1. The spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum of the occipital bone to the inferior margin of the L1 level of the vertebral column in adults. ( )
2. The length of the adult spinal cord ranges from 32 to 35 cm. ( )
3. The cervical enlargement extends from the fourth cervical to the first thoracic segments. ( )
4. The lumbosacral enlargement extends from the second lumbar to the first sacral segments. ( )
5. The conus medullaris ends at the inferior margin of the L1 level of the vertebral column in adults. ( )
6. The filum terminale is long about 20 cm and consists mostly of dura mater. ( )
7. The spinal cord is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical segments, 12 thoracic segments, 5 lumbar segments, 5 sacral segments and 1 coccygeal segment. ( )
8. The spinal segment refers to a region of the spinal cord from which two pair of spinal nerves arises. ( )
9. The C1-4 segments of the spinal cord match the C1-4 vertebral bodies. ( )
10. The T5-8 segments of the spinal cord match the T6-9 vertebral bodies. ( )
11. The T10-12 vertebral bodies match the L1-5 segments of the spinal cord. ( )
12. The T10-12 vertebral bodies match the S1-Co1 segments of the spinal cord. ( )
13. Clinically, cerebrospinal fluid is removed from the subarachnoid space in the inferior lumbar region of the spinal cord. The procedure is normally performed between the third and fourth or fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae. ( )
14. The lateral horn of the spinal cord is a prominent lateral triangular projection in the whole thoracic and lumbar regions. ( )
15. Within spinal segments S2-S4, there are sacral parasympathetic neurons within the lateral column. ( )
16. There is no reticular formation in the spinal cord. ( )
17. Lamina Ⅰ contains the posteromarginal nucleus. ( )
18. Substantia gelatinosa is situated in Lamina Ⅲ. ( )
19. Lamina Ⅶ is a large zone that contains the cells of the thoracic nucleus. ( )
20. Lamina Ⅳ and Ⅶ contain the medial motor neuron column and the lateral motor neuron column. ( )
21. The brain stem is consists of thalamus, midbrain, pons and medulla obl0ngata from rostral to caudal. ( )
22. The pyramids are consisted of the bundles of the nerve fibers of corticospinal tract mainly, which arises from the precentral gyri of the cerebral cortex. ( )
23. The middle cerebellar peduncle (brachium pontis) is formed by the fibers arising from the ipsilateral pontine nucleus. ( )
24. The General somatic motor nuclei include paired nuclei of oculomotor, trochlear, abducent and hypoglossal nerves, motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve, nucleus of facial nerve, nucleus ambiguus and nucleus of accessory nerve. ( )
25. Deep to the vestibular area of rhomboid fossa, there are vestibular nuclei and cochlear nuclei. ( )
26. The fourth ventricle is situated anterior to the cerebellum and posterior to the pons and the superior part of medulla oblongata. ( )
27. The crus cerebri contains the descending fibers of the corticospinal and corticonuclear tracts. ( )
28. The nucleus of facial nerve lies deep to the facial colliculus. ( )
29. The nucleus ambiguus sends the efferent fibers to join the glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves respectively. ( )
30. The general visceral motor nuclei in brainstem are all parasympathetic nuclei giving off the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers to innervate the smooth muscles, glands and cardiac muscle in the body. ( )
31. The solitary nucleus only relays the general sensory stimuli from the viscera by the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. ( )
32. The gracile and cuneate nuclei give off the fibers to form ipsilateral medial lemniscus. ( )
33. The nucleus of inferior colliculus is an important relay station of the auditory pathway. ( )
34. The efferent fibers from the magnocellular part of red nucleus descend to form the ipsilateral tectospinal tract. ( )
35. The substantia nigra plays a key role in motor control. Degeneration of the substantia nigra can produce the movement disorder, such as Parkinson's disease. ( )
36. The medial lemniscus is the important tract for conducting the proprioceptive and fine touch sensations of the contralateral trunk and limbs. ( )
38. The fibers of the corticonuclear tract are terminated to all of the bilateral general somatic motor nuclei and special visceral motor nuclei. ( )
39. The ascending reticular activating system and ascending inhibitory system of the reticular formation can regulate the conscious state of cerebral cortex. ( )
40. In lower end of pyramid all of the fibers cross the midplane in pyramidal decussation and continuously descend to form the lateral corticospinal tract. ( )
41. Lesion of left cerebellar hemisphere will result in subconsciousness proprioceptive sense loss at right side of body. ( )
42. The efferents of cerebrocerebellum, after relayed in the dentate nucleus, end in ipsilateral red nucleus and ventrolateral nuclei of thalamus. ( )
43. The cerebellar cortex consists of three layers from the surface to the white matter: the molecular layer, the piriform cell layer and the granular layer. ( )
44. Cerebellar nuclei include fastigial nucleus, globose nucleus, emboliform nucleus and dentate nucleus. ( )
45. Archicerebellum lesion can result in dysequilibrium and standing unsteadily. ( )
46. Paleocerebellum injury can result in ataxia, nystagmus, intention tremor and
hypomyotonia. ( )
47. In the inferior surface of the cerebellum, the posterolateral fissure separates the anterior lobe and the flocculonodular lobe. ( )
48. The fastigial nucleus belongs to arehicerebellum, the globose and emboliform nuclei belong to paleocerebellum, the dentate nucleus belongs to neocerebellum. ( )
49. The inferior cerebellar peduncle, also called the restiform body, connects with the medulla oblongata, contains partly afferents and efferents of cerebellum. ( )
50. The superior cerebellar peduncle, also called brachium conjunctivum, connects between cerebellum and midbrain. ( )
51. Supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and infundibular nucleus are related to neuroendocrine. ( )
52. The ventral posteromedial nucleus receives fibers of medial lemniscus and spinal lemniscus. ( )
53. Ventral posteromedial nucleus, ventral posterolateral nucleus, lateral geniculate body and medial geniculate body are specific relaying nuclei. ( )
54. The ventral posteromedial nucleus receives trigeminal lemniscus; the ventral posterolateral nucleus receives the fibres of the medial lemniscus and spinal lemniscus. ( )
55. Epithalamus includes the pineal body, habenular trigone, habenular commissure, thalamic medullary stria and posterior commissure. ( )
56. The fornix is the largest afferents of the hypothalamus. ( )
57. The subthalamus includes the subthalamic nucleus and the upper ends of the red nucleus and substantia nigra. ( )
58. Hypothalamic sulcus separates the dorsal thalamus dorsally and the hypothalamus inferiorly. ( )
59. The ventral posteromedial nucleus, which relays sensory information of the head and face, composes the central thalamic radiations and further projects into the superior part of postcentral gyrus. ( )
60. Vasopressin and oxytocin are secreted by the neurosecretory neurons within the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus, then transmitted to the anterior lobe of hypophysis. ( )
61. The central nervous system includes brain and spinal cord. ( )
62. The cerebral cortex is the highest level of the central nervous system. ( )
63. Most areas of the cerebral cortex possess five layers. ( )
64. The somatic motor area lies in the preeentral gyrus and posterior part of the paracentral lobule. ( )
65. The somatic sensory area locates in the postcentral gyrus and posterior part of the paracentral lobule. ( )
66. The muscles of the trunk and limbs of the body in one side are controlled by the contralateral side of the somatic motor area. ( )
67. The gustatory area locates in the inferior part of the postcentral gyrus. ( )
68. The motor speech area is in the posterior part of the middle frontal gyrus. ( )
69. When the motor speech area hurt, the patient can say nothing. ( )
70. The auditory speech area is in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyms. ( )
71. When the auditory speech area is hurt, the patient can hear every thing. ( )
72. The writing area locates in the anterior part of the middle frontal gyrus. ( )
73. The visual speech area lies in the angular gyms. ( )
74. When the visual speech area is hurt, the patient can see nothing. ( )
75. The medial genicular body is concerned with seeing. ( )
76. The lateral genicular body is concerned with hearing. ( )
77. The frontopontine tract passes through the genu of the internal capsule. ( )
78. The anterior thalamic radiation passes through the anterior limb of the internal capsule. ( )
79. The corticospinal tract passes through the posterior limb of the internal capsule. ( )
80. A lesion of internal capsule in one side can cause paralysis in contralateral side of the body. ( )
81. The supramarginal gyrus is the portion of the inferior parietal lobule that arches above the end of the superior temporal sulcus. ( )
82. The lingual gyrus lies between the calcarine and parietooccipital sulcus. ( )
83. The medial occipitotemporal gyrus lies between the hippocampal sulcus and occipitotemporal sulcus. ( )
84. The first somatic sensory area is located in the precentral gyrus (Broadmann areas 3, 1, and 2). ( )
85. The auditory speech area is located in the transverse temporal gyrus. ( )
86. Anatomically, the basal ganglia include the caudate nucleus and the lenticular nucleus, the claustrum, and the amygdaloid body. ( )
87. The lateral ventricle communicates with the cavity of the fourth ventricle through the interventricular foramen. ( )
88. The neocortex contains three to six well-defined layers of cells. ( )
89. The association fibers connect the various portions of a cerebral hemisphere and permit the cortex to function as a coordinated whole. ( )
90. The hippocampal formation includes the dentate gyrus, the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. ( )
7. Explain the location, origin, termination, and function of the anterior corticospinal tract.
8. Explain the location, origin, termination, and function of the rubrospinal tract.
9. Explain the location, origin, termination, and function of the tectospinal tract.
10. Explain the location, origin, termination, and function of the medial longitudinal fasciculus.
11. Describe the location and external features of the spinal cord.
12. Describe the internal structure of the spinal cord.
13. List the location, origin, termination, and function of the principal ascending tracts of the spinal cord.
14. List the location, origin, termination, and function of the principal descending tracts of the spinal cord.
15. Explain the stretch reflexes.
16. The origin, termination and function of medial lemniscus?
17. What are the parasympathetic nuclei which located in brainstem and their relations to the cranial nerves?
18. Which nuclei are related to the movement of skeletal muscles in head and face in brainstem?
19. What is the visceral sensory nucleus in the brainstem? Which cranial nerves are related to it?
20. Which nuclei give off the fibers to extraocular muscles in brainstem?
21. Which important structures can be seen on the transverse section at middle part of olive?
22. Which important structures can be seen on the horizontal section at middle part of the pons?
23. Which important structures can be seen on the horizontal section at inferior colliculus of the middle brain?
24. What kind of fibers are there in the facial nerve? Which cranial nuclei are related to them respectively?
25. A patient may present cough, hoarseness and dysphagia when the medulla oblongata is lesion. Why?
26. What is the main function of the cerebellum?
27. Please answer the functional divisions of the cerebellum?
28. What are the typical signs after the cerebellum injury?
29. Please describe the fiber connections and functions of vestibulocerebellum?
30. Please describe the fiber connections and functions of spinocerebcllum?
31. Please describe the fiber connections and functions of cerebrocerebellum?
32. Which kinds of nuclear groups are classified about thalamic nuclei?
33. What is the function of specific relaying nuclei of the thalamic nuclei?
34. Please answer the afferent connections of the hypothalamus.
35. What are composed of the cerebral hemispheres?
36. How many language areas are there in the cerebral cortex? What are the names of these language areas?
37. What is the striatum and what is the function of it?
38. What types are comprised the cortex of the cerebrum?
39. What is the limbic system and what is its main function?
40. What layers of cells are composed of the archicortex?
41. What parts can be divided into on the lateral ventricle?
42. The location and the divisions of the internal capsule? What important fibers pass through each division of the internal capsule?
43. What is the composition and the function of the basal forebrain?
44. Please describe the location and the fibrous connection of the the hippocampus?
45. Please describe the cytoarchitecture of the neocortex.
46. How many parts are composed of the white matter of the cerebral hemisphere? What are they?
Multiple Choice Questions
1. A 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. D 6. E 7. C 8. A 9. D 10. E 11. C 12. B 13. E 14. C 15. C 16. A 17. B 18. C 19. D 20. E 21. A 22. B 23. D 24. C 25. A 26. E 27. B 28. C 29. B 30. D 31. B 32. D 33. B 34. A 35. E 36. A 37. B 38. C 39. D 40. E
41. A 42. A 43. E 44. D 45. E 46. E 47. B 48. D 49. C 50. D 51. E 52. A 53. C 54. E 55. B 56. B 57. D 58. C 59. A 60. E 61. A 62. C 63. B 64. B 65. D 66. A 67. A 68. C 69. B 70. D 71. D 72. C 73. E 74. A 75. B 76. D 77. E 78. B 79. C 80. A 81. B 82. E 83. D 84. B 85. E 86. D 87. A 88. E 89. B 90. C 91. A 92. D 93. B 94. C 95. E 96. D 97. D 98. B 99. C 100. B 101. A 102. E 103. A 104. E 105. C 106. C 107. E 108. B 109. A 110. B 111. A 112. A 113. E 114. B 115. C 116. E 117. A 118. B 119. E 120. A 121. C 122. E 123. C 124. C 125. A 126. A 127. B 128. A 129. A 130. C 131. A 132. D 133. B 134. C 135. B 136. B 137. B 138. C 139. A 140. D 141. C 142. A 143. D 144. E 145. D 146. E 147. A 148. B 149. E 150. D 151. D 152. A 153. B 154. A
1. C 2. E 3. D 4. A 5. B 6. E 7. D 8. E 9. A 10. D 11. D 12. A 13. D
1. A 2. B 3. C 4. A 5. C 6. D 7. B 8. C 9. E 10. A 11. B 12. D 13. E 14. D 15. C 16. E 17. C 18. D 19. A 20. B 21. C 22. E 23. D 24. B 25. B 26. A 27. D 28. E 29. D 30. D 31. A 32. E 33. A
True or False Questions
1. T 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. T 6. F 7. T 8. F 9. T 10. F
11. T 12. F 13. T 14. F 15. T 16. F 17. T 18. F 19. T 20. F
21. F 22. T 23. F 24. F 25. F 26. T 27. F 28. F 29. T 30. T
31. F 32. F 33. T 34. F 35. T 36. T 37. F 38. F 39. T 40. F
41. F 42. F 43. F 44. T .45. T 46. F 47. F 48. T 49. T 50. T
51. T 52. r 53. T 54. T 55. T 56. T 57. T 58. T 59. T 60. T
61. T 62. T 63. F 64. F 65. T 66. T 67. T 68. F 69. F 70. T
71. T 72. F 73. T 74. F 75. F 76. F 77. F 78. T 79. T 80. T
81. F 82. F 83. F 84. F 85. F 86. T 87. F 88. F 89. T 90. F
Explanation of Terms
1. Below the lumbar enlargement, the spinal cord tapes to form a conical portion known as the conus medullaris.
2. Filum terminale is a long about 20cm nonnervous fibrous tissue and consists mostly of pia mater. It extends inferior to attach to the coccyx.
3. Cervical enlargement extends from the fourth cervical to the first thoracic segments. Nerves that supply the upper extremities arise from it.
4. Lumbosacral enlargement extends from the second lumbar to the third sacral segments. Nerves that supply the lower extremities arise from it.
5. Anterior horn is an enlarged protrusion in the front of gray matter of the spinal cord on each side. It contains the cells of origin of the fibers of the anterior roots.
6. Posterior horn is the narrow protrusion nearly reaching to the posterolateral sulcus. The posterior horn can be divided into a head, a neck and a relatively broad base. It represents the sensory part of the gray matter.
7. Lateral horn is a prominent lateral triangular projection of gray matter between the anterior and posterior horn or column in the thoracic and upper lumbar regions. It contains preganglionic cells for the autonomic nervous system.
8. Anterior median fissure is a deep fissure on the anterior surface of the spinal cord.
9. Posterior median sulcus is a shallow sulcus on the posterior surface of the spinal cord.
10. Posteromarginal nucleus is situated in lamina Ⅰ and receives the afferent fibers of posterior roots and sends axons to the contralateral spinothalamic tract.
11. Substantia gelatinosa is located in lamina Ⅱ and is made up of small neurons and forms a well delimited band around the apex of the posterior horn.
12. Nucleus proprius is situated in laminas Ⅲ and Ⅳ. Their main input is from fibers that convey position and light touch sense.
13. Nucleus thoracicus is located in lamina Ⅶ and contains cells that give rise to the posterior spinocerebellar tract.
14. Medial motor neuron column is located in laminas Ⅷ and Ⅸ. It contains the lower motor neurons that innervate axial musculature.
15. Lateral motor neuron column is situated in laminas Ⅷ and Ⅸ. It contains lower motor neurons for the distal muscles of the arm and leg.
16. Intermediolateral nucleus is located in lamina Ⅶ in thoracic and upper lumbar regions (T1 through L3). Preganglionic sympathetic fibers project from cells in this nucleus, via the anterior roots and white rami communicates, to sympathetic ganglia. The intermediomedial nucleus extends virtually the entire length of the spinal cord and lies in the most medial part of the lamina. It may receive visceral afferent fibers and serve as an intermediary relay in transmission of impulses to visceral motor neurons.