Chapter 1 Osteo1ogy.............................1 Chapter 2

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Answer the Following Questions

1. Paired: the parietal, temporal, maxillae, palatine, zygomatic, nasal, lacrimal bones and the inferior nasal conchae, pair

Unpaired: the frontal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid, vomer, mandible and the hyoid

2. Long bone: humerus

Short bone: scaphoid bone

Flat bone: parietal bone

Irregular bone: maxilla

(Pan Feng)


Multiple Choice Questions


1. The joint that links the bones of trunk and upper limb is .

A. pubic symphysis

B. shoulder joint

C. acromioclavicular joint

D. sternoclavicular joint

E. hip joint

2. A patient is performing the movement of flexion of the hip joint when she .

A. moves the lower limb away from the midline in the coronal plane

B. moves the lower limb posteriorly in the paramedian plane

C. moves the lower limb anteriorly in the paramedian plane

D. rotates the lower limb so that the anterior surface faces medially

E. moves the lower limb toward the median sagittal plane

3. Inversion of the foot is the movement so that the sole faces .

A. downward and posteriorly

B. medially

C. laterally

D. downward

E. downward and laterally

4. The joint possessing an articular disc is the .

A. shoulder joint

B. sternoclavicular joint

C. elbow joint

D. hip joint

E. ankle joint

5. The bone which is not consisted in the wrist joint is .

A. lunate bone

B. triquetral bone

C. scaphoid bone

D. pisiform bone

E. inferior extremity of radius

6. Which one of the following joints has no articular disc or meniscus?

A. knee joint

B. sternoclavicular joint

C. temporomandibular joint

D. shoulder joint

E. radiocarpal joint

7. The following statements concerning an intervertebral disc are correct except which?

A. The atlantoaxial joint possesses no discs.

B. The discs are the thickest in the lumbar region.

C. The nucleus pulposus is moist likely to herniate in an anterolateral direction.

D. The discs play major role in the development of the curvatures of the vertebral column.

E. During aging, the fluid within the nucleus pulposus is replaced by fibrocartilage.

8. The bones consisted of knee joint are .

A. femur and tibia

B. femur, tibia and fibula

C. femur, tibia, fibula and patella

D. femur, tibia and patella

E. femur, fibula and patella

9. The following facts concerning the joints between two vertebral arches are correct except which?

A. The articular surfaces are devoid of hyaline cartilage.

B. The joints between the superior and inferior articular surfaces are devoid of hyaline


C. The joints are synovial joints.

D. The joints are surrounded by a capsular ligament.

E. In the cervical region, the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments are greatly thickened to form the ligamentum nuchae.

10. The sixth thoracic vertebra articulates by means of synovial joints with all the following structures except which?

A. the body of the fifth thoracic vertebra

B. the head of the sixth rib

C. the tubercle of the sixth rib

D. the inferior articular process of the fifth thoracic vertebra

E. the superior articular process of the seventh thoracic vertebra

11. Which of the following costal cartilages do not directly articulate with the body of the

Sternum ?

A. second

B. fourth

C. fifth

D. eighth

E. third

12. Which of the following nerves is related to the inferior aspect of the shoulder joint and may be injured in dislocations of the shoulder joint?

A. radial

B. ulnar

C. axillary

D. median

E. musculocutaneous

13. The tendon passing through shoulder articular capsule is the .

A. supraspinous muscle tendon

B. infraspinous muscle tendon

C. long head tendon of triceps brachii

D. long head tendon of biceps brachii

E. short head tendon of biceps brachii

14. The following muscles are responsible for flexion of the elbow joint except which?

A. The biceps brachii

B. The brachioradialis

C. The pronator teres

D. The anconeus

E. The brachialis

15. The medial ligament of the elbow joint is closely related to the .

A. brachial artery

B. radial nerve

C. ulnar artery

D. basilic vein

E. ulnar nerve

16. Select the structure that is most important in strengthening the wrist joint .

A. the capsule

B. the tone of the flexor and extensor muscles of the wrist joint

C. the anterior and posterior ligaments

D. the synovial membrane

E. the medial and lateral ligaments

17. The calcaneus participates in the formation of which arch(es) of the foot?

A. medial longitudinal arch only

B. transverse arch only

C. medial and lateral longitudinal arches

D. medial longitudinal and transverse arches

E. lateral longitudinal and transverse arches

18. The following facts concerning the movements of the metacarpophalangeal joints are correct except which?

A. The lumbricals and the interossei, assisted by the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus muscles, produce flexion.

B. The movement away from the midline of the third finger is performed by the palmar interossei muscles.

C. Extension is performed by the extensor digitorum, extensor indicis, and extensor digiti minimi.

D. Adduction movement toward the midline of the third finger is performed by the palmar interossei muscles.

E. No rotation is possible at these joints.

19. The following statements concerning the joints of the bony pelvis are correct except which?

A. Very little movement is possible at the sacroiliac joint.

B. The female sex hormones cause a relaxation of the ligaments of the pelvis during pregnancy.

C. Obliteration of the cavity of the sacroiliac joint often occurs in both sexes after middle age.

D. The sacroiliac joint is supplied by the lumbar plexus of nerves.

E. The symphysis pubis has a fibrocartilaginous disc.

20. Hyperextension of the hip joint is prevented by .

A. obturator internus tendon

B. ischiofemoral ligament

C. tensor fasciae latae

D. iliotibial tract

E. ligamentum teres

21. The prevents abduction of the tibia at the knee joint.

A. posterior cruciate ligament

B. anterior cruciate ligament

C. lateral collateral ligament

D. lateral meniscus

E. medial collateral ligament

22. The is attached to the head of the fibula.

A. lateral meniscus

B. lateral collateral ligament

C. anterior cruciate ligament

D. posterior cruciate ligament

E. medial meniscus

23.The talus participates in the formation of which arch (es) of the foot?

A. transverse arch only

B. lateral longitudinal arch only

C. medial longitudinal arch only

D. medial and lateral longitudinal arches

E. transverse and medial longitudinal arches

24. Articulation of the talus with the malleoli and lower tibia forms the ankle or talocrural joint. Factors that contribute to the stability of this joint include all the following except the .

A. deltoid or medial ligament, which joints the medial malleolus of the tibia to the talus, navicular, and calcaneus bones

B. posterior tibiofibular ligament

C. lateral ligament, which joins the lateral malleolus of the talus and calcaneus

D. calcaneonavicular ("spring") ligament

E. trapezoidal shape of the talar articular surface (wider anteriorly than posteriorly), which results in greater stability in dorsiflexion than in plantar flexion

25. The following statements concerning the ankle joint are correct except which?

A. It is strengthened by the deltoid(medial collateral) ligaments.

B. It is a hinge joint.

C. It is formed by the articulation of the talus and the distal ends of the tibia and the fibula.

D. It is most stable in the fully plantar-flexed position.

E. It is a synovial joint.

26. The prevents dislocation of the femur backward at the knee joint.

A. anterior cruciate ligament

B. posterior cruciate ligament

C. medial collateral ligament

D. lateral collateral ligament

E. tendon of the popliteus muscle

27. The thinnest and the least-supported part of the shoulder joint capsule are situated .

A. anteriorly and superiorly

B. anteriorly and inferiorly

C. posteriorly and superiorly

D. posteriorly and inferiorly

E. none of the above

28. About sternoclavicular joint, which statement is right?

A. It is consisting of clavicle and sternum.

B. The articular capsule is loose.

C. The articular cavity is divided into two parts.

D. It is ball-and-socket joint.

E. The above descriptions are all wrong.

29. The accessory structure of joint is the .

A. articular cavity

B. articular capsule

C. articular surface

D. articular disc

E. synovial fluid

30. Which is the right description about hip joint?

A. It is the biggest and most complex joint in human body.

B. It belongs to the biaxial joint.

C. Neck of femur is out of the articular capsule completely.

D. Femoral head is easy to dislocate downwards.

E. There is pubic ligament in the articular cavity.


A. metacarpophalangeal joint of index finger

B. shoulder joint

C. wrist joint

D. carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

E. atlantoaxial joint

1. ball-and-socket joint

2. saddle joint

True or False Questions

1. The intervertebral discs are thickest in the sacral regions, where the movements of the vertebral column are greatest. ( )

2. In the adult in standing position, the vertebral column exhibits in the sagittal plane the following regional curves: cervical, anterior concavity; thoracic, anterior convexity; umbar, anterior concavity; and sacral, anterior convexity. ( )

3. The flat fibrocartilaginous disc lies within the sternoclavicular joint and divides the joint's interior into two compartments. ( )

4. Articulation forms between the distal end of the radius and the articular disc above and the trapezium, trapezoid, hamate and triquetral bones below. ( )

5. The cruciate ligaments are two strong extracapsular ligaments that cross each other within the knee joint cavity. ( )

6. A segmented structure can hold up weight only if it is built in the form of an arch. The foot has three such arches, which are present at birth: the medial longitudinal, lateral longitudinal, and transverse arches. ( )

Explanation of Terms

1 .intervertebral disc

2. ligamenta flava (yellow ligament)

3. menisci

4. anterior cruciate ligament

5. posterior cruciate ligament

Answer the Following Questions

1. Describe the curvature of the vertebral column. What do the terms primary curves and secondary curves refer to?

2. What are the three structural classes of joints? Describe the characteristics of each.

3. What are the structural elements of a synovial joint that determine its range of movement?

4. Identify four types of synovial joints found in the wrist and hand regions, and state the types of movement permitted by each.


Multiple Choice Questions


1. D 2. C 3. B 4. B 5. C 6. C 7. A 8. D 9. A 10. A 11. D 12.C 13.D 14.D 15.E 16. E 17. C 18. B 19. D 20. B 21. E 22. B 23.C 24.D 25. D 26. A 27. A 28. C 29. D 30. D


1. B 2. D

True or False Questions

1. F 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. F 6. T

Explanation of Terms

1. The intervertebral discs make up one fourth of the spinal column's length. There are no discs between the Atlas (C1), Axis (C2), and Coccyx. Discs are not vascular and therefore depend on the end plates to diffuse needed nutrients. The cartilaginous layers of the end plates anchor the discs in place. Intervertebral discs are composed of an annulus fibrosus and a nucleus pulposus. A sudden increase in the compression load on the vertebral column causes the semifluid nucleus pulposus to become flattened. The outward thrust of the nucleus is accommodated by the resilience of the surrounding annulus fibrosus and it ruptures, allowing the nucleus pulposus to herniate and protrude into the vertebral canal, where it may press on the spinal nerve roots, the spinal nerve, or even the spinal cord.

2. The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.

3. Two crescentic fibrocartilaginous plates which are interposed between the femoral and tibial condyles and triangular in cross-section. Action: They deepen the articular surfaces of the tibia for the reception of the femoral condyles.

4. Location: arises in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia, extends upward, backward and laterally to attach to the posterior part of the medial side of the lateral condyle of the femur. Action: it prevents backward displacement of the femur on the tibia and hyper extention of the knee joint. When the knee joint is flexed to a right angle, the tibia cannot be pulled forward.

5. Location: arises from behind the intercondylar eminence and passes upward and forward on the medial side of the anterior cruciate ligament to attach to the anterior part of the lateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur. Action: prevents forward displacement of the femur or backward displacement of the tibia.

Answer the Following Questions

1. Curves in the sagittal plane:

In the adult in the standing position, the vertebral column exhibits in the sagittal plane the following regional curves: cervical, posterior concavity; thoracic, posterior convexity; lumbar, posterior concavity; and sacral, posterior convexity.

Curves in the coronal plane:

In late childhood, it is common to find the development of minor lateral curves in the thoracic region of the vertebral column. This is normal and is usually caused by the predominant use of one of the upper limbs.

The primary curves: thoracic and sacral curves

The secondary curves: cervical and lumbar curves

2. (1) Fibrous joints. In fibrous joints, the articulating bones are held together by fibrous connective tissue. These joints lack joint cavities.

(2) Cartilaginous joints. In cartilaginous joints, the articulating bones are held together by cartilage. These joints also lack joint cavities.

(3) Synovial joints. In synovial joints, the articulating bones are capped with cartilage, and ligaments frequently help support them. These joints are distinguished by fluid-filled joint cavities.

3. A synovial joint's range of motion is determined by three factors:

(1) the structure of the hones involved in the articulation (for example, the olecranon of the ulna limits hyperextension of the elbow joint);

(2) the strength of the joint capsule and the strength and tautness of the associated ligaments and tendons;

(3) the size, arrangement, and action of the muscles that span the joint. Range of motion at synovial joints is characterized by tremendous individual variation, most of which is related to body conditioning. Excessive obesity may also limit the range of movement at synovial joints. Although some people can perform remarkable contortions and are said to be "double-jointed," they have no extra joints that help them do this. Rather, through conditioning, they are able to stretch the ligaments that normally inhibit movement.

4. (1) Hinge. Hinge joints are monaxial--like the hinge of a door, they permit movement in only one plane. In this type of articulation, the surface of one bone is always concave, and the other convex. Hinge joints are the most common type of synovial joints. Examples include the joints between the phalanges.

(2) Pivot. The movement at a pivot joint is limited to rotation about a central axis. In this type of articulation, the articular surface on one bone is conical or rounded and fits into a depression on another bone. Examples are the proximal articulation of the radius and ulna for rotation of the forearm, as in turning a doorknob.

(3) Condyloid (ellipsoid) .A condyloid articulation is structured so that an oval, convex articular surface of one bone fits into a concave depression on another bone. This permits angular movement in two directions, as in up-and-down and side-to-side motions. Condyloid joints are therefore said to be biaxial joints. The radiocarpal join of the wrist and the metacarpophalangeal joints are examples.

(4) Saddle. Each articular process of a saddle joint has a concave surface in one direction and a convex surface in another. This articulation is a modified condyloid joint that allows a wide range of movement. There are two places in the body where a saddle joint occurs. A typical example is articulation of the trapezium of the carpus with the first metacarpal bone. This carpometacarpal joint is the one responsible for the opposable thumb--a hallmark of primate anatomy.

(Ying Dajun, Pan Feng)



Multiple Choice Questions


1. The connective tissue component of a skeletal muscle that surrounds fasciculi is called the .

A. perimysium

B. epimysium

C. endomysium

D. deep fascia

E. superficial fascia

2. The sheath of connective tissue that surrounds the individual fibers of skeletal muscle is called the .

A. perimysium

B. epimysium

C. deep fascia

D. endomysium

E. superficial fascia

3. The trapezius muscle is named on the basis of .

A. shape

B. size

C. location

D. action

E. orientation

4. What is not the action of the muscles located in the anterior compartment of the forearm?

A. flexes the elbow joint

B. adducts the wrist joint

C. supinates the forearm.

D. flexes the wrist

E. pronates forearm

5. Which of the following hyoid muscles is an important landmark in posterior triangle of the neck?

A. geniohyoid

B. mylohyoid

C. omohyoid

D. sternohyoid

E. stylohyoid

6. A muscle that inserts to both the spine of the scapula and the clavicle is the .

A. pectoralis major

B. erector spinae

C. deltoid

D. sternocleidomastoid

E. trapezius

7. Which muscle is involved in moving the vertebral column?

A. platysma

B. erector spinae

C. sartorius

D. diaphragm

E. pectoralis minor

8. After being thrown from a motorcycle moving at high speed, a 16-year-old female was found to have a paralyzed right pectoralis major muscle. Which set of movements at the shoulder joint would be found greatly weakened?

A. abduction and extension

B. abduction and lateral rotation

C. adduction and flexion

D. lateral rotation and extension

E. lateral rotation and extension

9. The inguinal ligament is formed by .

A. the obliquus externus abdominis

B. the cremaster

C. the transversus abdominis

D. the obliquus internus abdominis

E. the rectus abdominis

10. The inguinal falx is formed by .

A. the obliquus internus abdominis and the transversus abdominis

B. the cremaster

C. the transversus abdominis

D. the obliquus externus abdominis and the transversus abdominis

E. the rectus abdominis

11. Which muscle of the posterior abdominal wall pulls the thoracic cage toward the pelvis and bends the vertebral column toward the side that is being contracted?

A. transversus abdominis

B. quadratus lumborum

C. obliquus internus abdominis

D. rectus abdominis

E. obliquus externus abdominis

12. A muscle that originates on both the spine of the scapula and the clavicle is the .

A. pectoralis maior

B. trapezius

C. deltoid

D. sternocleidomastoid

E. erector spinae

13. Several deficits in muscle function of the right upper limb were noted, including inability to abduct the arm. This was caused by denervation of which muscle?

A. deltoid

B. infraspinatus

C. latissimus dorsi

D. teres minor

E. trapezius

14. Which of the following is not used as a means of naming muscles?

A. location

B. action

C. shape

D. attachment

E. strength of contraction

15. The following muscles belong to the posterior group of leg except the .

A. peroneus longus

B. popliteus

C. flexor digitorum longus

D. flexor hallucis longus

E. gastrocnemius

16. The rotator cuff is composed of all of the following muscles except the .

A. infraspinatus

B. subscapularis

C. supraspinatus

D. teres major

E. teres minor

17. All of the following muscles are both the adductor and medial rotator of the arm except the .

A. pectoralis major

B. teres major

C. infraspinatus

D. subscapularis

E. latissimus dorsi

18. Which of the following muscles does not have either an origin or insertion on the femur?

A. the sartorius

B. the gluteus medius

C. the vastus medialis

D. the adductor magnus

E. the iliopsoas

19. Which muscle is the strongest medial rotator of the arm?

A. coracobrachialis

B. infraspinatus

C. subscapularis

D. supraspinatus

E. teres minor

20. Which muscle contributes to the “rotator cuff”?

A. deltoid

B. latissimus dorsi

C. pectoralis minor

D. supraspinatus

E. teres major

21. The muscle of the thigh that flexes the hip and knee joints is the .

A. sartorius

B. quadriceps femoris

C. biceps femoris

D. pectineus

E. adductor brevis

22. The muscle in the posterior compartment of arm is the .

A. deltoid

B. biceps brachii

C. triceps brachii

D. teres major

E. teres minor

23. What muscle tendon is enclosed within its own synovial sheath in the carpal canal?

A. flexor carpi ulnaris

B. flexor digitorum profundus to 2nd digit

C. flexor digitorum superficialis to 2nd digit

D. flexor pollicis longus

E. palmaris longus

24. Which of the following muscles does not have either an origin or insertion on the humerus?

A. the teres minor

B. the biceps brachii

C. the supraspinatus

D. the brachialis

E. the pectoralis major

25. What is the action of the muscles located in the anterior compartment of the leg?

A. dorsi-flex the foot and/or extend the toes

B. flex the leg

C. plantar flex the foot and flex the toes

D. extend the leg

E. flex the leg

26. The muscle of the thigh that flexes the leg and extends the thigh is the .

A. sartorius

B. quadriceps femoris

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