Knowledge about object permanence has been argued to result from
extensive training on these tasks.
maturation of prefrontal cortical regions.
development of object concepts in the infant.
b and c.
Why does an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex result in the “A not B” error?
Because the infant cannot remember the identity of the object.
Because the previously learned response cannot be suppressed.
Because the infant cannot properly recognize the object.
Because the infant shows an emotional response to a change of object location.
The most plausible explanation so far for the fact that infants succeed in frontal-cortex-based tasks that require reaching much later than in analogous tasks that require only looking is
that initially representations are so weak that they can only drive simple outputs such as looking, but not more complex motor output.
that infants have not yet developed the muscular strength to reach.
Successful inhibition of a response has in fMRI studies been shown to activate prefrontal regions
more strongly in adults than in children.
more strongly in children than in adults.
equally in children and in adults.
neither in children nor in adults.
Imaging studies of frontal cortex in infant have revealed
that this area is active in tasks for which it would not be active in adults.
very slow wave oscillations characteristic of sleep in adults.
an absence of activation for tasks where it would be expected.
a and b.
What is special about damage to frontal cortical areas in infancy compared with damage to other regions?
It leads to pronounced long-term problems that are not compensated by other regions.
It does not lead to behavioral deficits in infants but does so in adults.
Frontal lesions are generally more widespread than those in other regions.
Frontal lesions cannot be detected as well as those in other regions.
The protracted development of the frontal cortex might allow it to
develop invariant representations of objects and events.
integrate information over large time and space intervals.
organize representations in other areas of cortex.
all of the above
What is a possible answer to the challenging question of frontal cortex activation early in infancy?
Initial representations might be weak and not be able to support complex tasks, but strengthen over time.
Different regions of frontal cortex might mature at different times.
Frontal cortex might be involved in the reorganization of other cortical areas from early on.
all of the above.
Working memory “training” studies (in adults) suggest that:
in childhood, experience using working memory might drive changes in the brain network underlying this ability
the prefrontal cortex maturation viewpoint of working memory is most likely correct