Chapter one introduction 1 Background to the Study



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CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of the Work

This chapter contains the summary of the work, conclusions, policy implication of the findings, recommendations, problems encountered during conducting this research, limitation of the research, suggestions for further study and contribution to knowledge. The objectives of this study were to examine the motivational patterns that exist among women entrepreneurs across different industrial sectors of the Nigerian economy using South-West Nigeria as case study and the relationship between these motivational factors and women entrepreneurial performance, the challenges they face in business, their type of business ownership and environmental factors. Apart from the objectives of the study, chapter one contains the statement of problem, research questions, significant of the study, hypotheses, scope and limitation of the study.


In chapter two, a lot of literature on SMEs, entrepreneurship, motivation, entrepreneurial performance and the challenges women entrepreneurs face in business were reviewed. Also different theories that relate to entrepreneurship, motivation and women were looked at. Feminism and entrepreneurship theory was adopted as the theoretical framework of this study.
In chapter three, to achieve the objectives of this study, the researcher adopted the survey method and a cross sectional type of research design. The instruments of questionnaire and interview were employed to collect the data required for this study. The questionnaires were administered to 570 women entrepreneurs in agricultural, manufacturing, service and trade sectors of the Nigerian economy in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States. Out of the 570 questionnaires administered, 422 were retrieved and analyzed.
In chapter four, the five hypotheses formulated for this study were tested with descriptive statistics, predictive statistics, content and qualitative analysis. Different statistical tools such as ANOVA, Chi-square, factor analysis and correlation coefficient were used in analyzing the hypotheses. In addition to these statistical tools, Lorenz curve was also used in testing the concentration or otherwise of these businesses in the States used as the case study. The study discovered that different motivational factors exist among women entrepreneurs from different industrial sectors and significant relationship exist between the motivational factors and women entrepreneurial performance, the challenges they face in business, their type of business ownership and their environment. Lorenz curve was used to confirm the research questionnaire distribution in the three states used as the case study for the research.
Chapter five contains the summary of the study, the discussion, conclusions, implications to policy making, recommendations, problems encountered by the researcher in the field survey, limitation of the research work and the contributions to knowledge.
5.2 Discussion of the Findings

The discussion is based on the earlier findings of Akeredolu-Ale (1975); Shapero and Sokol (1982); Kent, Sexton and Vasper (1982); Hisrich and Brush (1986) Aldrich and Zimmer (1986); Carsrud, Gaglio and Olm (1987); Otokiti, (1987); Soetan, (1991); Finnegan and Danielsen (1997); Dhaliwal (2000); Ryan and Deci (2002); Barwa (2003); Ogundele and Opeifa (2003); Gelin (2005); Brunstein and Maier (2005) as contained in the literature review. The supporting findings were cited as well as contradictory views (Stevenson, 1986; Zellner, 1994; Greenberger and Sexton, 1988; Taylor and Kosarek, 1995). As stated earlier, the discussion of this study followed the hypotheses raised and tested. These hypotheses guided the arrangement of the discussions and they are presented below:



Hypothesis 1: Different factors do not motivate women entrepreneurs across

different industrial sectors in South-West Nigeria


The result shows that the null hypothesis was rejected. This implies that different motivational patterns exist among women entrepreneurs across different industrial sectors of the South-West Nigeria. This finding corroborates the needs theory (Murray, 1938; Maslow, 1948) which states that entrepreneurial motivation is determined by the biological, psychological and social needs of an individual (Astin, 1984; Atkinson, 1964; Murray, 1938). Apart from the position of this theory, many studies have reported related findings in line with the finding of this study. A number of studies have examined women’s entrepreneurial motivations (Brush, 1992; Cliff and Cash, 2005). Some findings highlight individual, psychological or personality reasons, while others point to broader on social and economic constraints (Gatewood, 2004; Hughes, 2005). Reflecting on this, different motivational patterns emphasis, a key point of debate concerns the relative role of different industrial sectors and the extent to which women have been “pulled” or “pushed” into entrepreneurship. A common finding in many studies is that women are pushed into entrepreneurship for different reasons which may be similar or different from the reasons that motivate men into entrepreneurship. Notably, men are usually identified with such factors as desire for greater independence, challenge and improved financial opportunity as their motivating factors while women are known with factors such as autonomy, independence and balancing work with family life.
Davidson (1991) found out that if the individual believes that entrepreneurial growth may lead to the fulfillment of personal goals then motivation is enhanced and it stimulates the growth of the business activities and the decision to become an entrepreneur based on product of a number of circumstantial factors are established. Morrison et.al, (1992) reported that among the factors that contribute directly to new venture creation among women are nature, size of business, background characteristics, education and experience, collaboration, location, starting capital, external forces, greater career advancement.

Other factors include; freedom, flexibility, and increased in economic reward. Among these factors, Stevenson (1986); Zellner (1994); Taylor and Kosarek (1995) suggested that occupational flexibility is a motivator in women entrepreneurship. According to them, it is a more critical factor for women entrepreneurs compared to their men counterpart. In support of this, Ducheneaut and Orhan (1997); Orhan and Scott (2001) emphasized that this flexibility assists with the desire and need to both work and raise families are more peculiar with women entrepreneurs with children, their venture choice offers them more flexibility to accommodate both their business/financial and family responsibilities. Another factor viewed as important in women choice of entrepreneurship as a career is ‘time studies’ carried out by Starr and Yudkin, (1996); Gundry and Welsch (2001). The results of these studies showed that for women entrepreneurs having enough time with their family is primary and their ventures were sometimes specially founded based on this.



In NWBC’s (2003) study of the reasons why men and women choose to be self employed instead of being in paid jobs,, they found out that women are much more likely to cite necessity as a reason for going into entrepreneurship than men. They reported that 69% of men cited opportunity as their motivation for starting a business, while 31% cited freedom. In comparison, 56% of women cited necessity, while 44% of them cited necessity as their motivation for starting a business. Thus, more than half of the women said that they became entrepreneurs because there were no other options available.
This finding was confirmed by the finding of Brunstein and Maier (2005). Their work revealed that two motives are directly involved in the prediction of entrepreneurial behaviourial pattern. These are involvement in entrepreneurship and new venture creation (implicit and explicit or intrinsic and extrinsic motivation). They also reported that implicit motives are spontaneous impulses to act which is also known as task performances and is aroused through incentives inherent to the task. On the other hand, explicit motives are expressed through deliberate choices and more often stimulated for extrinsic reasons. They concluded that individuals with strong implicit needs to achieve goals set higher internal standards so as to meet up with identified lapses and past failures while others tend to adhere to the societal norms. However, the finding of the present study subscribed to the fact that motivation may be expressed in various ways such as the aspirations or behavioural intentions.
In summary, numerous literature demonstrated that the motives of women involvement in entrepreneurial development as most frequently cited was self satisfaction, the search for independence, financial freedom and support to their family. Various factors linked with family needs and wants and these factors differ depending on the industrial sectors involved (Jasime, 1998; Bartol and Martin, 1998 and Gelin, 2005). Among the popular business sectors to be ventured into are services and trading sectors which are to be operated at a micro and small scale enterprise level, requiring low capital investment, minimum labour utilization, a flexible working hours, the priority to the family and fulfilling their leisure time. The results from this research work clearly indicate and opine that psychological, social, financial and supportive environmental factors may well be linked with the reasons why women venture into entrepreneurial activities especially in small and medium enterprises. The reason for the present finding may be anchored on the fact that theories of entrepreneurship that utilize psychology, economic, sociological and innovative processing concepts (Schumpeter, 1934; McClelland, 1961; Knight, 1978; Johnson, 1990 and Reynolds, 1991) at the individual level possess numerous advantages over those that do not. It is pertinent therefore to note that financial and psychological factors play important role in women entrepreneurial development. This finding implies that theories of entrepreneurship that fail to address this notion require further research on.

5.2.2 Hypothesis 2: There is no significant relationship between the factors that motivate Nigerian women entrepreneurs and their performance in SMEs sub- sectors”

Hypothesis 2 was rejected. This implies that there is a significant relationship between the factors that motivate Nigerian women entrepreneurs and their performance in SMEs sub- sectors. The finding of the present study is in agreement with earlier studies such as those by Weber (1930) who argued that “individual motivational pattern determines entrepreneurial performance”. In line with this argument, other researchers also assert that psychological motivation or set of motivations of individual is a function of their entrepreneurial personal characteristics such as family status, sex, educational background, environment and growing up in an entrepreneurial family. These factors have been found to influence women performance entrepreneurially (Aldrich and Zimmer, 1986; Carsrud and Johnson, 1987; Carsrud, Gaglio, and Olm, 1987; Reynolds, 1992). The results of these researches indicated positive relationship between the personal characteristics of women entrepreneurs and their business performance. Performance in this context was generated by finding the relationship between the respondents’ initial capital and their business current sales. For instance, the position of a woman entrepreneur in her family has a way of affecting her entrepreneurial performance.


This seems to support Martins (1984)’s findings which indicated that individuals enter a free-choice period that results from the interaction of five distinct elements: partial social alienation; psychological/physical dispositions; demonstration effects; family factor and precipitating events. These elements have a way of affecting entrepreneurial performance either negatively or positively. Some findings indicated a variety of factors that operate in the business environment that may motivate women to excellence performance. Shapero (1988) and Ronstadt (1985) found factors such as educational background, attitude to work, the economic climate of the market and the availability of accessible funds as important motivational factors that can affect entrepreneurial performance.
Greenberger and Sexton (1988) however, criticized Martin's findings and hypothesized that the fact that an entrepreneur has an idea does not necessarily mean that the person will act positively towards implementing such an idea even though he or she possess "personality of an entrepreneur". She or he may need the push from others to convince herself to implement the idea. Looking at the relationship between parental type of business, educational background (entrepreneurial motivational factors) and entrepreneurial performance, Cooper and Dunkelberg (1987) conducted a survey of 890 entrepreneurs and found out that 50% of the respondents with high entrepreneurial performance had at least one parent or guardian who was self-employed, 26% of those with high performance had at least a college degree relating to business while 15% of them had a higher degree in either MBA or business related courses.

Other factors in women entrepreneurial motivation that relate to their entrepreneurial performance are the social and entrepreneurial networks that provide access to support services (Aldrich and Zimmer, 1986; Smeltzer and Fann, 1989; Reynolds, 1992). Several findings also indicate the importance of membership in an entrepreneurship-supportive network as motivational factor that could affect women entrepreneurial performance (Carsrud and Johnson, 1987; Carsrud, Gaglio, and Olm, 1987). The findings of Learned (1992); Ogundele and Opeifa (2003) who found out that environment affect entrepreneur’s situation, which in turn stimulates her entrepreneurial behaviour and performance, sheds additional light into the relationship between motivation and entrepreneurial performance. In concordance with these findings, there are other performance variables that are not explored in this present study that may give contrary results; this calls for further research in this direction.



5.2.3 Hypothesis 3 : “Motivational factors do not determine the challenges women entrepreneurs face in business”.

Hypothesis three was rejected. This implies that, motivational factors determine the type of challenges women entrepreneurs face in business. Looking at the factors that motivate women entrepreneurs and the challenges they face in their business, the findings of this study uncovered the fact that several relationships exist between the underlying facets of motivational factors and the challenges women entrepreneurs face in the field. This study discovered that motivational variables whether intrinsic or extrinsic, push or pull and opportunistic and necessity are positively related to the challenges women entrepreneurs face. To investigate more on this, statistical analysis was conducted to determine the multiple effects of family influence, financial, psychological and environmental factors as motivational factors on the challenges women entrepreneurs face in business.

The finding of this study supports that of Brunstein and Maier (2005) whose work revealed that about 80% of women-based entrepreneurs are stuck at the micro level while more than 70% of women-based small enterprises fold up between 1-5 years of their operation. They were unable to expand because they lack; properly coordinated support, cheap and long-term credit and sufficient access to new technologies. They face poor infrastructure, low capacity and sometimes obstructive government policies. Many of them were restricted to choose businesses that do not required high skill because they were intrinsically motivated into entrepreneurial venture (Finnegan and Danielsen, 1997). The findings indicated that women entrepreneurs who face challenges such as lack of managerial skills, lack of infrastructural facilities and lack of access to capital (related to business start-up and growth) tend to be in areas of trade and service enterprises which were intrinsically motivated. Other findings based on family financial histories act as barriers to women wishing to develop their own businesses and they are mostly found in the real sectors (agriculture and manufacturing), which generally are not supported by traditional financial institutions. 
However, Barwa’s (2003) findings from the study of 270 women entrepreneurs, identified reasons why women entrepreneurs chose their businesses. These reasons include flexible hours (82%); had the idea for the product or service (33%); identified a need in the market (25%); had special skills and experience necessary for this business (70%); parents’ business (36%) and other reasons (24%). The findings indicated that the main reasons why women entrepreneurs chose the business they were in are either intrinsic or extrinsic (Dhaliwal, 2000; Barwa, 2003; Brunstein and Maier, 2005). Women who go into business just to satisfy identified needs without identifying the resultant challenges associated with such intention tend to encounter more challenges than those that premeditated on effect of such challenges on their intentions before starting the business. In the same vein, women that were forced or pushed into business by negative circumstances or factors are more likely to encounter some peculiar challenges associated with lack of managerial skills, lack of working capital and lack of experience. Other women who went into business just to satisfy extrinsic needs may also have challenges such as extravagant spending, customer complaints and so on.

To throw more light on the multiple effects of each of the motivational variables on women entrepreneurial challenges, past researches into personal dissatisfaction (a motivational factor) concluded that personal dissatisfaction as a “push factor” has an intrinsic effect on women entrepreneurs’ performance can help in tackling the challenges the women face in business. Further research should investigate these findings for both replication and for enrichment of the results.



5.2.4 Hypothesis 4 : “Motivational factors do not determine women entrepreneurs’

type of business ownership”

Hypothesis 4 was rejected, meaning that, motivational factors determine women entrepreneurs’ type of business ownership. The two patterns of motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic or pull and push) identified in the literature reviewed seem to have effect on the entrepreneurial types that can be chosen by women entrepreneurs. In other words, irrespective of the factors that motivate women entrepreneurs, they have the opportunity to choose their entrepreneurial activities within an identified type. Different types of entrepreneurship were identified by several researchers. Among the entrepreneurial typological studies are Timmons (1978); Vesper (1980); Vesalainen and Pihkala (1999); and Grafisk (2000). These researches seem to be in support of the typological study of Smith (1967) which classified entrepreneurs as “craftsmen” and “opportunists” while Braden (1977) categorized entrepreneurs into “caretaker” and “administrator”. Filley and Aldag (1978) typological study grouped entrepreneurs in three categories: the “craftsman”; the “entrepreneur” and the “professional”. Also Vesper (1980) categorized entrepreneurs into economic, business, philosophy, political and social entrepreneurs.
The result of this study agreed with Braden (1977); Filley and Aldag (1978); Vasper (1980) which revealed a strong relationship between entrepreneurial type and motivational variables. Vesper (1980) associated economics, business and capitalist philosophy entrepreneurs as being extrinsically motivated while psychological, political and communist philosophy entrepreneurs as being intrinsically motivated. The finding of this study supported the findings of Taylor (1988) and Zellner (1994) which identified flexibility, to manage their dual responsibilities and for a more balanced life as the major factors why women leave paid job to start ‘a type’ of business that will be more suitable for them to achieve their dual roles. This seems to be the reason why Ivancevich et al (1997) argued that most women entrepreneurs go into micro, small and medium enterprises as a result of “push factors” in their desire to achieve personal goals or to perform their family roles. Hence they are more likely to choose the type of entrepreneurship that will give them self-satisfaction as regards to their intentions for their entrepreneurial action.

This finding also supports Scott and Twomey (1988) who found that individuals expressing a preference for an entrepreneurial career had been motivated positively by their environment in terms of perceiving that they had the ability to work long hours, possessed a special skill, and were innovative as was required by the type of business involved. Ronstadt (1984) looked at individuals who decided to start their Home Based Business (HBB) and found family considerations, time commitments and lack of role models as important factors that motivated them to such business. The results of Karim (2001) and Barwa (2003) showed that the largest percentage (46 percent) of women entrepreneurs was involved in livestock farming; 15 percent were involved in service, 13 percent in craft/textile, while 26% was involved in other kind of business. This indicates that women entrepreneurs were involved in micro, small and medium enterprises because of factors such as availability of required capital, educational background, parental type of business, special skills and experience. These businesses were easy to start with minimum capital requirement and technical knowledge or skills to match.



5.2.5 Hypothesis 5: “There is no significant relationship between the environmental factors and women entrepreneurial motivation”.

The null Hypothesis 5 was rejected, meaning that, there is relationship between the environmental factors and women entrepreneurial motivation. Women entrepreneurial motivation was looked at from the view point that it is most likely that the development of its framework can be influenced by some environmental factors such as financing accessibility, government policy, business support services, family and community support.. Among these factors, government policy has a negative significance on the dependent variable “women entrepreneurial motivation” and this affected all other factors that would enhance their growth and sustainability. The fundamental arguments underlying the framework of this hypothesis is that environment will either negatively or positively influence women entrepreneurs since women-owned enterprises add value to the environment. Conducive environment could result in ‘pull’ factors (which can encourage or attract more women into entrepreneurship), while unconducive environment could results in ‘push’ factors (that can force or push more women into business) (Watkin and Watkin, 1986). This study also looked at the relationship between women entrepreneurial traits and the environmental factors. Although, the study revealed that a weak relationship exist between environment and women entrepreneurial traits, numerous literatures such as Morris and Lewis (1991); Mansor (2005) and Familoni (2007) argued that entrepreneurial traits can be influenced by someone’s environment either negatively or positively. Environmental factors such as availability of infrastructures, training programmes, availability of finance and family support (ILO 2003) are therefore important factors as regards to women entrepreneurial motivation.



5.3 Findings of the Study

The key findings arising under each of the hypotheses tested in this study are presented below.

(i) There are different motivational factors that can be identified with women entrepreneurs whether in agricultural, manufacturing, service and trade sectors. These factors include; desire for extra income, family influence, desire for independence, freedom, flexibility, personal dissatisfaction, difficult conditions at place of work, experience and training, role model, desire for change of life style, ‘glass ceiling’, death of spouse, divorce, education to mention but a few (Fisher, Reuber and Dyke, 1993; Bartol and Martin, 1998; Gracle, 1998; Parboteeach, 2000; Hisrich, Micheal and Shepherd, 2005).

(ii) Women entrepreneurs’ motivational factors are slightly different from that of men entrepreneurs. It was discovered that while men entrepreneurs are usually identified with motivational factors such as energy, risk-taking, autonomy, training, experience, and economic expectancies, women entrepreneurs are identified with motivational factors such as flexibility, freedom, recognition, independence and personal expectancies (Kutanis and Bayraktaroglu, 2003).

(iii) These motivational factors have been classified into two categories such as ‘pull and push’ factors (Shapero and Sokol, 1982; Kent, Sexton and Vasper, 1982; Hisrich and Brush, 1986; Gelin, 2005); or ‘intrinsic and extrinsic’ factors (Ryna and Deci, 2002; Brunstein and Maier, 2005); ‘opportunistic and necessity’ factors (GEM, 2005); ‘independent and dependent’ factors; ‘chanced and forced’ factors (Patel, 1987; Das, 2005). These factors are related and therefore can be classified as ‘internal and external’ factors.

(iv) The study identifies a number of challenges experienced by women entrepreneurs. These include issues relating to family/work balance, inability to have access to the required finance, lower confidence and self-esteem and negative attitudes on the part of some service providers. The findings clearly indicate that male views towards women in business are still perceived to be a barrier to female entrepreneurship in Nigeria. The findings reflect literature which shows that the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs are a complex combination of external, practical and attitudinal issues and internal, psychological issues (Goodbody Economic Consultants, 2002).

(v) Women entrepreneurs’ motivational factors determine their performance in their businesses. For instance, women entrepreneurs who entered into entrepreneurship as a result of push factors have been proved to perform better than those who started business as a result of pull factor (Stoner and Fry, 1982; Buttner and Moore, 1997; Yves et al, 2001).

(vi) Women entrepreneurs’ motivational factors determine the challenges they face in business Women entrepreneurs’ motivational factors determine their performance in their businesses. For instance, women that started business as a result of push factor seem to have been forced into business by negative circumstances without adequate preparation. Hence, they face more challenges than those that were pulled into business. Challenges such as lack of information, lack of access to credit, lack of confidence, inexperience as a result of lack of training and education are usually identified with women that are pushed into entrepreneurship while challenges such as lack of managerial skills, over staffing, high labour turnover, high customer complaints and excess waste of resource are usually identified with women that are pulled into entrepreneurship (Kuratko and Hodgetts, 1995; Kickul, Welsch and Gindry, 2001; Kutanis and Bayraktaroglu, 2003).

(vii) Women entrepreneurs’ motivational factors determine the type of their business ownership (Phizacklea, 1990; Ram, 1992; Ram and Jones, 1998). Allen and Truman (1988); Carter and Evans-Jones (2000). It was discovered that women entrepreneurs that started their business as a result of push factors are more likely to choose sole trade type of business and are likely to join their husbands, brothers, fathers, friends or mentors in their existing businesses as partners (Phizacklea, 1990; Ram, 1992; Ram and Jones, 1998). Allen and Truman (1988); Brush (1992) also argued that women that entered into entrepreneurship as a result of ‘push’ factors are more likely to be domestic entrepreneurs which can be in form of ‘Street Based Business’ (SBB), ‘Home Based Business’ (HBB) or Corridor Based Business’ (CBB). On other hand, women that started business as a result of pull factors are likely to be promoters or founders of companies (Kutanis and Bayraktaroglu, 2003). Also, it was discovered that women who are pulled into entrepreneurship are more likely to choose family business, which in essence constitute joint-ownership with their husbands (Barrett, Jones and McEvoy 1996; Kutanis and Bayraktaroglu, 2003).

(viii) A combination of personal, societal, business, economic and wider environmental factors are all at work in encouraging women entrepreneurs and environmental factors whether conducive or non conducive have positive effect on women entrepreneurs’ motivation depending on their dispositions.



5.4 Conclusions

The conclusions are largely based on the analysis and assessment of the views of the respondents in the course of the study. They are also drawn from the literature and views of the key women entrepreneurs that were interviewed. The findings of this study show that women's entrepreneurial motivational patterns is a complex function and cut across different sectors of the economy. These could be categorized as pull and push factors. "Pull" factors such as seeking recognition and the opportunity for self-expression were most important, while “push” factors such as personal dissatisfaction and discrimination were equally important. The findings clearly show that through entrepreneurship women sought the opportunity to stretch their skills, experience and the freedom to determine their destiny. This study equally revealed that women entrepreneurs have preferences for businesses that are convenient to their dual roles and provided opportunities for personal satisfaction and growth. This research discovered that discrimination against women (‘glass ceiling’) helps in motivating women into seeking for entrepreneurial venture (Morris et al, 1995; Mansor, 2005 and Familoni, 2007). The results of this study show that the motivational factors have significant implications on the women entrepreneurial activities. The business operations of women entrepreneurs depend on the factors that motivated them into business and their business outcomes in terms of finance, marketing, personnel, production, research and development are functions of the factors that motivate them into the business. It was also revealed that women entrepreneurs for whom a balance between family and work was an important reason for leaving their position in an employment carried that priority to their own businesses. The correlation between the family concerns, motivation factor and performance (profits) suggests that one way; these women can ensure the financial security of their families was to operate their entrepreneurial ventures profitably. Perhaps, these women with strong family concerns decided to go into entrepreneurial venture which will enable them to make contribution both to their family and to the welfare of others in their community. However, it was found that restriction to career advancement and sexual harassment were considered as less important in deciding the reasons why women leave organizations and start their own business. In summary, the results indicate that the factors influencing the women's identification of business opportunity that might lead them into leaving their prior employment (for those who were formerly employed) were significantly related to their performance, challenges they face and type of business ownership thus contributing to the understanding of women's entrepreneurial motivation.



5.5 Policy Implications of the Findings

The findings of this research are important for several reasons. The women entrepreneurs in Nigeria and the rest of the world are seen as a powerful driving force for the economic development of their country. However, they lack basic training and development programmes which will be able to transform them into skilful and expert entrepreneurs. Presently, they initiate entrepreneurial ventures based on their own expertise, advice from friends and family and little or more from local NGOs. Advisors of women contemplating the transition from formal employment to entrepreneurship may wish to use the findings of this study to clarify their clients on entrepreneurial motivations. The entrepreneurs in this study who left formal employment primarily because of the pull of entrepreneurship successfully may have proper understanding on the relationship between their decision and their outcome (entrepreneurial performance). They used entrepreneurship as a vehicle for satisfying their need for self-fulfillment. Women who want to contemplate leaving the corporate environment to achieve a better balance between work and family may want to re-examine their organizational options before leaping to entrepreneurship. The findings should be relevant as more and more women reach middle age, a time when career choices are re-evaluated and career change options emerge as life decisions.



5.6 Recommendations

Based on the above, the following important recommendations are made;



  1. Empowerment programmes should be recognized as an innovative approach to poverty alleviation and be organized by the government, private sector and NGOs that are geared towards encouraging more women to start their own businesses. This will enable them to make more contribution to the nation’s economic development in terms of poverty alleviation, job creation, wealth creation and economic vitality.

  2. Women should understand that they play important role in nation building, they should therefore be prepared to start up entrepreneurial initiatives whether they are supported or not. This will help in building up their self- confidence and self-esteem which are important factors in taking the risks involved in starting and growing entrepreneurial ventures.

  3. Programmes for the development of women entrepreneurship should recognize the traditional gendered role of women that contributes to the double burden of responsibilities. Governments are encouraged to ensure that capacity building in entrepreneurship is complemented by access to social programmes to relieve the burden.

(iv) Women entrepreneurs should learn to take advantage of their environment whether favourable or unfavourable. Environment has the potential of pulling or pushing women into entrepreneurship.

  1. Women entrepreneurs should take out time to consider the challenges other women in business are facing and find out how best those challenges could be tackled before taking the decision of going into business. If women entrepreneurs were more aware of the challenges they might face, they could better prepare mentally and strategically for their new life style.

  2. To cope with the multiple roles as wives, daughters, mothers and economic drivers, women entrepreneurs should choose the type of businesses that will help them accomplish these roles.

  3. Women entrepreneurs should endeavour to go for training irrespective of the circumstances that led them to start business of their own. Whether they are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, training and skill acquisition is inevitable for effective and efficient operation of their businesses. This will help in enhancing the performance of women entrepreneurs.

  4. Microfinance Banks and other formal financial institutions can also help in encouraging women entrepreneurs by increasing the proportion of their loan advancement to women so as to increase their accessibility to required credit. By so doing, more women will be interested in initiating and running their own business.

5.7 Problems Encountered During the Study

During the course of carrying this study, the research encountered the following challenges.



  1. There was general lack of information about SMEs especially information pertaining to women.

  2. The SMEs operators were rather suspicious of our motives, despite assurance from the field workers that they were not from the Inland Revenue Department and had not come for tax assessment purposes. They were not willing to release vital information needed for this study.

  3. Others that gave us information/attention exaggerated such information thinking that we were from the poverty alleviation unit of an NGO. They thought that the information we were looking for was meant for resources (financial) allocation.

  4. In some of the survey locations such as Oshodi and Mushin (Lagos), Ifo and Ado-Ota (Ogun) and Ibadan Central (Oyo), the members of the pure water association did not cooperate with us. They were thinking that we were from the NAFDAC office. They were afraid that we had come to screen their members that were operating with out proper registration.

  5. In some cases where the women are co-entrepreneurs (in partnership with their husbands), they found it difficult to give out vital information concerning the business. There was a case of one of the respondents who filled the questionnaire half-way and stopped, when she was asked ‘what of the rest of the questions why did not you complete them?’ She rashly answered that “it is only her husband that can provide answers those questions”.

(vi) The record-keeping habits of some of the women were very poor. So only

approximate figures were obtained. Data concerning initial capital, estimate of

fixed assets, estimate of total expenditure, initial expenditure, total annual sale,

total annual purchases, percentage of annual investment represented in the

profit, annual profit were difficult to be established because of their poor

accounting/bookkeeping records.



5.8 Limitation and Suggestions for Further Research

The findings of the present study suggest several avenues for future research. Firstly, the women entrepreneurs in the present study were those involved in SMEs. While they were representative of the general Nigerian population of self-employed women in terms of age, ethnic and business distribution, they were somewhat less likely to be in all sectors of the Nigerian economy and thus may not reflect their contributions on the Country’s GDP, GNP and GNI. Secondly, this work was carried out on selected women entrepreneurs in three states (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo) in the South West Nigeria, out of the thirty- six state in the country. The scope of this study is not sufficient to generalize the results to be applicable to the whole country. A replication of the study in other zones of the country can produce contrary results. Thirdly, the study also revealed that majority of the respondents were married, with weight of family responsibilities and concerns of all women business owners. Future research could examine this particular issue for women entrepreneurs in greater depth. Previous researches have also demonstrated that single women entrepreneurs report different reasons as regards to their motivational patterns and their reasons for starting business other than that of married women because of their family demands on them. A future investigation could determine whether single women entrepreneurial motivations, performances, challenges and their choice of business are similar to their married female counterparts.


Fourthly, while earlier studies have examined male entrepreneurs' motivations, especially pull factors and the present study examined women entrepreneurial motivations including both intrinsic and extrinsic and/or push and pull factors in the Nigerian economy. Researchers in entrepreneurship can carry out a comprehensive and comparative examination of the entrepreneurial motivations of both male and female entrepreneurs. Such studies could help for more conclusive determination of whether male and female venture initiators differ in their entrepreneurial motivations. Finally, while women’s entrepreneurial performance has been measured in terms of the relationship between the initial capital and current sales/turnover to arrive at the business profit in this study, it is possible that many women entrepreneurs under our review also seek self-fulfillment and other life-work goals through entrepreneurship other than profitability. This deserves further investigation in studies of women entrepreneurial motivation.

5.9 Contribution to Knowledge

This study, among others, has contributed to the body of knowledge in the following ways:

(i) This study added to the existing literature in the area of motivational patterns of women entrepreneurs particularly on their business performance, challenges they face in business, types of business ownership and enviromental factors.

(ii) The Women Entrepreneurial Motivation Rating Scale developed by the researcher can be used for other related research works in measuring men and women Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) in Nigeria.

(iii) The typological study of entrepreneurs have given rise to the development of instruments for measuring entrepreneurial motivation aimed at explaining among other things the variations of women entrepreneurial performance.

(iv) The results obtained from the analysis of the hypotheses of this study have added value to the body of knowledge. For instance, the result of Hypothesis 3 contradicted the researcher’s prior opinion/reservation on the issue in question. As a result, women entrepreneurial challenges can be predicted and prevented through their motivational variables.

(v) This thesis is an invaluable compendium of ideas, facts and figures that can be used by consultants, SMEs operators, NGOs and agencies for women business development and promotion.

(vi) Different areas of limitations identified in this study have created opportunities to researchers as new topics for further study in entrepreneurship.

(vii) The models developed in the process of this research can further be developed into conceptual and theoretical framework for entrepreneurial development studies. These models include the following;


    1. Model 1: Different motivational factors that exist among women entrepreneurs.

(b) Model 2: Relationship between environment, extrinsic motivation (Pull factors) and Women Entrepreneurial Development (WED).

(c) Model 3: Relationship between environment, intrinsic motivation (Push factors) and Women Entrepreneurial Development (WED).

(d) Model 4: Relationship between motivational factors and business performance

(e) Model 5: There is relationship between motivational factors and the challenges women entrepreneurs face in business.

(f) Model 6: There is relationship between motivational factors and women

entrepreneurs’ type of business ownership.

(g) Model 7: Women entrepreneurial motivation and environmental factors

(h) Model 8: Empowerment programme as a motivational tool for women entrepreneurs.



5.10 Models

Model 1: Different Factors Motivate Women Entrepreneurs across Different Industrial Sectors


Economic Development/growth/

MDGs

Poverty alleviation

Employment

Wealth Creation



Infrastructure

Source: Designed by the Researcher (2007)
Model 1 shows that environment either conducive or unconducive will lead to push or pull factors which will either intrinsically or extrinsically motivate women entrepreneurs or affect their performance. The model proposes that triggering situations are important aspects that determine women venturing into business. This implies that certain unconducive situations, like loss of job, unemployment, death of husband and so on could serve as reasons (push) for women to venture into business. The self will to survive such negative situations drive women to consider certain business as the way out of their predicament. On the other hand, women could also venture into business out of a desire to utilize certain privileges (money, skill, education etc.) available to them, which ever reason(s) that make women to try their into business will eventually culminate in entrepreneurial development. The model forth shows that most women entrepreneurial activities usually lead to increase in return on investment (ROI), return on capital employed (ROCE), profit, staff strength, productivity, net worth etc. Effective entrepreneurial performance will result to economic development and achievement of millennium development goals through revenue generation, job creation, wealth creation and economic vitality. The above model can further be divided into two to see the effects of push and pull factors on women entrepreneurial motivation.

Model 2 Relationship between Environment, Extrinsic Motivation (Pull factor)

and Women Entrepreneurial Development (WED)


Availability of resources

Finance, Manpower, Assets, Machine, Building etc.

Pull/Positive Factors

Education, Idea, Opportunity, family Background etc.

Poverty Alleviation

Employment

Wealth

Creation


Infrastructure

Economic

Development/Growth/MDGs



Women in diff. sectors:

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Trade


Service




Women Entrepreneurial Activities


Conducive /Favourable Environment



Extrinsic Motivation


Source: Designed by the Researcher (2007)
Model 2 shows the effect of favorable environment on women entrepreneurial development. Favourable environment factors encourage women entrepreneurial development through availability of resources such as finance, manpower, skills and so on. Availability of resources usually lead to positive tendencies such as education, ideas which can extrinsically motivate women entrepreneurs to go into agricultural business manufacturing, business trade or service and this will help in economic development.

Model 3 Relationship between Environment, Intrinsic Motivation (Push Factor) and Women Entrepreneurial Development (WED)


Lack of Resources such as

Finance, Manpower, Infrastruture, Land etc

Push/Negative Factors

Loss of Job, Death of spouse, Divorce ect.


Poverty Alleviation

Employment

Wealth


Creation

Infrastructure



Economic

Development/Growth/MDGs



Women in diff. sectors:

Agriculture

Manufacturing

Trade


Service




Women Entrepreneurial Activities


Unconducive/Unfavourable

Environment

Intrinsic Motivation




Source: Designed by the Researcher (2007)
Model 3 shows the implication of unfavourable environment on women entrepreneurial development. Unfavourable environment is usually characterizes with such as resources scarcity, lack of infrastructure, lack of energy etc. These factors can lead to negative tendencies such as death of ones spouse, loss of job, personal dissatisfaction etc. which act as a push to women to start entrepreneurial venture.
Model 4 Relationship between Motivational Factors and Performance


Performance


Increase in

Hour input

Skills,

Sales Volume



ROCE

Self-fulfillment


Factors

Motivation


Intrinsic Motivation



Push Factors

Death of spouse, loss of job, divorce, glass ceiling




Increase in

Profit


Employee Strength

Assets acquisition

Return on investment



Pull Factors

Availability of finance, labour, land, material, equipment etc

Extrinsic Motivation


Source: Designed by the Researcher (2007)
Model 4 shows that there is significant relationship between women entrepreneurial motivation and their performance in business. Factors that motivate women entrepreneurs either push or pull have a way of affecting their performance. Those that are intrinsically motivated tend to have increase in the number of hour input, acquisition of more skills, increase in return on capital employed sales volume and self- fulfillment. Women that are extrinsically motivated in to business usually have access to finance, labour, land, material and equipment which will lead to increase in profit, employees, assets and return on investment.
Model 5: Relationship between Motivational Factors and the Challenges

Women Entrepreneurs Face in Business


Challenges with;

Finances
Longer Working Hours


Labour/Material Cost
Advert/Marketing Cost
Staff Motivation

Ill Health etc.







1. Inefficiency of Entrepreneurs

2.Negative Value effect

3. Poor entrepreneurial performance





Intrinsic Motivation

(Push Factors)



Challenges with;

Excess Resources


High prices of products
Customers’ Complaints
Over staffing
Change of Suppliers

1. Inefficiency of Technology

2. Negative effect on productivity

3.Imcompetitivenes

4. Intensive Demand

Shortage

Extrinsic Motivation

(Pull Factors)

Source: Designed by the Researcher (2007)
Model 5 shows that there is significant relationship between motivational factors and the challenges women entrepreneurs face in business. Women that are intrinsically motivated are mostly likely to encounter challenges such as lack of finance for business start up and expansion, working longer hours, increase in labour and material cost, increase in advert/marketing cost and increase in money for staff motivation. These challenges might lead to inefficiency of women entrepreneurs in material, negative value effect on the entrepreneurial activities, and poor entrepreneurial performance. On the other hand, women that are extrinsically motivated are most likely to encounter challenges such as excess resources, high prices of products, customers’ complaints, over staffing, frequent change of suppliers and other. These challenges might lead to inefficiency of technology, negative effect on productivity, inability to compete effectively and intensive demand shortage.

Model 6. Relationship between Motivational Factors and Women Entrepreneurs’

type of Business Ownership


Motivational Factors Entrepreneurial Type


Intrinsic Motivation/

Negative Factors



Lifestyle women entrepreneurs

Vocational women Entrepreneurs

Class room Women Entrepreneurs

Smaller profitable wmen entrepreneurs



Women

Entrepreneurs in different type of Ownership such as

Sole Trade

Partnership

Co-operative Society (NGO)

Joint Venture

Limited Liability Company


Opportunistic Women Entrepreneurs

Growth Oriented Women Entrepreneurs

Extrinsic Motivation/

Positive Factors

Source: Designed by the Researcher (2007)

Model 6 shows that there is relationship between motivational factors and women entrepreneurs’ type of business ownership. The diagram shows that women that are intrinsically motivated are likely to engage in a particular type of business. This confirmed the recent report commissioned by the OECD (Hall, 2003) that women that are being driven into entrepreneurship by the necessity arising from poverty, lack and want are closer to being lifestyle entrepreneurs. Women that are intrinsically motivated in to entrepreneurship are usually find in sole trade and partnership type of business ownership. On the other hand, women that are extrinsically motivated are usually regarded as opportunistic women and are usually found in joint venture and limited liability companies and therefore closer to being growth-oriented women entrepreneurs.


Model 7. Women Entrepreneurial Motivation and Environmental Factors

E
Government Policies

Governmental laws, regulations and policies that either encourage or inhibit women’s entrepreneurs.


nvironmental Factors


Environmental Factors Motivation


Intrinsic Motivation:

Gender discrimination

Job dissatisfaction

Lack of infrastructures

etc

(Push Factors)





Finance

Availability and lack of financial support that can either encourage or discourage women entrepreneurs


Women Entrepreneurial

Motivation






Community/Family Responsibility

Support from families and communities towards women entrepreneurs



Extrinsic Motivation:

Availability of resources

Training and development

Family business etc.

(Pull Factors)



Business Support Services

Business support services in form of organizing seminar /training for women





Source: Designed by the Researcher (2007)
Model 7 shows the effect of environmental factors on women entrepreneurial motivation. Certain environmental variables such as government policies, availability of finance, community/family responsibility and business support services were identified as factors that can intrinsically and extrinsically motivate women entrepreneurs. Government policies in form of laws and relations that either encourage or inhibit women entrepreneurs; lack or availability of financial support; community and family support and the activities of business support system will either intrinsically or extrinsically motivate women entrepreneurs. The absence of all the environmental factors (lack of regulatory policies, financial, family business supoort will lead to intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation such as gender discrimination, job dissatisfaction, lack of infrastructures and extrinsic motivation such as availability of resources, training and development, family business etc. result to women entrepreneurial motivation. On the other hand, the availability of environmental factors as mentioned above, will lead to extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation such as availability of resources, training and development, family and support community will result to women entrepreneurial motivation.
Model 8: Empowerment Programme as a Motivational Tool for Women

Entrepreneurs

Women activities in

Agricultural Sector


Community and

State Development

in

Lagos State

Ogun State

Oyo State





Employment

Poverty Alleviation

Wealth Creation

Economic


Vitality

among men and Women







Attracting

Govt,

State

and

International Donor

Agencies for

(Funds, training,

Assets)


Women

Entrepreneurial

Development

Activities


Women activities in

Manufacturing Sector





Women

Empowerment

Program (self-

Empowerment by urban women)

Women activities in

Service Sector


National Economic

Development

Women activities in

Trade Sector


Gender Equality

Mainstreaming and Women

Liberation

MGDs


Vision 2020


Women


Empowerment

Programme organized by

women entrepreneurs for rural women


Source: Designed by the Researcher (2007)

Model 8 shows the effect of empowerment programme as a motivational tool on women entrepreneurial motivation. Empowerment is a social process that promotes participation of people, organization and communities towards the goals to increase individual and community control, political efficacy, improved quality of community life and social justice (Wallerstein, 1992). It means to give someone impetus to function at a maximal capability. The above model shows that empowerment programme as a motivational tool will lead women’s entrepreneurial participation which will help in attracting Government and international donor attention for financial and other forms of support. As women are being supported, a lot of them will intensify their efforts in getting involved in different sectors of the economy such as agricultural manufacturing, service and trade sectors. Women activities in these sectors will lead to both community and state development resulting in revenue generation, job creation, wealth creation, poverty alleviation and economic vitality leading to national development. The result of this will help to reduce the incidence of gender inequality and encouraging women full participation in political and economic affairs of the nation. It will also lead to achievement of MGDs and Vision 2020. Their involvement in economic development will result in more empowerment programmes (especially for rural women) which will in turn lead to women entrepreneurial development/ activities.




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