some answers and comments on the text discussion questions
Certainly, if minorities have less power. Think of blacks in South Africa during apartheid, or women throughout the world today. This brings up another interesting point. Studies indicate that at some point in the relatively near future, minority persons of all sorts will outnumber whites in the U.S. This does not mean that whites will be a minority in the sociological sense.
With regard to women, the major factors are occupation and being in and out of the labor market instead of continuously engaged in it. With regard to blacks, education, occupation, and residence (not living where the good jobs are) are important.
Education and income are directly related, but other factors explain more of the differences between various groups than does years of education. These factors include occupation, continuity in the labor force, residence, and personal factors.
We do not think it is as widespread as it used to be.
Occupational segregation has decreased over time between whites and blacks more than it has between men and women. There are still some occupations that are clearly “women’s work,” despite the decreasing social pressure on young women.
The data do not support the idea of reverse discrimination. White males are still clearly better off than women or minorities.
insufficient because they do not correct the effects of past discrimination.
attack only the demand side of the labor market, when the real problem is that there is an inadequate supply of women or minority workers in high-paying fields such as computer science.
are ineffective because they conflict with union hiring policies.
are unnecessary because competitive firms cannot afford to hire on the basis of anything other than workers’ productivity.
16. An employer who is willing to pay higher wages to avoid employing persons from some group that he/she is prejudiced against is said to have:
a taste for discrimination.
no business sense.
a taste for justice.
a mean personality.
17. About what percent of the average full-time male worker is the earnings of the average full-time female worker?
18. The black to white earnings ratio is in which of the following ranges?
19. The black unemployment ratio is about ___________ that of whites.
20. According to the 2000 census, the largest U.S. racial or ethnic minority group is:
F 1. Labor market discrimination clearly has been eliminated in the U.S.
F 2. It is easy to separate out the effects of discrimination and the impact of past rational choices when looking at income statistics.
T 3. Human capital discrimination occurs when some groups arbitrarily receive more or better education than others.
T 4. Wage discrimination occurs when some groups arbitrarily are paid at lower wage rates than other groups.
F 5. Whites are no more likely to own the homes they live in than are minorities.
F 6. Red lining is discrimination in health care.
T 7. Infant and maternal death rates are higher for Blacks than for Whites in the U.S.
F 8. You cannot be a minority unless you belong to a group whose numbers are smaller than the dominant group.
T 9. Labor market discrimination means treating equally productive workers differently on the basis of some arbitrary characteristic.
T 10. Occupational segregation means that there are men’s jobs and women’s jobs and jobs traditionally held by Whites while others are held by African Americans.
T 11. The fastest growing U.S. ethnic or racial minority is Hispanics.
T 12. Hispanic people may be of any race.
T 13. The U.S. population is growing more diverse over time.
F 14. African Americans are as likely to be homeowners as whites.
F 15. Discrimination decreases the national output, but it does not redistribute it.
T 16. Discrimination benefits some groups while hurting others.
F 17. Differences in education explain all the earnings differences between blacks and whites.
T 18. If a group is subject to employment discrimination, members of the groups will be last hired and first fired, so they will have a higher unemployment rate.
T 19. Promoting a healthy economy with low unemployment is an anti-discrimination policy.
T 20. A criticism of affirmative action is that it results in tokenism.
short answer questions
The labor markets for men and women are shown below. Draw the shift that would occur in each market if occupational segregation were ended. What would happen to the average women’s wage?_________________ , to the average men’s wage? ____________________
Indicate the effect of occupational discrimination on the production possibilities curve graph below. What would happen if occupational discrimination were eliminated? ____________________