Chapter 5 Consciousness Case Study: Biofeedback and Consciousness



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The Uses of Hypnosis

Hypnosis and Memory

  • Hypnosis is _________ a reliable approach to help people remember details of a crime.

  • Many psychologists argue that material recalled under hypnosis should not be used as testimony in trials.

Hypnosis and Pain Prevention

  • Hypnosis has been used to help people prevent _____

  • A similar effect can be achieved through relaxation techniques and breathing exercises.

Hypnosis and Quitting Bad Habits

  • Therapists may use posthypnotic suggestion to help people quit a ______________________

  • In posthypnotic __________________, the therapist gives instruction during the hypnosis that the patient is to carry out after the session has ended.

Cultural Diversity and Psychology

Multicultural Perspectives on Consciousness

Visions, dreams, meditation, and hallucinations are important components of many cultures, reflecting the human desire to reach beyond what the senses can perceive directly. The methods for reaching these altered states of consciousness, however, are as diverse as the people who inhabit this planet.



  • Australian Aborigines use ritual songs, dances, stories, and dreams to create the Dreamtime world.

  • The Mevlevi use dancing to create an altered state of consciousness. They are known as whirling dervishes.

  • The Hindu yoga school uses meditation to achieve an altered state of consciousness.

  • Buddhists meditate to achieve a state of enlightenment called nirvana.

  • The Inca in the Andean highlands of South America use a drug called yage to induce hallucinations.

  • The Huichol Indians use peyote to induce hallucinations.






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