Chapter 10 Multiple Choice Questions

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Chapter 10
Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which part of the brain shows the most prolonged development?

    1. Cerebellum.

    2. Temporal lobe.

    3. Frontal lobe.

    4. Hippocampus.

  2. What are proposed functions of the prefrontal cortex?

    1. Inhibiting responses depending on context.

    2. Planning sequences of actions.

    3. Maintaining information during short temporal delays.

    4. All of the above.

  3. At what age do infants reliably overcome the “A not B” error?

    1. 2 months.

    2. 4 months.

    3. 12 months.

    4. 18 months.

  4. Adult monkeys were made to fail in the “A not B” task by

    1. confusing them with loud noises.

    2. lesioning their dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    3. performing the task behind their back.

    4. rewarding the wrong answer with peanuts.

  5. Infants’ success in the “A not B” task has been correlated with

    1. increased blood flow in the prefrontal cortex in a brain imaging study.

    2. differential frontal EEG responses.

    3. decreased cerebellar activity in an imaging task.

    4. a and b.

  6. Knowledge about object permanence has been argued to result from

    1. extensive training on these tasks.

    2. maturation of prefrontal cortical regions.

    3. development of object concepts in the infant.

    4. b and c.

  1. Why does an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex result in the “A not B” error?

    1. Because the infant cannot remember the identity of the object.

    2. Because the previously learned response cannot be suppressed.

    3. Because the infant cannot properly recognize the object.

    4. Because the infant shows an emotional response to a change of object location.

  2. The most plausible explanation so far for the fact that infants succeed in frontal-cortex-based tasks that require reaching much later than in analogous tasks that require only looking is

    1. that initially representations are so weak that they can only drive simple outputs such as looking, but not more complex motor output.

    2. that infants have not yet developed the muscular strength to reach.

    3. that brain stem functioning, which is a responsible for reaching, is not yet developed.

    4. that reaching responses are inhibited in prefrontal cortex but looking responses are not.

  1. Extensive behavioral studies with tasks that rely on prefrontal cortex have shown that adult levels of performance are reached by

    1. 4 months.

    2. 12 months.

    3. 4 years.

    4. more than 12 years.

  2. Successful inhibition of a response has in fMRI studies been shown to activate prefrontal regions

    1. more strongly in adults than in children.

    2. more strongly in children than in adults.

    3. equally in children and in adults.

    4. neither in children nor in adults.

  3. Imaging studies of frontal cortex in infant have revealed

    1. that this area is active in tasks for which it would not be active in adults.

    2. very slow wave oscillations characteristic of sleep in adults.

    3. an absence of activation for tasks where it would be expected.

    4. a and b.

  4. What is special about damage to frontal cortical areas in infancy compared with damage to other regions?

    1. It leads to pronounced long-term problems that are not compensated by other regions.

    2. It does not lead to behavioral deficits in infants but does so in adults.

    3. Frontal lesions are generally more widespread than those in other regions.

    4. Frontal lesions cannot be detected as well as those in other regions.

  1. The protracted development of the frontal cortex might allow it to

    1. develop invariant representations of objects and events.

    2. integrate information over large time and space intervals.

    3. organize representations in other areas of cortex.

    4. all of the above

  2. What is a possible answer to the challenging question of frontal cortex activation early in infancy?

    1. Initial representations might be weak and not be able to support complex tasks, but strengthen over time.

    2. Different regions of frontal cortex might mature at different times.

    3. Frontal cortex might be involved in the reorganization of other cortical areas from early on.

    4. all of the above.

  1. Working memory “training” studies (in adults) suggest that:

    1. in childhood, experience using working memory might drive changes in the brain network underlying this ability

    2. the prefrontal cortex maturation viewpoint of working memory is most likely correct

    3. in infancy, working memory might be supported by subcortical structures

    4. neural networks underlying working memory, in infants, may be more focal than in adults

  1. The Social Information Processing Network model claims to explain:

    1. autism and other pervasive development disorders

    2. the turbulent profile of adolescent behavior

    3. addictive personalities

    4. depression

  1. Adolescents’ poor performance on decision-making tasks involving reward relates to:

    1. adolescents being more driven by reward, leading to suboptimal choices.

    2. their parents’ social economic status.

    3. an imbalance between subcortical reward-processing systems and frontal control systems

    4. a and c

Short Answer Questions

  1. Formulate a maturational hypothesis about the interaction between frontal cortex structural development and cognitive development.

  2. Describe the “A not B” error.

  3. What contribution has the “oculomotor delayed response task” made to the study of the “A not B” error?

  4. Describe a skill learning perspective on frontal cortex development.

  5. Describe the theory of cyclical reorganization of the brain (Thatcher, 1992).

  1. Describe the Social Information Processing Network?

Essay Questions

  1. Discuss the role of the frontal cortex in the development and acquisition of skills.

  2. Contrast and compare maturational and skill learning views of frontal cortex development.

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