Chapter 6: The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue
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Chapter 6: The Skeletal System:
Bone Tissue Chapter Objectives
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
Discuss the functions of support, protection, assistance in movement, mineral homeostasis, blood cell production, and triglyceride storage.
STRUCTURE OF BONE
List the types of bones.
List and describe the parts of the long bone.
HISTOLOGY OF BONE TISSUE
Describe the four types of cells in bone tissue and their function.
Describe the chemical components of bone.
Describe the histological features and their functions found in compact bone tissue.
Contrast and compare the structure and composition of spongy bone versus compact bone.
Compare and contrast the two types of bone formation, noting the location where each kind of ossification occurs.
Describe the steps involved in intramembranous ossification.
Describe the steps involved in endochondral ossification.
Describe the zones of the epiphyseal plate and the role of the epiphyseal plate in growth in the length of bones. Know what structure of a long grows in length.
Describe the process of growth in thickness. List and describe the function of the cells responsible for this process.
Discuss the roles of osteoclasts and osteoblasts in bone remodeling processes.
Discuss the role of minerals, vitamins, and hormones in bone growth and remodeling.
Describe osteoporosis, rickets, osteomalacia, osteomyelitis, osteogenic sarcoma, and malignant myeloma. Explain the cause of each disorder.
Define a fracture and describe several common kinds of fractures.
List and describe the steps involved in fracture repair.
Chapter Lecture Notes
Functions of Bone Attachment of skeletal muscles via tendons; when muscles contract, movement results Supports Soft Tissue Protection of vital organs such as central nervous system housed in cranial cavity and vertebral column Reservoir of minerals such as calcium and phosphorus Hemopoiesis - manufacture of blood cells in red bone marrow in adults; proximal epiphysis of humerus and femur; ribs, sternum, clavicle, os coxae, vertebrae, skull Types of Bone Long bones – bones longer than they are wide (Fig 7.2) femur, humerus, phalanges, etc. Short bones – cube shaped wrist and ankle Flat bones – thin, flattened and a bit curved sternum, scapula, ribs and skull Irregular bones vertebrae and hip bones
Sesamoid bones – develop in tendons under stress
Structure of Long Bone Diaphysis - shaft - hollow in middle and contains mostly yellow marrow (Fig 6.1) Medullary (marrow) cavity - runs length of diaphysis and usually contains yellow marrow (storage of triglycerides in adults) Epiphysis - ends of bone - red marrow in proximal epiphysis of humerus and femur; yellow marrow in other epiphysis Metaphysis – between diaphysis and epiphysis Epiphyseal plate – a layer of hyaline cartilage that allows the diaphysis to grow in length – growth plate Epiphyseal line – bony structure that replaces epiphyseal plate when bone stops growing Periosteum - outside covering of bone except at joint surface present as 2 layers; inner layer – cell layer single layer that contains osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts outer layer – fibrous layer made of dense irregular CT vascular layer because it contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves that pass into bone serves as points of attachment of tendons and ligaments Endosteum - usually a single layer of cells that lines medullary (marrow) cavity, central and Volkman's canals and covers trabeculae of spongy bone contains osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts Articular cartilage - covers the articular surface of each epiphysis hyaline cartilage prevents friction and damage at joints
Bone Cells Osteoprogenitor (osteogenic cells) (Fig 6.2) derived from mesenchyme located in inner periosteum and endosteum in Volksman's and central canals Osteoblasts (not capable of mitosis) produce collagen and bone tissue located in inner periosteum and endosteum in Volksman's and central canals Osteocytes (maintain bone)
Located in lacuna between lamellae
Osteoclasts (bone digesting cells) develop from monocytes release collagenase (digest collagen) and acids (dissolve Ca
2+ salts) that digest bone located in the endostenum
Microscopic Structure of Bone Compact Bone (Fig 6.3) By weight, bone has 25% water, 25% collagen fibers and 50% calcium phosphate Collagen fibers produced by osteoblasts (Ca 2+ salts deposit along collagen) Osteoblasts become trapped in lacuna and then are known as osteocytes Cytoplasmic extensions from osteocytes are located in canaliculi Nutrients reach osteocytes via canaliculi and cytoplasmic extensions from central canal Matrix arranged in concentric rings around central canal called lamella/e Osteon (Haversian system) - central canal and surrounding lamella Spongy Bone (Fig 6.3) Has latticework of thin plates of bone called trabeculae (beams of bone) Within trabeculae are lacunae with osteocytes that are connected by canaliculi Osteocytes are nourished directly from blood circulating between trabeculae Spaces between trabeculae may contain red bone marrow capable of hemopoiesis Bone Formation - Ossification Embryonic skeleton composed of fibrous membrane and hyaline cartilage in shape of bones Bone cells develop from mesenchymal cells when mesenchyme migrate into area that form bone, they either form chondroblasts or osteoblasts; if no capillaries; mesenchyme form chondroblasts if have capillaries; mesenchyme form osteoprogenitor cells Ossification replaces preexisting CT with bone Intramembranous formation (Fig 6.5) begins at 6 weeks of embryonic life mesenchyme cells in fibrous membrane differentiate into osteoblasts that secrete collagen osteoblasts secrete an enzyme that encourages deposit of Ca 2+ salts along collagen trabeculae form and fuse with other trabeculae osteoblasts become osteocytes and are trapped in lacunae spaces between trabeculae fill with red marrow outside covering becomes 2 layered periosteum surface layers eventually reconstructed into compact bone because osteoblasts on surface reconstruct bone (much of newly formed bone will be destroyed and reformed) Endochondral formation (Fig 6.6) gives rise to all other bones begins at 8 weeks of embryonic life hyaline cartilage model, which is covered with perichondrium, is first formed and is replaced by bone Primary ossification center blood vessels penetrate the perichondrium in the center of the diaphysis and stimulate osteoprogenitor cells of internal layer of perichondrium to enlarge and become osteoblasts (once perichondrium starts to produce bone, it is called the periosteum) the osteoblasts secrete an enzyme which encourages Ca 2+ salts to deposit in the matrix osteoblasts then form a thin layer of calcified bone tissue under the periosteum, the bony collar the bony collar and the newly calcified matrix restrict nutrient flow to the existing chondrocytes, the cartilage cells hypertrophy because nutrients cannot diffuse to the chondrocytes (lack canaliculi) and they die, causing cavities to form in the cavities osteoblasts form new spongy bone tissue osteoclasts digest out more cavity, forming marrow cavity of diaphysis Secondary ossification center - more blood vessels enter the epiphysis, bringing with it osteoprogenitor cells that develop into osteoblasts which produce spongy bone after the secondary centers have formed, bone tissue completely replaces cartilage except in two regions: articular cartilage epiphyseal plate Bone Growth Growth in length (Fig 6.7) Occurs at epiphyseal plate Adds length to diaphysis pushing epiphyses away from each other epiphysial plate has 4 distinct zones of cells zone of resting (quiescent) cartilage - epiphyseal side (no mitosis) zone of proliferating cartilage – mitosis zone of hypertrophic cartilage - cartilage cells enlarging zone of calcified cartilage - dying cartilage cells on diaphyseal side Epiphyseal cartilage stops dividing and is replaced by bone at puberty with surge of hormones Growth in diameter (Fig 6.8) New osteons are constructed on the outside of a bone osteoblasts from the periosteum add new bone tissue, enclosing a blood vessel running through the periosteum once the blood vessel is enclosed, the periosteum becomes the endosteum inside the newly formed central canal the osteoblasts in the endosteum continue to make more bone tissue in concentric rings, lamellae, resulting in a new osteon while new bone is being made on the outside of the bone, osteoclasts in medullary endosteum destroy bone lining the marrow cavity Reconstruction/remodeling is replacement of old bone tissue by new bone tissue and is part of bone maintenance Old bone and worn out bone is constantly reworked Distal end of femur is replaced every 4 months Remodeling of bone is necessary to replace the initial spongy bone of newly made bone with compact bone on the outside of a bone Why Reconstruction/remodeling Old bone weakened by degeneration of organic matrix must be replaced Constant exchange of Ca 2+ (bones store 99% of Ca 2+) Bone adjusts and thickens under mechanical stress fracture repair is a form of bone remodeling that involves reshaping bones by putting them under stress in a cast bones of athletes are heavier movement of teeth in orthodontics involves reshaping of alveoli by stress applied with braces Hormones and vitamins that regulate growth and remodeling of bone (Table 6.2) Growth hormone (pituitary gland) and thyroxin (thyroid) - normal bone growth in young people Parathyroid hormone - increases osteoclast activity increases Ca 2+ in blood (Fig 6.10) Calcitonin- (thyroid) increases osteoblast activity, accelerate deposit of Ca 2+ into bone blood Ca 2+ levels decrease Vitamin D (calcitriol) - sun converts cholesterol derivative into Vitamin D in skin Vitamin D is needed to absorb Ca 2+ from intestine (Vitamin D aids in synthesis of a carrier protein molecule that is needed to transport Ca 2+) Rickets - decrease in Vitamin D in children; cartilage cells grow; ossification occurs but little calcification; bones bow under weight because bones are soft (collagen is flexible) Osteomalacia - decrease of Vitamin D in adults Sex hormones - osteoblasts have receptors for sex hormones osteoporosis – porous bones (Fig 6.11) Caused by decrease of sex hormones with advancing age more common in females because of menopause when estrogen production essentially halts adequate diet which may include Ca 2+, exercise, and medication, including low dose estrogen replacement may be indicated for prevention of osteoporosis in females Vitamin C - promotes synthesis of collagen Bone Disorders Osteomyelitis – bacterial infection in bone (often Staph aureus) bacteria reaches bone by blood, fractures, sinus infection, tooth abscess antibiotics are effective Osteogenic sarcoma (osteosarcoma) - malignant cancer of osteoblasts predominant in young people 10-25 years Malignant myelomas - most common form of bone cancer myeloid = marrow can either start in bone or start after metastasis from breast, prostate cancers interferes with hemopoiesis Fractures - any break in bone (Table 6.1) simple/closed - broken ends do not penetrate through skin (completely internal)
Pott’s or Colles’
compound/open - broken ends protrude through skin comminuted - bone shattered into many pieces compression/impacted – bone is crushed or driven into another bone greenstick - one side breaks, other side bends; mainly in children depressed - broken bone portion is pressed inward spiral – ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to bone epiphyseal – epiphysis separates from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate Fracture repair – coordinated effort of osteoblasts and osteoclasts (Fig 6.9) hematoma - from bleeding of blood vessel into osteons, periosteum, marrow cavity fibrocartilaginous callus - forms a bridge of fibrocartilage between separated area bony callus - growth of new bone tissue – replaces fibrocartilage bone remodels to be like other bone
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