Chapter 1 Osteo1ogy.............................1 Chapter 2



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D. The anterior corticospinal tract occupies a strip adjacent to the anterior median fissure.

E. The anterior corticospinal tract normally extends only to the upper thoracic spinal segments.

35. Which of the following statements is right?

A. The rubrospinal tract lies posterior to the fibers of the lateral corticospinal tract.

B. The fibers of the rubrospinal tract arise from the vestibulae nucleus of the midbrain.

C. The function of the rubrospinal tract is to excite the extensor muscles of the trunk and limbs.

D. The vestibulospinal tract arises from the lateral vestibulae nucleus of the opposite side.

E. The function of the vestibulospinal tract is to excite the extensor muscles of the trunk and limbs.

36. The function of the lateral corticospinal tract is .

A. fine motor function

B. gross and postural motor function

C. muscle tone and posture

D. postural reflexes

E. reflex head turning

37. The function of the anterior corticospinal tract is .

A. fine motor function

B. gross and postural motor function

C. muscle tone and posture

D. postural reflexes

E. reflex head turning

38. The function of the rubrospinal tract is .

A. fine motor function

B. gross and postural motor function

C. muscle tone and posture

D. postural reflexes

E. reflex head turning

39. The function of the vestibulospinal tract is .

A. fine motor function

B. gross and postural motor function

C. muscle tone and posture

D. postural reflexes

E. reflex head turning

40. The function of the tectospinal tract is .

A. fine motor function

B. gross and postural motor function

C. muscle tone and posture

D. postural reflexes

E. reflex head turning

41. The function of the medial longitudinal fasciculus is .

A. coordination of head and eye movements

B. gross and postural motor function

C. muscle tone and posture

D. postural reflexes

E. reflex head turning

42. Which of the following statements is not correct?

A. The stretch reflexes are also called superficial reflexes.

B. The stretch reflex is based on a monosynaptic reflex arc.

C. In the stretch reflex, only two-order neurons are involved.

D. The stretch reflex results in the contraction of a muscle when it is stretched.

E. One of the stretch reflexes is the knee-jerk.

43. Which of the following statements is not true?

A. The flexor reflexes are involved association neurons in addition to the sensory and motor neurons.

B. Since more than two-order neurons are involved, there is more than one synapse in the flexor reflex.

C. The flexor reflexes are polysynaptic reflex arcs.

D. The flexor reflex is protective in that it results in the movement of an extremity to avoid pain.

E. None of the above.

44. About the simple reflex, which of the following statements is not true?

A. The receptor is a special sense organ, cutaneous end-organ, or muscle spindle, whose stimulation initiates an impulse.

B. The afferent neuron transmits the impulse through a peripheral nerve to the central nervous system.

C.. The interneurons relay the impulse to the efferent neuron.

D. The afferent neuron passes outward in the nerve and delivers the impulse to an effector.

E. The effector is the muscle or gland that produces the response.

45. Which of the following statements is not correct?

A. Reflexes that result in the contraction of skeletal muscles are known as somatic reflexes.

B. Reflexes that cause the contraction of smooth, or cardiac muscle, or secretion by glands are visceral reflexes.

C. The stretch reflexes are also called tendon reflexes.

D. The tendon reflexes are the deep tendon reflexes.

E. None of the above.

46. About the stretch reflex, which of the following statements is not correct?

A. It provides a feedback mechanism for maintaining appropriate muscle tone.

B. It depends on specialized sensory receptors, muscle spindles.

C. It depends on specialized afferent nerve fibers, primarily Ia fibers.

D. It is based on a monosynaptic reflex arc.

E. None of the above.

47. The spinal cord transection results in a complete lose of the followings below the level of the lesion, except .

A. all somatic sensation

B. hearing

C. all visceral sensation

D. all reflex activity

E. all motor function

48. Hemisection of the spinal cord produces a Brown-Sequard syndrome. The patient with signs and symptoms includes the followings, except .

A. the ipsilateral motor neuron paralysis below the level of lesion

B. loss of the ipsilateral deep sensation below the level of lesion

C. loss of the contralateral superficial sensation below the level of lesion

D. loss of the contralateral deep sensation below the level of lesion

E. loss of the ipsilateral proprioceptive, vibratory and two-point discrimination sense below the level of lesion

49. Lesion of anterior horn of the spinal cord causes the followings, except .

A. ipsilateral lower motor neuron paralysis in the segments of the lesion

B. infantile paralysis

C. the upper motor neuron paralysis above the segments of the lesion

D. lower motor neuron paralysis of the same side in the segments of the lesion

E. problem when the patient runs

50. Lesion around the central gray matter can affect or cause the followings, except .

A. the decussating fibers of the spinothalamic tract from both sides without affecting other ascending tracts

B. dissociated sensory abnormalities with loss of pain and temperature sensibility in appropriate dermatomes

C. the decussating fibers of the spinothalamic tract from both sides without affecting other descending tracts

D. infantile paralysis

E. syringomyelia

51. The brainstern is formed by the structures as follows:

A. medulla oblongata, pons and cerebellum

B. medulla oblongata, pons, middle brain and cerebellum

C. pons, middle brain and cerebellum

D. medulla oblongata, pons, middle brain and thalamus

E. medulla oblongata, pons and middle brain

52. The structure in anterior surface of brainstem doesn't include:

A. superior medullary velum

B. basilar sulcus

C. cerebral peduncles

D. pyramids

E. interpeduncular fossa

53. The structure in anterior surface of pons includes:

A. cerebral peduncles

B. superior cerebellar peduncle

C. basilar sulcus

D. inferior cerebellar peduncle

E. olive


54. The structure belong to posterior surface of medulla oblongata is .

A. colliculus of facial nerve

B. superior colliculus

C. locus ceruleus

D. superior medullary velum

E. cuneate tubercle

55. The nerve connecting to posterior surface of brainstem is .

A. oculomotor nerve

B. trochlear nerve

C. hypoglossal nerve

D. facial nerve

E. abducent nerve

56. About the position of brainstem, which statement is right?

A. It locates in middle part of posterior cranial fossa.

B. It is related to clivus of occipital bone ventrally and cerebellum dorsally.

C. The cerebral hemisphere is above it.

D. It may extend to the foramen magnum downwards.

E. The thalamus is above it.

57. The cranial nerves related to medulla oblongata doesn't include:

A. hypoglossal nerve

B. vagus nerve

C. glossopharyngeal nerve

D. abducent nerve

E. accessory nerve

58. The cranial nuclei located in pons are .

A. nucleus of facial nerve, motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve and nucleus ambiguus

B. nucleus of facial nerve, hypoglossal nucleus and vestibular nucleus

C. nucleus of facial nerve, motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve and abducent nucleus

D. nucleus of facial nerve, motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve and nucleus ceruleus

E. abducent nucleus, superior salivatory nucleus and superior olivary nucleus

59. Which group of the cranial nuclei belongs to medulla oblongata as follows?

A. solitary nucleus, nucleus ambiguus and dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve

B. hypoglossal nucleus, superior and inferior salivatory nuclei

C. solitary nucleus, superior salivatory nucleus and dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve

D.hypoglossal nucleus, dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve, inferior olivary nucleus

E. nucleus ambiguus, accessory nucleus, and abducent nucleus

60. Which nucleus doesn't belong to the parasympathetic nuclei as follows?

A. accessory nucleus of oculomotor nerve

B. superior salivatory nucleus

C. dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve

D. inferior salivatory nucleus

E. nucleus ambiguus

61. The parasympathetic nuclei in brainstem include:

A. accessory nucleus of oculomotor nerve, dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve, and superior salivatory nucleus

B. dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve, hypoglossal nucleus, solitary nucleus

C. accessory nucleus of oculomotor nerve, superior salivatory nucleus, and hypoglossal nucleus

D. inferior salivatory nucleus, dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve, and inferior olivary nucleus

E. accessory nucleus of oculomotor nerve, dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve, and sacral parasympathetic nucleus

62. Which nucleus gives off parasympathetic preganglionic fibers to enter facial nerve in brainstem?

A. inferior salivatory nucleus

B. nucleus ambiguus

C. superior salivatory nucleus

D. dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve

E. accessory nucleus of oculomotor nerve

63. The parasympathetic preganglionic fibers in facial nerve arise from .

A. accessory nucleus of oculomotor nerve

B. superior salivatory nucleus

C. inferior salivatory nucleus

D. dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve

E. superior olivary nucleus

64. The parasympathetic preganglionic fibers in glossopharyngeal nerve arise from .

A. dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve

B. inferior salivatory nucleus

C. hypoglossal nucleus

D. superior salivatory nucleus

E. nucleus ambiguus

65. Which nucleus receives the visceral sensory fibers in the brainstem?

A. cochlear nucleus

B. vestibular nucleus

C. inferior olivary nucleus

D. solitary nucleus

E. sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve

66. Which group of cranial nuclei in brainstem belongs to the general somatic motor nucleus?

A. trochlear, abducent, hypoglossal nuclei and nucleus of oculomotor nerve

B. abducent nucleus, nucleus of facial nerve and nucleus ambiguus

C. nucleus of facial nerve, motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve and nucleus ambiguus

D. hypoglossal nucleus, accessory nucleus and nucleus ambiguus

E. abducent nucleus, motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve and nucleus of oculomotor nerve

67. The parasympathetic preganglionic fibers originated from superior salivatory nucleus may enter .

A. facial nerve

B. glossopharyngeal nerve

C. vagus nerve

D. oculomotor nerve

E. lacrimal nerve

68. The parasympathetic preganglionic fibers originated from inferior salivatory nucleus may enter .

A. facial nerve

B. vagus nerve

C. glossopharyngeal nerve

D. greater petrosal nerve

E. chorda tympani

69. Which one belongs to the special visceral motor nucleus?

A. abducent nucleus

B. nucleus of facial nerve

C. trochlear nucleus

D. nucleus of oculomotor nerve

E. hypoglossal nucleus

70. Which one doesn't belong to parasympathetic nucleus in brainstem?

A. accessory nucleus of oculomotor nerve

B. superior salivatory nucleus

C. inferior salivatory nucleus

D. nucleus ambiguus

E. dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve

71. About the gracile nucleus and cuneate nucleus, which statement is right?

A. They are cranial nuclei in the medulla oblongata.

B. They receive the somatic sensory fibers from the spinal nerves.

C. They are situated in upper part of medulla oblongata.

D. They receive the termination of fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus.

E. They transmit the proprioceptive and fine touch sensations from opposite side of the body.

72. Following statements about the medial lemniscus, which one is incorrect?

A. The fibers of it arise from contralateral gracile and cuneate nuclei.

B. It conducts the proprioceptive and fine touch sensations from the contralateral trunk and limbs.

C. It conducts the proprioceptive and fine touch sensations from ipsilateral trunk and limbs.

D. It is terminated in the ventral posterolateral nucleus of thalamus.

E. It is located dorsolateral to the red nucleus in the midbrain.

73. Which of the following tracts is relayed in the gracile and cuneate nuclei?

A. spinothalamic tract

B. anterior spinocerebellar tract

C. medial longitudinal fasciculus

D. posterior spinocerebellar tract

E. fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus

74. Which group of nuclei is located in the midbrain?

A. nucleus of oculomotor nerve, trochlear nucleus, accessory nucleus of oculomotor nerve

B. nucleus of oculomotor nerve, nucleus of trochlear nerve, nucleus of abducent nerve

C. mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve, nucleus of oculomotor nerve, and nucleus of abducent nerve

D. nucleus ceruleus, nucleus of trochlear nerve, and accessory nucleus of oculomotor nerve

E. motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve, nucleus of trochlear nerve, nucleus of oculomotor nerve

75. The following cranial nuclei are in the gray matter distributed on the surface of rhomboid fossa except:

A. dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve

B. nucleus ambiguus

C. abducent nucleus

D. hypoglossal nucleus

E. vestibular nucleus

76. Which of the following statements concerning vestibular nucleus is correct?

A. The nucleus is situated in the reticular formation of the pons.

B. It is divided into medial vestibular nucleus and lateral vestibular nucleus.

C. It receives the afferent fibers of the vestibulocochlear nerve.

D. It is deep to the vestibular area of rhomboid fossa.

E. The nucleus belongs to the general somatic sensory nucleus.

77. The following statements concerning the inferior olivary nucleus complex are correct except:

A. It is deep to the olive.

B. It is divided into inferior olivary nucleus, medial accessory olivary nucleus and dorsal accessory olivary nucleus.

C. It is important relay nucleus complex in the brainstem.

D. Most of the efferent fibers from it traverse into contralateral inferior cerebellar peduncle.

E. All of the efferent fibers from it traverse into contralateral inferior cerebellar peduncle.

78. Which of the following statements about the cochlear nuclei is correct?

A. It receives the afferent fibers from contralateral cochlear nerve.

B. The efferent fibers of it traverse into bilateral lateral lemniscus.

C. The efferent fibers of it traverse into ipsilatera[ lateral lemniscus.

D. The efferent fibers of it traverse into contralateral lateral lemniscus.

E. It receives the afferent fibers from ipsilateral vestibulocochlear nerve.

79. The accessory nucleus of oculomotor nerve gives off efferent fibers to control.

A. lacrimal gland

B. dilator pupillae

C. sphincter pupillae and ciliary muscle

D. superior obliquus

E. lateral rectus

80. Which structures are controlled by parasympathetic fibers from superior salivatory nucleus?

A. submandibular gland, sublingual gland and lacrimal gland

B. lacrimal gland, submandibular gland and parotid gland

C. lacrimal gland and parotid gland

D. submandibular gland, sublingual gland and parotid gland

E. lacrimal gland, sublingual gland and parotid gland

81. Which structures are controlled by parasympathetic fibers from inferior salivatory nucleus?

A. lacrimal gland

B. parotid gland

C. submandibular gland

D. sublingual gland

E. thyroid gland

82. The following structures are controlled by the parasympathetic fibers of dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve except:

A. thyroid gland

B. liver

C. pancreas

D. stomach

E. sigmoid colon

83. Which of the following statements about the internal structure of brainstem is correct?

A. The gray matter is inside and white matter is on the surface of brainstem.

B. The pyramid contains-ascending and descending tracts.

C. Gracile and cuneate nuclei are cranial nuclei.

D. The reticular formation is situated between the gray matter and white matter.

E. The inner cavity of brainstem is the fourth ventricle.

84. Where is the red nucleus located?

A. in the diencephalon

B. in the midbrain

C. in the cerebellum

D. in the upper part of pons

E. in the junctional zone between pons and midbrain

85. The relay nucleus in brainstem doesn't include:

A. inferior olivary nucleus

B. gracile nucleus

C. substantia nigra

D. superior colliculus

E. vestibular nucleus

86. Which structure as follows forms the trapezoid body?

A. spinothalamic lemniscus

B. trigeminal lemniscus

C. medial lemniscus

D. the fibers from contralateral cochlear nucleus

E. the fibers from ipsilateral cochlear nucleus

87. The nucleus giving off somatic motor fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve is:

A. nucleus of abducent nerve

B. inferior salivatory nucleus

C. superior salivatory nucleus

D. parasympathetic nucleus

E. inferior olivary nucleus

88. Which of the following statements concerning lateral lemniscus is correct?

A. It transmits the auditory sense from ipsilateral ear only.

B. It is formed by the fibers arising from contralateral cochlear nucleus.

C. It is formed by the fibers arising from ipsilateral cochlear nucleus.

D. All of the fibers of it terminate to medial geniculate body directly.

E. It is formed by the fibers arising from bilateral cochlear nucleus.

89. The fibers of lateral lemniscus arise from:

A. contralateral cochlear nucleus

B. bilateral cochlear nucleus

C. ipsilateral vestibular nucleus

D. ipsilateral vestibular and cochlear nuclei

E. ipsilateral cochlear nucleus

90. The relay nucleus in the midbrain doesn't includes:

A. red nucleus

B. substantia nigra

C. nucleus ceruleus

D. nucleus of inferior colliculus

E. superior colliculus

91. The following cranial nuclei receive the projection of bilateral corticonuclear tract except:

A. nucleus of hypoglossal nerve

B. nucleus of abducent nerve

C. nucleus of trochlear nerve

D. motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve

E. nucleus of oculomotor nerve

92. The nucleus receiving the contralateral corticonuclear tract only is .

A. motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve

B. upper part of nucleus of facial nerve

C. dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve

D. lower part of nucleus of facial nerve

E. nucleus ambiguus

93. The following statements concerning spinothalamic lemniscus are correct except:

A. It arises from contralateral nucleus proprius of spinal cord.

B. The fibers stop into the ventral posteromedial nucleus of thalamus.

C. In the pons, it passes through the trapezoid body and lateral to the medial lemniscus.

D. The fibers stop into the ventral posterolateral nucleus of thalamus.

E. It conducts the pain, thermal and rough touch-pressure sensation from contralateral trunk and limbs.

94. Which of the following statements concerning the corticospinal tract is wrong?

A. It arises from ipsilateral upper 2/3 of precentral gyrus and anterior part of paracentral lobule.

B. It passes downwards in the crus cerebri of midbrain.

C. It passes downwards in the pyramids of pons and medulla oblongata.

D. It controls the muscles of contralateral limbs and bilateral trunk.

E. Most of the fibers of the tract cross the midplane in pyramidal decussation.

95. The major nuclei of reticular formation in brainstem don't include:

A. nucleus raphes magnus

B. nucleus raphes dorsalis

C. nucleus raphes pallidus

D. lateral and medial parabrachial nuclei

E. superior olivary nucleus

96. The incorrect statement about the substantia nigra is:

A. It appears in mammals only especially it reaches its greatest development in man.

B. It is divided into a dorsal compact part and a ventral reticular part.

C. The dopaminergic neurons which contain the numerous melanin pigments are in the compact part mainly.

D. It is situated between the tegmentum and rectum of midbrain.

E. It is situated between the tegmentum and crus cerebri of midbrain.

97. The following statements concerning the trigeminal lemniseus are incorrect except:

A. It is formed by the fibers arising from the ipsilateral trigeminal ganglion.

B. It is formed by the fibers arising from the contralateral trigeminal ganglion.

C. It is formed by the fibers arising from the ipsilateral pontine and spinal nuclei of trigeminal nerve.

D. It is formed by the fibers arising from the contralateral pontine and spinal nuclei of trigeminal nerve.

E. It is formed by the fibers arising from the contralateral mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve.

98. The tract transmitting the pain, thermal and touch-pressure sensation of contralateral head and face is:

A. medial lemniscus

B. trigeminal lemniscus

C. spinothalamic lemniscus

D. medial longitudinal fasciculus

E. lateral lemniscus

99. The incorrect statement about red nucleus is:

A. It is situated in the center of tegmentum of midbrain.

B. It has pinkish colour in fresh specimens.

C. The afferent fibers of it are entirely derived from the cerebellar nuclei via the superior cerebellar peduncle.

D. It is an important relay station of the somatic motor pathway.

E. The nucleus is composed of the magnocellular and parvocellular parts.

100. The fiber bundle connecting the brainstem and cerebellum doesn't include:

A. superior cerebellar peduncle

B. rubrospinal tract

C. anterior spinocerebellar tract

D. middle cerebellar peduncle

E. inferior cerebellar tract

101. Which of the following combinations is not correct?

A. corpus callosum-diencephalon

B. corpora quadrigemina-midbrain

C. cortex-cerebellum

D. thalamus-diencephalon

E. vermis-cerebellum

102. Cerebellar nuclei doesn't include:

A. dentate nucleus

B. globose nucleus

C. emboliform nucleus

D. fastigial nucleus

E. red nucleus

103. Which nucleus is related to the cerebellar cortex directly?

A. vestibular nucleus

B. red nucleus

C. substantia nigra

D. ventral posterolateral nucleus of thalamus

E. none of the above




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