Chapter 1 Osteo1ogy.............................1 Chapter 2



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10. Which of the following nerves supplies the triceps brachii?

A. musculocutaneous nerve

B. axillary nerve

C. median nerve

D. ulnar nerve

E. radial nerve

11. Which of the following nerves may be injured, if a patient was unable to extend knee?

A. femoral nerve

B. superior gluteal nerve

C. inferior gluteal nerve

D. sciatic nerve

E. obturator nerve

12. The biceps brachii is supplied by

A. ulnar nerve

B. radial nerve

C. musculocutaneous nerve

D. median nerve

E. axillary nerve

13. About femoral nerve, which of the following statements is not true?

A. It arises from the lumbar plexus.

B. It descends between the psoas major and iliacus.

C. It enters the femoral triangle behind the inguinal ligament and lateral to the femoral vessels.

D. Its muscular branches supply the muscles of medial group of the thigh.

E. Its longest branch is the saphenous nerve.

14. Which of the following nerves supplies the gluteus maximus?

A. superior gluteal nerve

B. inferior gluteal nerve

C. sciatic nerve

D. pudendal nerve

E. posterior femoral cutaneous nerve

15. About sciatic nerve, which of the following statements is not true?

A. It is the largest nerve in the body.

B. It leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen inferior to the piriformis.

C. It leaves the buttock region by passing deep to the short head of the biceps femoris.

D. It divides into the tibial and common peroneal nerves.

E. It gives off muscular branches to supply the muscles of back of the thigh.

16. Which of the following nerves supplies the adductor pollicis?

A. median nerve

B. musculocutaneous nerve

C. radial nerve

D. ulnar nerve

E. axillary nerve

17. The following structures pass behind the flexor retinaculum of the wrist extant __ .

A. flexor digitorum superficialis tendons

B. flexor pollicis longus tendon

C. ulnar nerve

D. median nerve

E. anterior interosseous nerve

18. Which kind of cranial fibers are found in olfactory nerves?

A. general somatic afferent (GSA) fibers

B. general somatic efferent (GSE) fibers

C. special somatic afferent (SSA) fibers

D. general visceral afferent (GVA) fibers

E. special visceral afferent (SVA) fibers

19. Which kind of cranial fibers are found in optic nerves?

A. general somatic afferent (GSA) fibers

B. general somatic efferent (GSE) fibers

C. special somatic afferent (SSA) fibers

D. general visceral afferent (GVA) fibers

E. special visceral afferent (SVA) fibers

20. Where synapses of olfactory nerve are made?

A. mucosa of the superior nasal conchae

B. bipolar neuron

C. olfactory bulb

D. olfactory tract

E. primary olfactory area in the cerebral cortex

21. Which nerve emerge dorsally from the brainstem?

A. optic nerve

B. oeulomotor nerve

C. trochlear nerve

D. abducent nerve

E. hypoglossal nerve

22. Trochlear nerve supplies the .

A. levator palpebrae superioris

B. superior rectus

C. superior obliquus

D. inferior rectus

E. inferior obliquus

23. Abducent nerve supplies the .

A. levator palpebrae superioris

B. superior rectus

C. inferior rectus

D. medial rectus

E. lateral obliquus

24. Which of the following is not a result of sympathetic nerve stimulation?

A. constriction of pupil

B. stimulation of hormone secretion

C. heart rate and force increased

D. bronchial muscle contracted

E. relaxation of ciliary muscle

25. Atropine blocks parasympathetic nerve effects It would therefore result in .

A. dilation of the pupils

B. a decrease in mucus secretion

C. a decrease in GI tract movement

D. an increase in heart rate

E. all of the above

26. The area of the brain that is most directly involved in the reflex control of the autonomic system is .

A. the hypothalamus

B. the cerebral cortex

C. the medulla oblongata

D. the cerebellum

E. brainstem

27. The cell bodies of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons are located in the .

A. cervical and thoracic spinal cord

B. brain and lumbar spinal cord

C. thoracic and lumbar spinal cord

D. brain and sacral spinal cord

E. hypothalamus and cerebral cortex

28. Which of the following cranial nerves contains parasympathetic fibers?

A. abducent

B. optic


C. olfactory

D. vestibulocochlear

E. none of the preceding

29. Regarding the sympathetic division of the ANS, which statement is right?

A. Acetylcholine is secreted by some sympathetic postganglionic fibers.

B. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons are found in spinal segments from T1 to L3.

C. The sympathetic chain extends from the thoracic to the sacral regions of the spinal cord.

D. Most sympathetic preganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine (noradrenaline).

E. Sympathetic preganglionic neurons are found in whole spinal segments.

30. Regarding the parasympathetic division of the ANS, which statement is right?

A. Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are found in all cranial nerves.

B. Parasympathetic vasoconstrictor fibers are present in the salivary glands.

C. Parasympathetic postganglionic neurons are found in spinal ganglia from T1 to L3.

D. Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers secrete acetylcholine onto their target organs.

E. Parasympathetic postganglionic neurons are located in brainstem.

31. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers are characterized as .

A. being short in length and unmyelinated

B. being short in length and myelinated

C. being long in length and myelinated

D. being long in length and unmyelinated

E. being long in length and gray communicating branches

32. All preganglionic autonomic fibers release and the effects are always .

A. norepinephrine; inhibitory

B. norepinephrine; excitatory

C. acetylcholine; excitatory

D. acetylcholine; inhibitory

E. norepinephrine; inhibitory

33. Postganglionic fibers of autonomic neurons are usually .

A. myelinated

B. unmyelinated

C. larger than preganglionic fibers

D. shorter than preganglionic fibers

E. located in the spinal cord

34. The autonomic division of the nervous system directs .

A. voluntary motor activity

B. conscious control of skeletal muscles

C. conscious control of smooth muscles

D. all behavioral activities

E. processes that maintain homeostasis

35. Dual innervation refers to situations in which .

A. visceral organs receive instructions from both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers

B. sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers have similar effects

C. the atria and ventricles of the heart receive autonomic stimulation from the same nerves

D. sympathetic fibers always stimulate organs and parasympathetic fibers always inhibit organs

E. sympathetic division conserves the body's energy through cholinergic effects

36. What type of effector is not under autonomic regulation?

A. glands

B. skeletal muscle

C. smooth muscles

D. cardiac muscles

E. two of the preceding

37. The actions of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons are cooperative in .

A. the heart

B. the reproductive system

C.the digestive system

D. the eyes

E. the lungs

38. Which of the following neurons release norepinephrine?

A. preganglionic parasympathetic neurons

B. postganglionic sympathetic neurons in the heart

C. postganglionic parasympathetic neurons

D. postganglionic parasympathetic neurons in sweat glands

E. all of the above

39. The prevertebral ganglia contain which kind of cell bodies?

A. preganglionic parasympathetic

B. postganglionic parasympathetic

C. preganglionic sympathetic

D. postganglionic sympathetic

E. visceral sensory ganglia

40. Which of the following is the best way to describe how the ANS is controlled?

A. completely under control of voluntary cerebral cortex

B. entirely controls itself

C. completely under control of brain stem

D. completely under control of spinal cord

E. less control from cerebrum, more control by hypothalamus, amygdala, spinal and peripheral reflexes

41. All of the following statements regarding the anatomy of the superior hypogastric plexus are true except .

A. it lies anterior to Ls vertebra

B. it lies just inferior to the aortic bifurcation

C. it lies right of midline

D. it branches left and right and descends to form the inferior hypogastric plexus

E. it receives sympathetic fibers from lumbar ganglia of sympathetic trunk

42. A celiac plexus block is effective in reducing pain originating from all of the following organs except .

A. pancreas

B. transverse colon

C. gall bladder

D. descending colon

E. kidney

43. Which of the following statements about the carotid plexuses is not correct?

A. branches of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion

B. project to the salivary and lacrimal glands

C. around the internal and external carotid arteries

D. distribution of sympathetic fibers to the head

E. constrict the pupil

44. The hypogastric plexus are found .

A. in front of the fifth lumbar vertebra

B. on either side of the rectum

C. extending along the visceral branches of the hypogastric artery

D. to the pelvic viscera and genitals

E. all of the above

45. Which of the following statements about the afferent visceral fibers is not fight?

A. The fibers are involved in reflexes that regulate blood pressure and heart rate.

B. The fibers carry a variety of sensations to the cerebellum.

C. Visceral afferent axons in the glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve.

D. The cell bodies of visceral sensory neurons are located in spinal ganglia.

E. They accompany the autonomic motor fibers to the visceral organs.

46. Which is concerning the pelvic splanchnic nerves?

A. preganglionic parasympathetic fibers

B. innervate lower half of the large intestine

C. the rectum

D. urinary and reproductive systems

E. all of the above

47. Damage to the anterior roots of the first five thoracic nerves on the fight side would interfere with .

A. the ability to dilate the right pupil

B. the ability to dilate the left pupil

C. the ability to constrict the right pupil

D. the ability to contract the left biceps brachii muscle

E. the ability to contract the right biceps brachii muscle

48. Under which set of circumstances would the diameter of peripheral blood vessels be the greatest .

A. increased sympathetic stimulation

B. decreased sympathetic stimulation

C. increased parasympathetic stimulation

D. decreased parasympathetic stimulation

E. none of the above

49. Injury to the neurons of a prevertebral ganglion would affect the function of the .

A. heart

B. pupils

C. sweat glands

D. digestive tract

E. lungs

50. Regarding the role of the autonomic innervation, which statement is fight?

A. Stimulation of the sympathetic nerves to the eyes causes pupillary constriction.

B. Activation of the sympathetic system causes vasoditatation in the skin.

C. Activation of the sympathetic system causes vasoconstriction in the viscera and vasodilatation in skeletal muscle.

D. Stimulation of the vagus nerves speeds up the heart.

E. Stimulation of parasympathetic nerves to the bronchi causes inhibition of

secretion.

51. Which of the following does not characterize the ANS?

A.independent and without a person's conscious control

B. preganglionic cell bodies in the CNS

C. presence of postganglionic cell bodies in ganglia

D. It is composed of portions of both the CNS and PNS.

E. The somatic motor system is organized more diffusely than the ANS.

52. In the autonomic nervous system, .

A. the lower motor neurons directly innervate effector organs

B. there is always a synapse between the CNS and the effector organ

C. motor neurons do not synapse but are connected by gap junctions

D. all preganglionic sympathetic fibers release acetylcholine

E. innervation of skeletal muscle

53. In the ANS, .

A. preganglionic fibers are mostly unmyelinated

B. postganglionic fibers are myelinated

C. all parasympathetic preganglionic neurons have their cell bodies in the brainstem

D. acetylcholine is released at all ganglia

E. one preganglionic sympathetic neuron can synapse in several postganglionic ganglia

54. Sympathetic nerves arise from and regions.

A. cervical; lumbar

B. cranial; sacral

C. cranial; thoracic

D. thoracic; lumbar

E. thoracic; sacral

55. The longest autonomic nerve is the .

A. phrenic

B. spinal accessory

C. vagus


D. thoracic

E. lumbar

56. The autonomic nervous system .

A. contains somatic motor fibers

B. operates reflexly

C. contains ganglia

D. all of the preceding

E. both B and C

57. The cell bodies of postganglionic autonomic fibers are located in .

A. the lateral horn of the spinal cord

B. the effector organ

C. the anterior horn of the spinal cord

D. the medulla oblongata

E. ganglia

58. Which cranial nerves contain parasympathetic fibers?

A. Ⅲ, Ⅴ,Ⅳ, and Ⅶ

B. Ⅶ, Ⅸ, Ⅷ, and Ⅹ

C. Ⅲ, Ⅶ, Ⅸ, and Ⅹ

D. Ⅶ, Ⅴ, Ⅷ, and Ⅹ

E. Ⅴ, Ⅶ, Ⅸ, and Ⅹ

59. Which is concerning the sympathetic division of the ANS?

A. intramural ganglia

B. increases motility of stomach

C. otic and ciliary ganglia

D. secretion of lacrimal and salivary glands

E. increases heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure

60. Which is concerning the parasympathetic division of the ANS?

A. gray communicating branch

B. cervical ganglia of the sympathetic trunk

C. craniosacral outflow

D. synapse in celiac ganglion

E. short preganglionic fibers, long postganglionic fibers

61. Neurons of the intermediolateral nucleus of the spinal cord make direct synaptic connection with .

A. paravertebral sympathetic ganglia

B. prevertebral ganglia

C. ganglia of sympathetic trunk

D. all of the above

E. none of the above

62. The lesser splanchnic nerve is formed by .

A. T5-T9

B. T1-L2

C. L3-L5

D. S1-S4

E. T10-T12

63. Splanchnic nerves .

A. are formed by parasympathetic postganglionic fibers

B. include preganglionic fibers that go to prevertebral ganglia

C. control sympathetic function of structures in the head

D. connect one postganglionic neuron with another

E. include postganglionic fibers

64. Preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system that carry motor impulses to targets in the body wall or thoracic cavity synapse in a .

A. intramural ganglion

B. spinal ganglion

C. ganglion of sympathetic trunk

D. adrenal ganglion

E. prevertebral sympathetic ganglia

65. Preganglionic fibers of the ANS sympathetic division originate in the .

A. cerebral cortex of the brain

B. medulla oblongata

C. brain stem and sacral spinal cord

D. thoracolumbar spinal cord

E. ganglion of sympathetic trunk

66. The greater splanchnic nerves contain which kind of fibers?

A. preganglionic sympathetic

B. postganglionic sympathetic

C. preganglionic parasympathetic

D. postganglionic parasympathetic

E. thoracic nerves

67. The white communicating branches contain what kind of fibers?

A. preganglionic parasympathetic

B. postganglionic parasympathetic

C. preganglionic sympathetic

D. postganglionic sympathetic

E. spinal nerves

68. Prevertebral ganglia are involved with the innervation of the .

A. abdominal organs

B. thoracic organs

C. head


D. arrector pili

E. all of above

69. Which of the following statements about the superior mesenteric ganglion is true?

A. It is a parasympathetic ganglion.

B. It is a paravertebral sympathetic ganglion.

C. It is located in the head.

D. It contains postganglionic sympathetic neurons.

E. It is a preganglionic sympathetic ganglion.

70. The preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system originate in .

A. the midbrain and the medulla oblongata

B. the entire spinal nerve complex

C. the first cervical (C1) to the first lumbar (L1) segments

D. the first thoracic (T1) to the third lumbar (L3) segments

E. the brain and spinal cord

71. The pterygopalatine, ciliary, submandibular, and otic ganglia are .

A. prevertebral ganglia

B. cervical sympathetic ganglia

C. postganglionic sympathetic neurons

D. parasympathetic ganglia that receive neurons from the vagus nerves

E. parasympathetic ganglia that receive neurons from the third, seventh, and ninth cranial nerves

72. Parasympathetic ganglia are located .

A. in a trunk parallel to the spinal cord

B. in the prevertebral ganglia

C. near to or within the organs innervated

D. in the brain

E. in the posterior roots of spinal nerves

73. Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic nerve stimulation?

A. increased movement of the G1 tract

B. increased mucus secretion

C. dilation of the pupils

D. constriction of visceral blood vessels

E. increased urine secretion

A2

1. A patient suffered from a short period of paralysis of the diaphragm on one side on a lung operation, which of the following nerves may be blocked?



A. vagus nerve

B. phrenic nerve

C. anterior branches of the sixth thoracic nerve

D. anterior branches of the eighth thoracic nerve

E. sympathetic trunk

2. An old man slipped and fell A glass pierced the skin on the front of his left wrist. The palmaris longus tendon had been severed. The thumb was laterally rotated and adducted, and the man can not oppose his thumb to the other fingers. The skin sensation over the lateral half of the palm and the palmar side of the lateral three and one-half fingers was lost. The following facts concerning this patient are correct except:

A. The palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve was severed.

B. Sensory loss of the distal part of the dorsal surfaces of the lateral three and one-half fingers was experienced.

C. The median nerve lies radial side to the palmaris longus proximal to the flexor retinaculum and was severed by the piece of glass.

D. The median nerve lies in the interval between the tendons of flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi radialis muscles just proximal to the wrist joint.

E. Adduction of the thumb was produced by the contraction of the adductor pollicis muscle, which is supplied by the ulnar nerve.

3. A 60-year-old woman fell down the stairs with severe left arm pain. On examination, the woman was unable to extend the wrist and fingers, and the wrist was flexed. The skin sensation of the back of the arm and forearm was also lost, which of the following nerves may be injured?

A. axillary nerve

B. musculocutaneous nerve

C. ulnar nerve

D. median nerve

E. radial nerve

4. A young man was involved in a fight. During the brawl he received a deep knife wound to the front of his right thigh. On examination in the Emergency Department, the patient had weak flexion of the knee, skin sensation was lost over the anterior and medial sides of the thigh, which of the following nerves may be injured?

A. obturator nerve

B. femoral nerve

C. sciatic nerve

D. lateral femoral cutaneous nerve

E. genitofemoral nerve

5. This is a 61-year old turn with pain and severe ischaemia to the lower limb due to peripheral vascular disease. Lumbar sympathectomy was advised. The mechanisms by which this works are .

A. visceral sensory fibres travel in the lumbar sympathetic chain

B. vasomotor fibres travel in the lumbar sympathetic chain

C. somatic sensory fibres travel in the lumbar sympathetic chain

D. somatic motor fibres travel in the lumbar sympathetic chain

E. both sensory and vasomotor fibres travel in the lumbar sympathetic chain

6. Trauma to the neck as with a strong jerk from a collar or straining against a leash can also produce Homer's syndrome. The symptoms of Homer's syndrome include, a constricted pupil (miosis), drooping of the upper eyelid (ptosis), absence of sweating of the face (anhidrosis), and sinking of the eyeball into the bony cavity that protects the eye (enophthalmos). Homer' s syndrome may occur with injury or lesions of .

A. cervical sympathetic chain

B. anterior roots of T1 or T2

C. white communicating branches from T1 or T2

D. brainstem stroke

E. all of the above

BI

A. posterior cord



B. lateral cord

C. both medial and lateral cords

D. upper trunk

E. lower trunk

1. Axillary nerve arises from .

2. Median nerve arises from .

A. median nerve

B. radial nerve

C. dorsal cutaneous branch of ulnar nerve

D. superficial branch of ulnar nerve

E. palmar cutaneous branch of ulnar nerve

3. Skin sensation of the dorsal surface of root of thumb is innervated by .

4. Skin sensation of the medial side of palmar aspect of ring finger is innervated by .

A. deltoid muscle

B. brachialis

C. serratus anterior

D. triceps brachii

E. pronator teres

5. The axillary nerve supplies .

6. The long thoracic nerve supplies .

A. gluteus medius

B. gluteus maximus

C. gracilis

D. biceps femoris

E. quadratus femoris

7. The obturator nerve innervates .

8. The superior gluteal nerve innervates .

A. below the inguinal ligament

B. through the obturator canal

C. through the greater sciatic foramen superior to the piriformis

D. through the greater sciatic foramen inferior to the piriformis

E. through the popliteal fossa

9. The pudendal nerve leaves the pelvis by passing .

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