HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: Heraldry, the art and science of symbols, has its origins in antiquity. The twelve tribes of Israel had distinctive emblems as did the emperors and legions of the Roman Empire and most other civilizations throughout history. However, it was 12th century warfare that stimulated growth of the heraldic system as we know it today. The advent of the closed visor helmet in the Middle Ages forced the guardians of chivalry to develop markings to help identify their comrades. The well-defined formations of two opposing forces rapidly collapsed after initial engagement into sword-wielding melees rendering the process of identifying allies and enemies to guesswork. In all that armor it was difficult to tell who was who. Consequently, knights began to paint their shields with symbols and geometric patterns in bright colors so they might be readily distinguishable to their own armies and allies. These emblems soon began to appear on the surcoats, lance-pennants, and horse armor.
Figure 12‑1: A medieval knight in full regalia.
This concept of medieval identification spread rapidly throughout Europe and led inevitably to unintentional duplication. The task of preventing this sort of duplication fell upon the household officers of knights1 and noblemen known as heralds. It became their duty to devise new coats of arms and officially document those in use as well as who had the legal right to bear them. One of the ways a person or family might obtain this legal right, called hereditary right, was through relationship to the original person granted the coat of arms. Throughout the 15th century use of coats of arms was primarily for functional purposes of identification in battle. Today heraldry still lives, perpetuated by modern military organizations that have never forgotten these badges of honor.
Figure 12‑2: Classic "nose art" on a B-24 assigned to the 655th WRS during WW II.
AVIATION HERALDRY: We see some of the earliest uses of emblems in aviation on the biplanes of World War I pilots. For much the same reason that medieval warriors adorned their shields with colorful emblems, these “knights of the air” emblazoned the fuselages of their canvas-covered aircraft with a variety of insignia. These ranged from the infamous skull and crossbones used by some of the Kaiser’s Jagdstaffeln to the famous “hat in the ring” adorning aircraft flown by America’s top World War I ace, Captain Eddie Rickenbacker. By the end of the war, most countries had adopted standardized wing, fuselage, and rudder insignia to identify their aircraft. Unit and personal aircraft emblems abounded. New emblems for the aviation branch of the U.S. Army continued to be designed between the two World Wars. The United States’ entrance into World War II in 1941, expansion of the U.S. Army Air Corps, and formation of the U.S. Army Air Forces, resulted in an unprecedented growth in the number and variety of unit emblems designed and adopted. Numbering in the thousands, they fell into four general categories: unit emblems approved for use prior to the war; unit emblems that had been granted for use in World War I, rescinded at a later date, and then reinstated during World War II based on lineage; newly formed units that submitted designs or requested an emblem be developed and officially approved (Walt Disney designed a large number of these); and unit insignia designed and used (mostly in combat theaters) but not submitted for approval. Much of the “nose art” on World War II aircraft falls into this category.
USAF HERALDRY: Since the end of the Korean War, the guidelines for developing official Air Force emblems have become increasingly stringent. There are two primary reasons for this. The first is maintenance of “Air Force image.” To that end, cartoon and macabre designs are no longer approved except where they have been maintained from early days as a traditional emblem. Secondly, approved emblems must represent the unit and its mission without showing specific geographic locations, aircraft types, or equipment. All of these may change during the life of a unit, rendering an emblem’s significance obsolete. The purpose of Air Force guidance here is to reduce the number of times a unit’s emblem must be altered to accurately reflect its mission. The significance that accompanies an approved Air Force emblem may be updated without altering the actual design as long as its elements are of an abstract nature. The use of color once was more or less arbitrary, depending on the whims of the designer. Now, unit emblems may incorporate no more than six colors, including black, white, and the Air Force colors of ultramarine blue and golden yellow. Our traditional emblems still in service are not affected by the rules. Only when a unit submits a new design for approval must they be considered. This brief developmental history of aviation emblems sets the background for the discussion of our own weather emblems.
AIR FORCE WEATHER HERALDRY: The earliest known authorized weather emblem is the Air Weather Service Distinctive Badge approved for all uses in 1942 (see square 2). As the number of weather squadrons proliferated during the war years of 1942-45, so did weather squadron emblems. For various reasons not all squadrons adopted emblems. In many cases this was simply because the squadron commander or personnel on his staff did not request one. In other cases squadrons designed and used emblems but never bothered submitting them for approval (for example, the 10th Weather Squadron, square 44). Detachments, and operating locations were not (and still are not) authorized unit emblems. Weather groups and wings began submitting designs for approval during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Many weather group emblems served (unofficially) as interim or transitional emblems as certain groups were inactivated and wings activated in their place during the 1960s. These unapproved “transitional” emblems were later replaced by permanent, approved weather wing designs. Few of the weather wings, groups, or squadrons altered their emblems during the course of their existence; however, several have gone through as many as three or four completely new designs to reflect changing missions. It is interesting to note, however, that many have chosen to retain their original World War II designs for the sake of tradition, regardless of changes in mission.
Weather unit emblems normally symbolize one or more of the following: type of service provided, mission or theater of operations (older emblems), numerical designation of unit, historical tradition, and to whom weather support is provided. Generally, the more recent an emblem’s origin the more specific its significance. One should note there is not always a specific significance attributed to a unit’s emblem, especially during World War II.
The most prevalent elements in weather emblems are symbols used to represent weather, such as cumulonimbus clouds with rain or lightning. Weather equipment is also frequently included. By far the most commonly used equipment symbols are the old weather vane and the anemometer. The fleur-de-lis, denoting U.S. Army Weather Service’s World War I service in France, is also common and, like the anemometer, influenced the design of the Air Weather Service badge.
WEATHER BADGES AND INSIGNIA
Since 1942 Air Force Weather has had some distinctive weather insignia and badges approved for wear on the uniform. The purpose of this section is to identify those insignia, when, and how they were worn, and who was authorized to wear them.
WEATHER DISTINCTIVE BADGE: This enameled gold-colored metal badge was approved for wear on the service uniform of all U.S. Army Air Forces weather personnel on 8 September 1942 (see square 2). Period source documents indicate a government contract for production of these badges was not let. However, some weather units had them produced and authorized their wear. This 1-1/16-inch round pin back badge was worn in the center of both shoulder straps on the officer’s service blouse; enlisted men wore it centered on both of the lower lapels of their service uniform and on the left front side of their overseas cap (officers wore only rank insignia on this cap). Its use continued through the transition to the new blue Air Force uniform. In 1950 Air Weather Service requested approval to alter the background from gold to silver, “in order to conform better with the new Air Force uniform.” The request, however, went unanswered. Existing insignia with silver backgrounds are most likely manufacturers samples.
ARMY AIR FORCES TECHNICIAN BADGE (square 99): Approved on 11 January 1943 for award to enlisted personnel not necessarily on flying status. This badge was manufactured in antiqued sterling silver with a pin back for attachment to the uniform blouse. It was worn centered on the left breast pocket just below service ribbons. Enlisted weather specialists qualified for this badge with a suspension bar for either weather observer or weather forecaster. It was awarded through World War II and the immediate post war years .
WEATHER SPECIALIST SLEEVE TRIANGLE (see square 101): A golden yellow weather vane embroidered on an inverted triangle of ultramarine blue cloth was authorized for wear by all U.S. Army Air Forces weather specialists on 25 January 1943. This insignia was worn on the lower right cuff of the uniform blouse, four inches up from the cuff. Its use was rescinded on 24 November 1947.
ARMY AIR FORCES WEATHER SERVICE ARC TAB (see square 100).: An ultramarine blue cloth arc embroidered with the words “AAF Weather Service” in golden yellow was authorized for wear by weather personnel on 28 July 1945. This tab was worn on the left sleeve of the service uniform over the Numbered Air Force or other Air Force formation patch to which a weatherman was assigned, through the transition to the blue uniform
AIR WEATHER SERVICE PATCH (see square 3): A full color embroidered patch was authorized for wear on the right breast pocket of utility uniforms and on the sleeves of flight suits for a period of time during the 1960s (same as Air Weather Service shield pictured in square 3). It was reintroduced for wear on 12 September 1978. The full color patch was replaced with a subdued version when the Air Force transitioned to subdued insignia. It is interesting to note that three versions of this subdued emblem have been approved for wear since it was first introduced. When the Air Force Weather Agency was activated its emblem and patch retained the same design and only the name was changed.
COMBAT WEATHER TEAM BERET FLASH (Unofficial) (See Square 102): During the Vietnam War, a distinctive rectangular-shaped patch was worn on a black beret by combat weather team members stationed at Phu Loi (Det 26, 30WS) and Bear Cat Base Camp (OL 2, Det 32, 5WS), Vietnam. The black patch is depicted in yellow embroidery with the three-cup anemometer surmounted by a fleur-de-lis with the words “Combat Weather” on either side of the lower arm of the anemometer. There is no documentation verifying this to be an approved insignia. It is described here because of its historical significance and the fact that it was actually worn.
AIR COMMANDO TAB (see square 103): In 1963, AFW personnel of Detachment (Det) 75, 2nd Weather Group, supported the 1st Air Commando Wing at Hurlburt Field, FL.2 Airman wore a “Jungle-Jim” style hat or gray beret with an “Air Commando” tab over top of their rank and jump wings [see figure 4-17]. 3
SPECIAL OPERATIONS WEATHER TEAM (SOWT) BERET FLASH (square 104): This cloth insignia was authorized for wear on the dark blue beret in the spring of 1979. It was shield-shaped with the field divided diagonally from upper right to lower left (upper left in ultramarine blue, lower right in black). The insignia was bordered in golden yellow. Officers wore their rank insignia centered on the flash. Enlisted members wore their parachute qualification badges centered on the flash. In 1986 the light gray beret was approved for wear by Special Operations Weather Team personnel. The old flash was initially worn on this beret until the introduction of the new Special Operations Weather Team beret crest.4
SPECIAL OPERATIONS WEATHER TEAM BERET CREST (see square 105): This gilt enameled crest was approved on 8 July 1986 for wear by all ranks on the Air Weather Service parachutists’ gray beret (in lieu of the SOWT flash). The field of the crest is equally divided by a diagonal yellow line with the upper left in light blue and the lower right in black. A white parachute with the letters USAF, a dagger with a brown grip, and lightning bolts in medium yellow (crossed over the parachute and under the dagger) are centered on the field. The scroll at the base of the crest is brown with the gilt letters “Air Weather Service.” The crest is surrounded by a medium yellow band with the words “Special Operations Weather Team,” in gilt. On 1 Jun 1992 AF redesignated Tactical Air Command as Air Combat Command and aligned all weather parachutists under this single command. This version of the grey beret combined the flash of the 70s with the crest of the 80s and was worn by all AFW parachutists.5
COMBAT WEATHER TEAM (ACC) (see square 106): AF approved the redesign of the 1986 SOWT crest in 2002 for wear by ACC weather parachutists. The design remained the same except the parachute, crossed lightning bolts, dagger, and banned arches stood alone. “Combat Weather Team” was on the top arch and “Airborne” was on the bottom arch. The crest was included into the Institute of Heraldry 2 April 2003.6
COMBAT WEATHER TEAM (AFSOC) FLASH (see square 107): The 10th Combat Weather Squadron stood up June 1996 under the 720 Special Tactics Group, Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC). A formalized crest had not been made yet so special operation weather parachutists were authorized to wear jump wings or officer rank on the new AFSOC flash. The cloth AFSOC flash had a red border representing the blood shed by their predecessors, the black background represented special operations, and the three diagonal lines represented the forces they were attached to: Army green, Joint purple, and AF blue.7
SOWT CREST(see square 107A): On 1 Oct 2008, the Special Operations Weather Team stood up as the Air Forces smallest career field. The Special Operations Weather crest was approved for wear 1 Jan 2009 but took over a year to create. Officers wear their rank centered under the crest. The crest was included into the Institute of Heraldry 7 Sep 2010.8
METEOROLOGIST BADGE (108-110): This badge was approved by the Air Force Chief of Staff on 6 April 1987. It depicts the Air Weather Service shield in the center. The anemometer represents the weather career field while the fleur-de-lis represents U.S. Army weather personnel’s combat experience during WWI. The badge, in antiqued silver or shiny platinum finish, is awarded in three grades; basic, senior (with star), and master (with star and wreath).
EMBLEM AND BADGES
This section emphasizes official emblems. The four plates from Air Weather Service, Our Heritage 1937-1987 were scanned into an electronic portable data file. The individual emblems were then copied into a Microsoft® Word document using the table function. Each square was numbered to allow for referencing in the individual unit linage. This arrangement permitted the addition of new emblems in the appropriate numerical order, e.g., 15th Operational Weather Squadron (OWS) before 15th Weather Squadron (WS). A few unofficial ones were included either because of distinct historical significance or the lack of any approved insignia to represent a major weather unit, i.e., squadron equivalent or higher. Unofficial weather emblems that represented detachments, operating locations, or specific events were not covered.
We attempted to illustrate as many weather emblems and insignias as possible. Colors in some cases are somewhat faded due to the condition of archival negatives and prints. The authors of the original document were able to copy original renderings of some emblems from the USAF Historical Research Center archives. These are illustrated without unit designation or motto in the scroll. Little standardization in color was possible due to the variety of illustrated material available. When original color photos or drawings were not available, emblems were accomplished in color, using old black and white line drawings and documentation. For this edition, electronic files of documents available from various sources were used to add the newer emblems, e.g., Operational Weather Squadrons. Note: Emblems for the 652nd , 653rd, and 655th Bombardment Squadrons (weather reconnaissance unit from World War II) (see squares 129-131) are included because of their specific weather oriented designs, even though they were never assigned to Air Weather Service. The lineages of the 652nd and 653rd are not covered in this study. The 655th was a part of the 55th WRS linage.
One may refer to the color emblems, insignia, badges, and head gear at this hyperlinked location.