Chapter one introduction 1 Background to the Study



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RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE

I am currently carrying out research on Motivation of Entrepreneurs in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). I would appreciate your sincere response to the questions.


To ensure accuracy and easy completion, the questions are simplified. Both close and open ended questions are used. You are expected to fill the open ended questions and tick good ( √ ) on the close ended questions as appropriate. Your response to these questions is an indication of your positive contribution to the economic development of the nation. All information supplied will be treated with high respect to protect your confidentiality.

Thank you for your cooperation and God bless.


CHINONYE OKAFOR

PART I

SECTION A

ENTREPRENEUR’S PERSONAL BIO DATA

  1. Sex: (a) Male

(b) Female

3. Age


(a) 15 – 20yrs

(b) 21- 26 yrs

(c) 31- 35yrs

(d) 40 – 45yrs

(e) 46 and above



  1. Highest educational qualification:

(a) WASC/GCE

(b) OND


(c) HND/ BSc. .

(d) MSc


(e) Others specify --------------------------


  1. Marital Status:

(a) Single

(b) Married

(c) Divorced

(d) Widow




  1. No of Children:

(a) 1

(b) 2


(c) 3

(d) 4


(e) 5 and above


  1. No of dependants:

(a) 1

(b) 2


(c) 3

(d) 4


(e) 5 and above

7. How old were you when you started this business? ---------------------------------------------

8. How many years did you work for somebody before you started you own business -------

9. Religion: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

10. State of origin -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

11. Local Govt. Area ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12. State other businesses you are involved in ( if any ) (a)--------------------------------

(b) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

13. How did you start your business (a) From the scratch (b) Purchased

(c) Inherited (d) joined someone to start the business



SECTION B

NATURE OF BUSINESS

1. Name of your business ----------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Business location Address----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. What is the structure of your business? (eg Sole trader, Partnership etc.) ------------

4. What is nature of your business? (eg. Trading, Manufacturing, Service etc.)--------

5. Year of establishing the business-----------------------------------------------------------

6. No of employees when the business started-----------------------------------------------

7. No of employees currently serving --------------------------------------------------------



8. How many branches does your business have? ------------------------------------------
SECTION C

ENTREPRENEUR’S BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
You are required to tick ( ) or circle your choice either Yes or No

1.

Are you the first in your nuclear family?

Yes

No

2

Are you the only child of your parents?

Yes

No

3.

Are your parents self employed?

Yes

No

4.

Does your educational background relate to your business?

Yes

No

5.

Have you worked for someone before?

Yes

No

6.

Did you start this business immediately you stopped working in the organization?

Yes

No

7

Does what you are doing now relate to your previous work?

Yes

No

8.

Is your former boss a man?

Yes

No

9.

Were you dissatisfied with your former place of work that you had to resign to start own business?

Yes

No

10.

Were you sacked from your former place of work?

Yes

No

11.

Is the business you are currently running your family business?

Yes

No

12

Are you the breadwinner of your family?

Yes

No

13.

Is it your mentor/role model that encouraged you to start this business?

Yes

No

14.

Is it your desire to earn more or extra income that pushed you into business?

Yes

No

15.

Did you receive training related to the business before you started it?

Yes

No

16.

Are you the owner of the building where your business is located?

Yes

No

17.

Is this type of business peculiar to your family members?

Yes

No

18.

Did you start this business because you wanted to be closer to your family?

Yes

No

19.

Did you participate in your family business when you were younger?

Yes

No

PART 11

The questions in this part are designed using a simple format from (Strongly Agree) to (Strongly Disagree). You are required to tick ( ) on your choice among the alternatives provided.



SECTION A

ENTREPRENEURS’ PERCEPTION

S/No

Questions

Strongly Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

1.

I enjoy taking risk.

5

4

3

2

1

2.

I enjoy pursuing moderate difficult goals

5

4

3

2

1

3.

I believe I have control over my business resources through my own efforts.

5

4

3

2

1

4.

My tolerance for ambiguity is very high

5

4

3

2

1

5.

I have the strength and energy required

For This business that I am doing.



5

4

3

2

1

6..

I am highly creative and innovative.

5

4

3

2

1

7.

My desire to build up equity for

retirement made me to start this business.



5

4

3

2

1

8.

I started the business because I obtained loan from the bank.

5

4

3

2

1

9.

I can easily find customers for my

product/service.



5

4

3

2

1

10.

I was not challenged by the work that I

was doing this led me into starting this



business.

5

4

3

2

1

11.

My desire to be my own boss led me into starting this business.

5

4

3

2

1

12.

My need for independence made me to start my own business.

5

4

3

2

1

13.

My desire for Self esteem led me into starting my own business.

5

4

3

2

1

14.

I desired self confidence hence I have to start my own business.

5

4

3

2

1

15

My competitive nature pushed me to start this business.

5

4

3

2

1

16.

My Proactiveness pushed me to start this business.

5

4

3

2

1

17.

I wanted to have self achievement by having my own business.

5

4

3

2

1

18.

I have the skills required for business, this encouraged me to start this business .

5

4

3

2

1

19.

Desire to earn an extra income encouraged

Me to start this business.



5

4

3

2

1

20.

I started my own business because I

wanted to be more involved in my family

decision making.


5

4

3

2

1

21.

Desire for a change of career led me into

this Business



5

4

3

2

1

22.

I could no longer cope combining my

former job with my family affairs, this led

me into starting this business.


5

4

3

2

1

23.

Desire to leave business as a legacy made

me To start this business.



5

4

3

2

1

24.

Desire for self fulfillment made me to

start this business.



5

4

3

2

1

25.

Desire to advance in my career made me

to start this business.



5

4

3

2

1

26

Issues of gender discrimination in the

labour market made me to start this

business.


5

4

3

2

1

27.

Desire for social recognition led me into

starting business.



5

4

3

2

1

28.

I could not get job, hence I had to start my

own business.



5

4

3

2

1

29.

Desire to experience business

rowth/successmade me to start business.



5

4

3

2

1

30.

Desire to experience business

growth/success made me to start business.



5

4

3

2

1


SECTION B

ENTREPRENEUR AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

S/No

Questions

Strongly Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

1

Accessibility to finance required for my

business encouraged me to start this

business


5

4

3

2

1

2.

Accessibility to labour for the business

encouraged me to start this business.



5

4

3

2

1

3.

Accessibility to my suppliers encouraged

me To start this business.



5

4

3

2

1

4

Accessibility to the market encouraged

Me to start this business.



5

4

3

2

1

5.

A conducive environment encouraged me

to start this business.



5

4

3

2

1

6.

I wanted to make contribution to my

Community, this led me to start this

business.


5

4

3

2

1

7.

I started the business because of availability of support services such as; incubators etc.

5

4

3

2

1

8.

I started this business because I wanted to be involved in job creation in Nigerian economy.

5

4

3

2

1

9.

Nobody is doing this type of business in my community that is why I started it.

5

4

3

2

1

10

Accessibility to networking /association

on this type of business encouraged me to

start it


5

4

3

2

1

11

I would have still being in business

even if I was not making enough

profit.


5

4

3

2

1

12.

Accessibility to my customers

encouraged me To start this business.



5

4

3

2

1

13.

My friends are into this type of business.

5

4

3

2

1

14.

The uncertainty of Nigerian business

Environment led me into to this business.



5

4

3

2

1

15

I did not want to be among the

Unemployed, hence I started this business.



5

4

3

2

1

16.

My movement into the city encouraged me to start this business.

5

4

3

2

1

17.

Deregulation policy encouraged me to

start is business.



5

4

3

2

1

18.

Desire to take advantage of positive

business opportunity made me to start

business.


5

4

3

2

1

19.

Accessibility to electricity encouraged me

to start this business.



5

4

3

2

1

20.

Accessibility to good road encouraged me

to start this business.



5

4

3

2

1

21.

Accessibility to my transportation

encouraged Me to start this business.



5

4

3

2

1



SECTION C

MOTIVATION AND BUSINESS PERFORMANCE

S/No

Questions

Strongly Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

I

My business financial investment has so

much improved because of my personal

inputs into the business.


5

4

3

2

1

2

My return on share earnings has

tremendously improved because of my

competence and involvement in

investment decisions making.



5

4

3

2

1

3.

Due to my cost consciousness (financial

skill), my company has saved a lot of

money.


5

4

3

2

1

4.

Our competitiveness in the market is

improving because of my application of

marketing skill to my business.


5

4

3

2

1

5

My business has expanded, because I

put In more hours in my own business.



5

4

3

2

1

6.

My business profitability has increased

because of my involvement in the

business


5

4

3

2

1

7.

My personal income has increased

because of my involvement in the

business


5

4

3

2

1

8.

My business revenues have increased

because of my involvement in the

business


5

4

3

2

1


SECTION D

CHALLENGES TO WOMEN ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT

S/No

Questions

Strongly Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

1.

I anticipated competition, and

customers’ complaints before I started

this business.


5

4

3

2

1

2.

Lack of access to finance have been

my major challenge since I started

this business.


5

4

3

2

1

3

I am facing financial challenge

because of my lack of financial skill

before I started this business.


5

4

3

2

1

4.

I am facing these challenges because of the nature of business that I am into.

5

4

3

2

1

5.

The rate of labour turnover in my business is high because I did not consider it as a problem before starting my business.

5

4

3

2

1

6.

One of the challenges I am facing in business is sexual harassment from the opposite sex.

5

4

3

2

1

7.

The role I play in my family is a challenge to my business.

5

4

3

2

1

8.

The challenges facing women entrepreneurs motivated me to start this business

5

4

3

2

1


SECTION E

CHALLENGES TO WOMEN ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT

Please rank the following challenges in the order they have affected your business.

S/No

Questions

Ranking

1.

Combining family responsibilities and work is my problem




2.

Lack of access to finance for business expansion have been my

major challenge






3

No one is advising me on business issues




4.

Gaining acceptance in the market and respect of my customers




5.

No opportunity for training/upgrading skills is my problem




6.

Lack of support and assistance




7.

Lack of access to information and technology




8.

Finding right contacts/networking is a challenge to me




9.

I am facing the problem of sexual harassment from the opposite sex




10.

Coping with competition is my problem




11

High rent/tenement rates is affecting my business




12

Customer complaints is affecting my business




13.

Inconsistency in electricity/other power facilities has been my problem




14.

Too much of government regulations and levies is affecting my business




15.

Gender discrimination in the industry is a challenge to my business




16.

Amount of time and energy required for this business is a challenge to me




17.

My husband does not like this kind of business I am doing.




18.

Unfavourable economic conditions such as inflation, taxes,






SECTION F

MOTIVATION AND ENTREPRENEUR’S CHOICE OF BUSINESS

S/No

Questions

Strongly Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

I

I chose this type of business because it will enable me to achieve self independence

5

4

3

2

1

2

I chose this business because it will enable

me to be involved in the family decision

making process.


5

4

3

2

1

3.

I chose this business because it does not

require too much capital to start.



5

4

3

2

1

4.

I chose this business because I have

personal Characteristics in line with this type of business.



5

4

3

2

1

5.

The government is supporting this type of business that is why I started it.

5

4

3

2

1

6.

I chose this type of business because it is

the type of business most people around me

do.


5

4

3

2

1

7.

I chose this type of business because it is convenient for me as a woman.

5

4

3

2

1

8.

I chose this type of business because the

risk involved is relatively high.



5

4

3

2

1

9.

I chose this type of business because it does

not require too many employees to run it.



5

4

3

2

1

10

I started this type of business because it is

peculiar to women.



5

4

3

2

1

11.

I started this type of business because I

wanted to prove that I can do what a man



can do.

5

4

3

2

1

12.

I chose this type of business because it is peculiar to my family.

5

4

3

2

1

13.

I chose this business because it will improve my quality of life.

5

4

3

2

1

14.

I chose this type of business because the registration process is very easy.

5

4

3

2

1


SECTION G

ENTREPRENEUR’S OPINION ON BUSINESS
1. What are your challenges since you started this business?

  1. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  2. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  3. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  4. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  5. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. How do you think these challenges will be solved?

  1. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  2. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  3. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  4. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  5. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. What are the five (5) main things that motivated you into entrepreneurship that can act as motivating factors to other women in Nigeria?

  1. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  2. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  3. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  4. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  5. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. What are your advices to Nigerian women entrepreneurs?

  1. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  2. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  3. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  4. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  5. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


PART 111

BUSINESS PERFORMANCE

1 Estimated value of Initial capital at the

commencement of the business

(a) Below N50,000

(b) N50,999 – N100,000

(c) N100,999 – N150,000

(d) N1500,999 – N200,000

(e) N200,999 and Above

2. Estimated value of present capital

(a) Below N1m

(b) N1m – N5, 000,000

(c) N5, 999, 999 – N10, 000,000

(d) N10, 999,999 – N15, 000,000

(e) N15, 999,999 and Above

3. Estimate of initial annual sales/turnover

(a) Below N50,000

(b) N50,999 – N100,000

(c) N100,999 – N150,000

(d) N1500,999 – N200,000

(e) N200,999 and Above


4. Estimate of current annual sales/turnover

(a) Below N10m

(b) N10m – N20, 000,000

(c) N20, 999, 999 – N30, 000,000

(d) N30, 999,999 – N40, 000,000

(e) N44, 999,999 and Above


5. What percentage(%) of your investment

represents your annual profit at the

commencement of the business.

(a) Less 10%

(b) 10% - 20%

(c) 20% - 30%

(d) 30% - 40%

(e) 40% and Above


6. What percentage(%) of your

investment represents your current

profit at the commencement of the business.

(a) Less 10%

(b) 10% - 20%

(c)20% - 30%

(d) 30% - 40%

(e) 40% and Above


7. Estimate of initial annual total expenditure

(a) Below N50,000

(b) N50,999 – N100,000

(c) N100, 999 – N150,000

(d) N200, 999 – N250,000

(e) N300, 999 and Above


8. Estimate of the current annual

total expenditure

(a) Below N500, 000

(b) N500, 999 – N1, 000,000

(c) N1, 999,999 – N1, 500,000

(d) N2, 999, 999 – N2, 500,000

(e) N2, 500,999 and Above
9. What is the estimated value of the

total fixed assets of your business?

(a) Below N10m

(b) N10m – N20, 000,000

(c) N20, 999, 999 – N30, 000,000

(d) N30, 999,999 – N40, 000,000

(e) N44, 999,999 and Above

10. Estimated number of hours you

put in your business daily

(a) 6hrs

(b) 7hrs

(c) 8hrs

(d) 9hrs

(e) 10hrsand above


11. What is the number of hours you

used to put in your former place

of work daily?

(a) 6hrs

(b) 7hrs

(c) 8hrs

(d) 9hrs

(e) 10hrsand above


12. Where did you get the capital you

used in starting your business

(a) Savings

(b) Bank loan

(c) Borrowing from friends

(d) Borrowing from relations



(e) Others specify ----------

Appendix Two

Sample of Interview Guide

Women Entrepreneurship Interview Guide

  1. What is the name of your business?

  2. When did you start this business?

  3. Is any body in your family or community doing this type of business?

  4. Why did you choose this type of business?

  5. How much did you start this business with?

  6. How many employees do you currently have in your business?

  7. Are you the owner of the building where your office is located?

  8. Have you worked for some one before?

  9. Have you done this kind of business before you started your own business?

  10. Did you start this business because you needed an extra income?

  11. What are the factors that motivated you into this business?

  12. How will you rate your performance in your business since you started it?

  13. What is the value of your total assets?

  14. Is your business been negatively affected by any of the government policies?

  15. What is the estimate of your annual expenditure?

  16. What is the value of your annual tax?

  17. What are the major challenges you are facing in your business?

  18. Are these challenges related to your reason(s) of starting business?

  19. Are these challenges peculiar to other women business?

  20. In what way(s) do you think these challenges will be solved?




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