Chapter 1 Osteo1ogy．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．1
Chapter 2 Arthrology．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．14
Chapter 3 Myo1ogy．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．23
Chapter 4-5 The General Description of Splanchnology & The Alimentary System．．．．．．．．34
Chapter 6 The Respiratory System．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．45
Chapter 7 The Urinary System．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．56
Chapter 8 The Male Reproductive System．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．70
Chapter 9 The Female Reproductive Organs．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．85
Chapter 10 The Peritoneum．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．。．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．101
Chapter 11 The Cardiovascular System．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．107
Chapter 12 The Lymphatic System．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．128
Chapter 13-15 The Sensory Organs．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．134
Chapter 16 The General Description of Nervous System．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．144
Chapter 17 The Central Nervous System．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．152
Chapter 18 The Peripheral Nervous System．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．208
Chapter 19 The Nervous Pathways．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．234
Chapter 20 Meninges and B1ood Vessels of Brain and Spinal Cord，and the Cerebrospinal Fluid．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．256
Chapter 21 The Endocrine System．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．．268
Multiple Choice Questions
1．In adults，the radius is to the ulna，as the .
A．tibia is to the femur
B．fibula is to the ulna
C．fibula is to the tibia
D．humerus is to the femur
E．None of the above
2．Which of the following bones is／are not part of the pectoral girdle and its appendages?
3．The anatomical neck of the humerus 1ies .
A．where the expanded upper end joins the shaft
B．between the greater and lesser tuberosities
C．at the deltoid tuberosity
D．immediately below the head
E．just above the bicipital groove
4．The medial surface of the calcaneus has a large shelf-like process called the . A．peroneal tubercle
5．The styloid process projects downward and forward from the .
6．The optic canal is an opening in the .
C．petrous part of the temporal bone
D．lesser wing of the sphenoid bone
E．squamous part of the temporal bone
7．The hypoglossal canal is located in the .
A．squamous part of the temporal bone
8．The foramen rotundum is located in the .
A．greater wing of the sphenoid bone
C．petrous part of the temporal bone
E．lesser wing of the sphenoid bone
9．The orbital margins are bounded by the frontal bone superiorly，the____________bone
laterally，the maxilla and zygomaric bone inferiorly，and the processes of the maxilla
and frontal bone medially．
A．greater wing of the sphenoid
D．lesser wing of the sphenoid
10．The carotid canal is located in the .
B．petrous part of the temporal bone
D．greater wing of the sphenoid bone
11．The ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve leaves the skull through the .
D．superior orbital fissure
E．inferior orbital fissure
12．The maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve leaves the skull through the .
C．superior orbital fissure
13．The foramen magnum is located in the .
14．The seventh cervical vertebra is characterized by having .
A．an odontoid process
B．a large transverse foramen
C．a heart-shaped body
D．a massive body
E．the longest spinous process
15．The sixth thoracic vertebra is characterized by .
A．its heart-shaped body
B．its bifid spinous process
C．its massive body
D．having the superior articular processes facing medially and those of the inferior
articular process facing laterally
E．its thick lamina
16．The characteristic feature of the second cervical vertebra is its .
E．bifid spinous process
17．The characteristic feature of the first cervical vertebra is its .
D．long spinous process
E．absent foramen transversarium
18．The characteristic feature of the fifth lumbar vertebra is its .
B．rounded vertebral foramen
E．short and thick transverse process
19．The costal margin is formed by the .
A．sixth，eighth，and tenth ribs
B．inner margins of the first ribs
C．edge of the xiphoid process
D．costal cartilages of the seventh，eighth，ninth，and tenth ribs
E．costal cartilages of the seventh to the tenth ribs and the ends of the cartilages of the eleventh and twelfth ribs
20．The clavicle articulates with the laterally．
B．superior angle of the scapula
D．base of the spine of the scapula
21．The foramen spinosum is located in the .
D．petrous part of the temporal bone
E．squamous part of the temporal bone
22．The lateral end of the spine of scapula forms the .
E．superior angle of the scapula
23．The scapula is a flat triangular bone that lies on the posterior chest wall between the
A．first and sixth ribs
B．second and seventh ribs
C．third and eighth ribs
D．fourth and ninth ribs
E．fifth and tenth ribs
24．Above the trochlea of the humerus anteriorly is the .
25．The dorsal tubercle of the radius is situated .
A．just below the head
B．on the posterior surface of the distal end
C．on the lateral margin of the distal end
D．on the interosseous border
E．halfway down on the lateral side of the shaft
26．The olecranon process of the ulna lies .
A．at the distal end of the bone
B．halfway down the lateral border
C．halfway down the medial border
D．at the proximal end
E．below the radial notch
27．The following bones form the proximal row of carpal bones except .
28．Which one of the following is not a part of the appendicular skeleton?
29．The following statements concening the bony pelvis are correct except which one?
A．when the patient is in the standing position，the anterior superior iliac spines lie
vertically above the anterior surface of the symphysis pubis
B．very little movement is possible at the sacrococcygeal joint
C．the false pelvis helps guide the fetus into the true pelvis during labor
D．the female sex hormones cause a relaxation of the ligaments of the pelvis during pregnancy
E．obliteration of the cavity of the sacroiliac joint often occurs in both sexes after middle age
30．Clinicians define the thoracic outlet as .
A．the lower opening in the thoracic cage
B．the gap between the crura of the diaphragm
C．the esophageal opening in the diaphragm
D．the upper opening in the thoracic cage
E．the gap between the sternal and costal origins of the diaphragm
31．The posterior surface of the tibia shows an oblique line for the attachment of the soleus muscle. The line is referred to as the .
32．At the junction of the anterior border of the tibia with the upper end is the
for the attachment of the patellar ligament
33．The lower end of the fibula forms the triangular .
34．The head of the talus has an oval convex articular surface for articulation with the .
B．medial cuneiform bone
C．intermediate cuneiform bone
35．The two parietal bones articulate with each other in the midline at the .
36．The fifth metatarsal bone has a prominent tubercle on its base for the attachment of the
A．peroneus brevis muscle
B．flexor digitorum longus muscle
C．flexor digiti minimi brevis
D．peroneus longus muscle
E．peroneus tertius muscle
37．Which of the following is not a function of bones?
C．allowing f1exible and contro1led movement
D．providing a storehouse of inorganic salts
E．providing a non living "concrete" architecture
38．Which statement is not true about the development of bone in humans?
A．bone breakdown and replacement occur throughout life
B．a primary ossification center forms in the middle of a long bone
C．a secondary ossification center forms at the ends of a 1ong bone
D．bones may form within cartilage model or within a membrane matrix
E．a cartilaginous disk remains between the primary and secondary ossification centers
until old age
39．The bones of the wrist are called the .
40．Which of the following bones is／are not part of the axial skeleton?
41．Which of the following is not true about the vertebrae?
A．They help protect the spinal cord
B．They are part of the appendicular skeleton
C．They form the dorsal backbone
D．They help form 4 curvatures of the spine
E．They are separated by intervertebral discs
42．The correct order of regions of vertebra is .
1．A1though both tympanic membranes appear normal，fluid is observed in both middle ears．The right ear also suffers a moderate hearing loss. Ear involvement in this case may best be explained by spread of infection from the tonsils via the .
A. facial canal
B. foramen ovale
C. pharyngotympanic tube
D. external auditory meatus
E. internal auditory meatus
2．A 26-year-old accountant trips over a brief case and falls onto his outstretched hand. You suspect a fracture of a carpal bone. Which of the following is most likely fractured?
3．An 18-year-old boy was suspected of having leukemia. It was decided to confirm the diagnosis by performing a bone marrow biopsy. The following statements concerning this procedure are correct except which one?
A. Red bone marrow specimens can be obtained from the sternum or the iliac crests
B. The biopsy was taken from the lower end of the tibia
C. At birth, the marrow of all bones of the body is red and hematopoietic
D. The blood-forming activity of bone marrow in many long bones gradually lessens with age, and the red marrow is gradually replaced by yellow marrow
E. By the time the person becomes adult, red marrow is restricted to the bones of the skull, the vertebral column, the thoracic cage, the girdle bones, and the head of the humerus and femur
4．During a little league game one of the players accidently struck her teammate with her bat. When the bat hit the boy' s arm there was an audible crack and the boy fell to the ground in pain. Luckily, one of the mothers watching was a physician and she rushed to the boy' s aid. Quick examination showed that the boy had a closed fracture in his upper arm. After watching him abduct and rotate the arm, she diagnosed damage to the axillary nerve. Damage to this nerve normally occurs when injury is located at the .
A. lateral epicondyle of the humerus
B. medial epicondyle of the humerus
C. anatomical neck of the humerus
D. surgical neck of the humerus
E. deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
5．A heavily built, middle-aged man running down a flight of stone steps misjudged the position of one of the steps and fell suddenly onto his buttocks. Following the fall, he complained of severe bruising of the area of the cleft between the buttocks and persistent pain in this area. The following statements concerning this patient are correct except which?
A. The lower end of the vertebral column was traumatized by the stone step
B. The coccyx can be palpated beneath the skin in the natal cleft
C. The anterior surface of the coccyx cannot be felt clinically
D. The coccyx is usually severely bruised or fractured
E. The pain is felt in the distribution of dermatomes S4 and S5
6．An elderly woman was run over by an automobile as she was crossing the road. Radiographic examination of the pelvis in the Emergency Department of the local hospital revealed a fracture of the ilium and iliac crest on the left side. The following statements about fractures of the pelvis are correct except which?
A. Fractures of the ilium have little displacement
B. Displacement is prevented by the presence of the iliacus and the gluteal muscles on the inner and outer surfaces of this bone, respectively
C. If two fractures occur in the ring forming the true pelvis, the fracture will be unstable and displacement will occur
D. Fractures of the true pelvis do not cause injury to the pelvic viscera
E. The post-vertebral and abdominal muscles are responsible for elevating the lateral part of the pelvis should two fractures occur
7．A pregnant woman visited an antenatal clinic. A vaginal examination revealed that the sacral promontory could be easily palpated and that the diagonal conjugate measured less than 10 cm. The following statements concerning this examination are correct except which?
A. Normally it is difficult or impossible to feel the sacral promontory by means of a vaginal examination
B. The normal diagonal conjugate measures about 25 cm
C. This patient's pelvis was flattened anteroposteriorly, and the sacral promontory projected too far forward
D. It is likely that this patient would have an obstructed labor
E. This patient was advised to have a cesarean section
8．A 26-year-old man was running across a field when he caught his right foot in a rabbit hole. As he fell, the right foot was violently rotated laterally and overeverted. On attempting to stand, he could place no weight on his right foot. On examination by a physician, the right ankle was considerably swollen, especially on the lateral side. After further examination, including a radiograph of the ankle, a diagnosis of severe fracture dislocation of the ankle joint was made. The following statements concerning this patient are correct except which?
A. This type of fracture dislocation is caused by forced external rotation and overexertion of the foot.
B. The talus is externally rotated against the lateral malleolus of the fibula, causing it to fracture.
C. The torsion effect on the lateral malleolus produces a spiral fracture.
D. The medial ligament of the ankle joint is strong and never ruptures.
E. If the talus is forced to move farther laterally and continues to rotate, the posterior inferior margin of the tibia will be sheared off.
9．Infection may spread from the nasal cavity to the meninges along the olfactory nerves. Olfactory fibers pass from the mucosa of the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulb via the .
A. semilunar hiatus
B. cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
C. anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina
D. sphenopalatine foramen
E. nasociliary nerve
10．A 23-year-old college student is being seen for possible sinusitis. The physician sees purulent drainage arising from the superior nasal meatus. Which of the following sinuses is likely to be infected?
B. left maxillary
E. right maxillary
A. compact bone
C. medullary cavity
D. articular cartilage
1. The membrane covering a bone, that assumes a role in fracture repair is the .
2. The portion of a long bone that stores yellow marrow in adults is the .
3. The medial bone of the forearm, in the anatomical position, is the .
4. The lateral bone of the leg is the .
E. frontal bone
5. Which of the above is not axial? .
6. Which of the above belongs to the facial bone?
7. The clavicle is to the head.
8. The tibia is to the fibula.
A. spongy bone
D. compact bone
E. medullary cavity
9. The second structure encountered by a pin entering the shaft of a long bone would be the .
10. Flat bones lack .
True or False Questions
1. The axial portion of the body includes the arms and legs. ( )
2. Yellow bone marrow functions in the formation of blood cells. ( )
3. The long bone in the arm forms by intramembranous ossification. ( )
4. The appendicular skeleton consists of the parts that support and protect the head, neck, and trunk. ( )
5. Red bone marrow is normally present in the epiphyses of all long bones. ( )
6. The hollow cylindrical portion of a long bone is called the diaphysis. ( )
7. Bone is a hard, rigid tissue because of calcium salts deposited in its matrix. ( )
8. Each individual bone contains either red marrow or yellow marrow, but not both.. ( )
Explanation of Terms
1. anatomical position
2. sternal angle
4. carrying angle
5. anterior fontanelle
6. terminal line
Answer the Following Questions
1. List the bones of the skull that are paired. Which are unpaired?
2. List four types of bones based on shape and give an example of each type.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. C 2. E 3. D 4. C 5. B 6. D 7. C 8. A 9. E 10. B 11. D 12. B 13. E 14. E 15. A 16. B 17. C 18. D 19. E 20. C 21. A 22. A 23. B 24. A 25. B 26. D 27. E 28. A 29. B 30. D 31. D 32. E 33. A 34. D 35. B 36. A 37. E 38. E 39. B 40. D 41. B 42. C
1. C 2. D 3. B 4. D 5. C 6. D 7. B 8. D 9. B 10. D
1. B 2. C 3. A 4. E 5. D 6. A 7. A 8. C 9. D 10. E
True or False Questions
1. F 2. F 3. F 4. F 5. F 6. T 7. T 8. F
Explanation of Terms
1. This is a reference position that allows for the use of consistent directional terminology. All descriptions of location are made from within anatomical position. The person is standing erect, palms facing anteriorly, feet together and facing forward.
2. The sternal angle is the angle formed by the junction of the manubrium and the body of the sternum in the form of a secondary cartilaginous joint (symphysis). This is also called the manubriosternal joint or Angle of Louis. The sternal angle is a palpable clinical landmark. It marks the approximate level of the 2nd pair of costal cartilages and the level of the intervertebral disc between T4 and T5. The angle is 140 degrees.
3. The point corresponding with the posterior end of the sphenoparietal suture is named the pterion. It is situated about 3 cm behind, and a little above the level of the zygomatic process of the frontal bone. It marks the junction between four bones: parietal bone, temporal bone, sphenoid bone and frontal bone. The pterion is known as the weakest part of the skull. Clinically, the pterion is relevant because the middle meningeal artery runs beneath it, on the inner side of the skull, which is quite thin at this point.
4. When the arm is extended, with the palm facing forward or up, the bones of the humerus and forearm are not perfectly aligned. The deviation from a straight line (generally on the order of 5。-10。) occurs in the direction of the thumb, and is referred to as the carrying angle. In females the carrying angle is greater than in males. The carrying angle can influence how objects are held by individuals--those with a more extreme carrying angle may be more likely to supinate the forearm when holding objects in the hand to keep the elbow closer to the body.
5. The largest one of all fontanelles.
Location: the junction of the sagittal and coronal sutures
Size: about 4cm anteroposteriorly and 2. 5cm transversely.
The fontanelle is closed at about the middle of the second year.
6. It is a circular line, formed by the promontory of the sacrum, the anterior border of the sacrum ala, the arcuate line of ilium, the pecten pubis, the pubic crest and the upper border of the pubic symphysis. Whole pelvis is divided into a greater pelvis and a lesser pelvis by the terminal line.