Transportation: Crucial to Any Economy
What form of transportation did the traders rely on? boats They used water routes because they were fast and convenient.
France controlled the fur trade along the St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes.
The Adirondack Mountains blocked the English fur traders of the 13 colonies from expanding into the West.
The Canoe – A Canadian Institution – The canoe played a very important role in the fur trade of early Canada.
Without the canoe, travelling into the interior of North America would have been impossible.
Why were the birch bark canoes ideal for travelling? (3 items) The were lightweight so they could be carried if needed and moved quickly in the water. They were also very sturdy and could last on long journeys.
What is the origin of the word Canoe? The Arawak language of the Caribbean.
What do you think the First Nations People meant when they were talking about a great “Western Sea”? The Pacific Ocean.
Provide a brief biography of Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de La Verendreye.
(Be thorough) La Verendreye took charge of the French fur trade post near Lake Superior. Made several trips through the forests of North Ontario. He later reached Lake Winnipeg. “Discovered” the Saskatchewan River and it became the most important river for the French fur traders too. Made alliances with First Nations and started several western trading posts. His sons reached the Rocky Mountains but he didn’t find the Western Sea.
The English Fur Trade - The English didn’t really want to build a colony, instead they just wanted to make money in the fur trade.
The advantages of building forts along the shores of Hudson’s Bay were:
1. Close to the abundant fur supplies of the north. Northern fur is better because it is thicker due to colder climates.
2. Many rivers flow into Hudson’s Bay and they are good for transportation.
3. Large supply ships could transport goods directly to the English forts. The French route involved sea and inland travel by canoe. English forts could get trade goods to England in one year while it took 2 years for French traders to get their furs to France.
Isabel Gunn was born in 1781 and died in 1861. Where did she live before she came to Canada? Scotland What year did she come to Canada to be with her husband who worked with the Hudson’s Bay Co.? 1806 Women were not allowed to do this so what did she do? Disguised herself as a man. What did she call herself? John Fubbister. What finally forced her to admit that she was a woman? She gave birth to a baby. What eventually happened to Isabel Gunn? Worked in the laundry of a post on Hudson Bay; returned to Scotland.
Converging in the West – What caused the competition between the French and English fur traders to come to an end in 1760?
New France came under British control in 1760 and this ended the competitions between English and French fur traders.
What is Nor’Wester short for? Men who worked for Northwest Trading Company.
What year was this company established? 1779 What did this company eventually accomplish? They extended the fur trade farther than it had ever been in New France.
Marie-Anne Gaboury (1780-1875) was the first non-aboriginal woman to live in Western Canada. She helped to establish the French presence in Western Canada.
The Rocky Mountains were a barrier that kept the voyageurs from pushing westward.
Alexander Mackenzie was one of the first Europeans to cross the continent by land from east to west.