pervades public world of formal economic production processes but also private worlds of family, marriage, sexuality and biological reproduction introduced the phrase that personal is political and the political is personal. Seek to replace existing gender roles with androgyny, any resulting differences would then be human not gender differences. Some focus specifically on the male physical, psychological and social control of female sexuality as the basic cause of female subordination.

Others focused on the tyranny of reproductive biology from which women must be liberated, and thus they seek to eliminate biological sex as basis of social differentiation. Radical feminism was first to introduce the following as feminist issues: reproductive and contraceptive rights, abortion, reproductive technologies, sexuality expression and experience, fight against sexual and physical violence against women (rape, sexual harassment, incest, pornography and domestic violence). These three theories of feminism can further be put in Table 26 for proper understanding.
Table 26 Summary of the Feminist Theories


Liberal Feminism

Social Feminism

Radical Feminism


All people are Equal

All people are created equal, women are essentially the same as men

Integrate issues of gender and class, i.e. unite concepts of patriarchy and capitalism, seeks to eliminate both class and gender oppression

Women live under conditions of inequality in most systems of economic production regardless of whether capitalist, socialist or communist


Equal opportunity

Based upon principle of equality of opportunity and freedom

Women's oppression caused by their economic dependence on men’s income

Patriarchy, women’s oppression and domination by men, is the fundamental oppression and at the root of other.


Sex is not important

Gender not determined by sex

Economic production systems of sexuality, childbearing and childrearing, care of other members of family and sick, and gender socialization must all be looked at

Marriage, sexuality and biological reproductive organ is personal and a determinant factor for social and political issues.


Equal participation

Inequality stems from unequal participation in spheres outside of the family, primarily education and paid labour force

Investigate interface between women’s paid labour and domestic labour lives

Patriarchy pervades public world of formal economic production processes but also private worlds of family, marriage, sexuality and biological reproduction.


Social Change and merit

Seek social changes that will create a meritocracy where social rank is based on merit and in which hierarchy and inequality are both inevitable and acceptable

Traditional sexuality script is emblematic of gender power relations

Introduced the phrase the personal is political and then also the political is personal


Change is necessary

Education is means of change

Abolition of gender and class are goals where socialism will only occur with the liberation of women and women's liberation will only occur under socialism

Social change is necessary in both private and public worlds


Structural system

Oppression of women is not a structural feature of capitalist economic system.

Working class women

Seek to replace existing gender roles with androgyny, any resulting differences would then be human not gender differences


Lagel intervention

Look to state to bring about women's liberation through legislative measures – equality through law

Social feminism is of the opinion that there are differences between male and female experiences through deliberate socialization methods that need to be corrected.

Ffocus specifically on the male physical, psychological and social control of female sexuality as the basic cause of female subordination in public and private sector.


Programs and practices for equality

Programs advocated include affirmative action, equal opportunity employment, employment equity, pay equity, parental leave, subsidized daycare professional and middle-class women

Sex is a biological variable that comes through birth while gender is a socially constructed and contested characteristic, which is accepted through someone’s lifestyle and involvement in social issues. Need for programs for enlightment.

Focus on the tyranny of reproductive biology from which women must be liberated, and thus they seek to eliminate biological sex as basis of social differentiation


Role of agency

National Action Committee on the Status of Woman (N.A.C.): umbrella organization representing five hundred feminist-oriented women's groups.

This theory accepts that “the furthering of one’s capacity for autonomous agency is only possible within the confines of a solidarity community.

First to introduce the following as feminist issues: reproductive and contraceptive rights, abortion, reproductive technologies, sexuality expression and experience, sexual and physical violence against women (rape, sexual harassment, incest, pornography and domestic violence)

Sources:  www.Gender bibliography/org Retrieved Nov. (2007) ; Kutanis and Bayraktaroglu (2003)

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