149. The cerebral cortex is an essential component of the pathway included in.
A. pupillary light reflex
B. consensual light reflex
C. corneal reflex
D. Gag reflex
E. accommodation reflex
150. Stimulation of the middle frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex would most likely produce.
A. contraction of the muscles of the contralateral leg
B. visual agnosia
C. auditory hallucination
D. conjugate eye movements
E. fasciculations in the muscles of the ipsilateral hand
151. Which of the following regions of the body has the largest representation in Brodmarm' s area 4?
A. trunk muscles
B. muscles of forearm
C. muscles of mastication
D. muscles of the thumb
E. muscles of the foot
152. Representation of the body parts (somatotopic representation) is found in the.
A. postcentral gyrus
B. angular gyrus
C. primary visual area
D. Wernicke's area
E. hippocampal gyrus
153. The following statements concerning the position of the basal nuclei are correct except:
A. The lentiform nucleus is related medially to the internal capsule.
B. The putamen lies medial to the globus pallidus.
C. The head of the caudate nucleus lies medial to the internal capsule.
D. The head of the caudate nucleus is connected to the putamen.
E. The amygdaloid nucleus is situated in the temporal lobe of the cerebral hemisphere.
154. The following statements concerning the basal nuclei are correct except:
A. The insula forms part of the basal nuclei.
B. The corpus striatum is made up of the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus.
C. The pulvinar of the thalamus is not part of the basal nuclei.
D. The neostriatum is formed by the caudate nucleus and the putamen.
E. The basal nuclei are formed of masses of gray matter buried deep in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres.
1. The patient had found some things when he waked up in the morning: disappeared left nasolabial groove, the mouth deviates rightward, the frontal wrinkles exist; the tongue deviated leftward when it was extended; the limbs were normal. What structure is injured by the lesion?
2. After stroke a patient has been found suddenly: the right eye is deviated rightward and dilated pupil, the tongue is deviated leftward, mimetic paralysis below the eye on the left side of the face, and the left limbs are rigidity paralysis. The question is what structure isn't included in the injured structures possible?
A. right corticonuclear tract
B. right corticospinal tract
C. right cerebral peduncle
D. right oculomotor nerve
E. right trochlear nerve
3. One body was ill. Clinical examinations showed: the left limbs are anesthesia to passive movement, but the pain and thermal sensibility exist. No additional sighs and symptoms. What structure is involved by the lesion?
A. right gracile and cuneate fasciculi in spinal cord
B. left gracile and cuneate fasciculi in middle segments of spinal cord
C. left medial lemniscus in brainstem
D. right medial lemniscus in brainstem
E. right gracile nucleus
4. A patient had suffered from hemorrhage of brainstem. Physical examinations revealed: right mimetic paralysis, the mouth deviated leftward, frontal wrinkles exist; the tongue deviated rightward when it is extended; difficult to active movement of right limbs, tendon hyperreflexia. Where is damaged most possible?
A. crus cerebri of midbrain
B. ventral part of pons
C. pyramid of medulla oblongata
D. ventral part of medulla oblongata
E. dorsal part of pons
5. Male, 63 years old, suddenly coma two days ago, recovering from coma two days later, but the limbs on the right side are paralysis, the sensory for the whole body is normal. According to the case above, what this patient may be suffering from?
A. Posterior limb of internal capsule on the left side is hurt.
B. Precentral gyrus on the left side is hurt.
C. Posterior limb of internal capsule on the right side is hurt.
D. Pyramidal tract on the on right side is hurt.
E. Corticonuclear tract on the left side is hurt.
6. A 71-year-old man was seen by his physician because of tremor of the left arm. The patient also noticed that the muscles of his limbs sometimes felt stiff. Examination revealed that the patient rarely smiled and spoke with a weak voice. At rest, the fingers of the left hand alternately contracted and relaxed and there was a fine tremor of the wrist and elbow. There was no sensory or motor loss. A diagnosis of Parkinson' s disease was made. The following statements concerning this patient are correct except:
A. The stiffness of the muscles of the limbs, the unsmiling face, and the weak voice are due to loss of influence of the basal nuclei on the motor areas in the brainstem.
B. The absence of sensory and motor losses is due to the fact that the ascending sensory pathways and the main descending motor tracts are unaffected by this disease.
C. Neuronal degeneration is probably present in the substantia nigra and to a lesser extent in the globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate nucleus.
D. The release of dopamine within the corpus striatum is reduced.
E. The dopamine receptors in the postsynaptic neurous in the striatum are unchanged in Parkinson's disease.
7. A 64-yesr-old man was examined by a doctor for a suspected brain tumor, with the patient's eyes closed, a spoon was placed in her right hand and she was asked to recognize the object. After moving the spoon around in her hand, she was unable to recognize it. However, on opening her eyes the patient was embarrassed and immediately recognized what was in her hand. This patient was demonstrating astereognosis. In this condition the following facts could be correct except:
A. This patient has a lesion involving the left parietal lobe.
B. The tumor involves the left superior parietal lobule.
C. This area of the cerebral cortex is known as the somesthetic association area.
D. It is unnecessary for the patient to move the spoon around in her right hand in order to recognize the object.
E. The association area is where the sensations of touch, pressure, and proprioception are integrated.
8. A 71-year-old man was walking along the street when he suddenly collapsed. On admission to the Emergency Department of the local hospital he was found to have paralysis on the right side of his body, mainly involving the right leg. There was also some sensory loss of the right foot and ankle. The sudden onset of herniplegia and hemianesthesia made the diagnosis of a cerebrovascular accident most probable. The following considerations in this patient are correct except:
A. The lesion may involve the left cerebral hemisphere.
B. The right side hemiplegia most probably involves the left precentral gyrus.
C. Since the signs of the paralysis are limited to the right leg and foot, the vascular defect probably involves the upper part of the precentral gyrus and the paracentral lobule.
D. The loss of cutaneous sensation on the right foot and ankle may be due to alesion of the left postcentral gyrus and the paracentral lobule.
E. The right middle cerebral artery or one of its branches may be blocked by a thrombus or an embolus.
9. A 47-year-old man was diagnosed as having a rapidly growing intracranial tumor. One of the clinical findings was paralysis and sensory loss of the right foot and ankle. In this condition which following fact could be correct?
A. The location of the intracranial tumor is near the paracentral lobule on the left side.
B. The location of the intracranial tumor is near the paracentral lobule on the right side.
C. The location of the intracranial tumor is near lower part of the precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus on the left side.
D. The location of the intracranial tumor is near lower part of the precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus on the right side.
E. The location of the intracranial tumor is near supramarginal gyrus on the left side.
10. A 15-year-old boy was seen by a neurologist. Examination also revealed writing loss. The sensory and motor for the whole body are normal. An MRI revealed a tumor in brain. This patient may be suffering from:
A. Postcentral gyrus on the right side is hurt.
B. Precentral gyrus on the right side is hurt.
C. Visual area is hurt.
D. Writing area is hurt.
E. Visual speech area is hurt.
11. A 35-year-old man, two days ago he suddenly can not read the news paper, he don't understand what the paper meanings, an examination is given, no visual block revealed, what may be the matter with the patient?
A. Visual area is hurt.
B. Auditory area is hurt.
C. Writing area is hurt.
D. Visual speech area is hurt.
E. Auditory speech area is hurt.
12. A 42-year-old man was involved in a automobile accident resulting in a fracture of skull. 2 clays later he recovered consciousness, the patient was found to have some sensory loss on the left side of the body, the motor for the whole body is normal. In this condition which following fact could be correct?
A. The location of the fracture of skull is near postcentral gyrus on the right side.
B. The location of the fracture of skull is near preeentral gyrus on the right side.
C. The location of the fracture of skull is near inferior frontal gyrus on the right side.
D. The location of the fracture of skull is near superior temtx)ral gyms on the right side.
E. The location of the fracture of skull is near supramarginal gyrus on the right side.
13. A 48-year-old man was examined by a neurologist for his face paralyzed. Examination revealed that his left angle of his mouth was sag, saliva tended to dribble from the left corner of his mouth and had difficulty exposing his teeth fully on the left side. In this condition the following facts could be correct except:
A. Left facial nerve is hurt.
B. Nucleus of facial nerve on the left side is hurt.
C. Genu of internal capsule on the right side is hurt.
D. Genu of internal capsule on the left side is hurt.
E. Precentral gyrus on the right side is hurt.
A. superior salivatory nucleus
B. inferior salivatory nucleus
C. dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve
D. accessory nucleus of oculomotor nerve
E. nucleus ambiguus
1. Which nucleus is related to the secretion of lacrimal gland?
2. Which nucleus is related to the secretion of parotid gland?
3. Which nucleus supplies the thyroid gland?
A. motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve
B. nucleus of abducent nerve
C. solitary nucleus
D. nucleus of cochlear nerve
E. sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve
4. Which nucleus belongs to the special visceral motor nucleus?
5. Which nucleus belongs to the general visceral sensory nucleus?
6. Which nucleus belongs to the special somatic sensory nucleus?
A. lateral lemniscus
B. medial lemniscus
C. trigeminal lemniscus
D. corticonuclear tract
E. spinothalamic lenmiscus
7. Which tract conducts the deep sensation of trunk and limbs on contralateral side of the body?