|Shier, Butler, and Lewis: Human Anatomy and Physiology, 10th ed. Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology
A. The interests of our earliest ancestors most likely concerned injuries and illness because healthy bodies demand little attention from their owners.
B. Primitive people certainly suffered from occasional aches and pains, injuries, bleeding, broken bones, and diseases.
C. Before agriculture, infectious diseases did not spread easily because isolated bands of people had little contact with each other.
D. With agriculture, humans became susceptible to worm diseases because excrement was used in fertilizers and less reliance was placed on wild plants that offered their protective substances.
E. With urbanization, humans became more susceptible to infectious diseases and malnutrition.
F. Tooth decay was lowest among hunter-gathers and highest among city residents.
G. Preserved bones from children can reflect malnutrition because when a child starves or suffers from severe infection, the ends the bones stop growing. When health returns, growth resumes, but leaves behind areas of dense bone.
H. At first healers had to rely on superstitions and notions about magic.
I. The forerunners of modern drugs were herbs and potions.
J. Early medical providers developed the language of anatomy and physiology from Greek and Latin
II. Anatomy and Physiology
A. Difference between Anatomy and Physiology.
1. Anatomy is the study of structure of body parts including their forms and organization.
2. Physiology is the study of function of body parts.
3. Anatomists rely on examination of the body.
4. Physiologists rely on experimentation.
B. Relatedness of Anatomy and Physiology
1. Anatomy and Physiology are difficult to separate because anatomical structures make possible their functions.
2. The anatomy of the hand, which is long, jointed bones with attached muscles, allows it to grasp objects.
3. The structure of the heart includes powerful, muscular walls which allows it to propel blood into blood vessels.
4. The heart valves ensure that blood moves in the proper direction.
5. The shape of the mouth allows it receive food.
6. Teeth can function to break solid foods because of their shape.
C. Old and New Fields
1. A recent anatomical discovery is a previously unknown muscle between two bones in the hand.
2. A recent physiological discovery is the identification of a hormone, ghrelin, that controls fat.
3. Researchers have recently sequenced the human genome, which will help explain anatomy and physiology at the cellular and molecular levels.
III. Levels of Organization
A. All materials are made of chemicals.
B. Chemicals consist of tiny particles called atoms
C. Examples of atoms are hydrogen and lithium.
D. When atoms chemically bond together they form molecules.
E. Examples of molecules are water and glucose.
F. When small molecules chemically combine they form macromolecules.
G. Examples of macromolecules are proteins and DNA.
H. Within humans, the basic unit of structure is the cell.
I. Cells are made of small structures called organelles.
J. Organelles are made of macromolecules.
K. Examples of organelles are mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and nuclei.
L. Examples of cells are muscles cells and nerve cells.
M. Tissues are formed from similar cells.
N. Examples of tissues are simple squamous epithelium and loose connective tissue.
O. Organs are formed from tissues.
P. Examples of organs are skin, femur, heart, and kidney.
Q. Organ systems are formed from organs.
R. Examples of organ systems include integumentary system, skeletal system, and digestive system.
S. Organisms are formed from organ systems.
T. The organism studied in this class is the human.
IV. Characteristics of Life
A. Movement is a change in body position or body part position. It also includes motions of internal organs.
B. Responsiveness is a reaction to a change taking place inside or outside the body.
C. Growth is an increase in body size.
D. Reproduction is production of new organisms and new cells.
E. Respiration is the process of obtaining oxygen, removing carbon dioxide, and releasing energy from foods.
F. Digestion is the breakdown of food substances into simpler forms that can be absorbed and used.
G. Absorption is the passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids.
H. Circulation is movement of substances from place to place in body fluids.
I. Assimilation is changing of absorbed substances into chemically different forms.
J. Excretion is removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions.
K. Metabolism is ______________________________________________________________
V. Maintenance of Life
A. Requirements of Organisms
1. The five requirements of life are water, food, oxygen, heat, and pressure.
2. The most abundant substance in the body is water.
3. Four major uses of water by the body are metabolic processes, medium for metabolic reactions, to transport substances, and to regulate body temperature.
4. Substances that provide organisms with nutrients are called foods.
5. Nutrients supply energy and raw materials for building new living matter.
6. One-fifth of air is oxygen.
7. The body uses oxygen in the process of releasing energy from nutrients.
8. A form of energy used by the body is heat.
9. Heat helps to regulate rates of metabolic reactions.
10. The application of force on an object is pressure.
11. Atmospheric pressure is the force acting on the outside of a land organism due to the weight of air above it.
12. For humans, atmospheric pressure plays an important role in breathing.
13. Hydrostatic pressure is a pressure exerted by liquids.
14. A type of hydrostatic pressure in the human is blood pressure.
1. The internal environment of the body consists of the fluid that surrounds our cells, extracellular fluid and the cells themselves.
2. Homeostasis is the body’s maintenance of a stable internal environment.
3. Homeostatic mechanisms are self-regulating mechanisms that maintain homeostasis.
4. The three components of a homeostatic mechanism are receptors, a control center, and effectors.
5. Receptors provide information about specific conditions in the internal environment.
6. Control centers function to decide what a particular value should be.
7. Effectors cause responses that alter conditions in the internal environment.
8. In a negative feedback mechanism, a deviation from the set point is corrected and the correction reduces the action of the effectors.
VI. Organization of the Human Body
A. Body Cavities
1. The human body can be divided into an axial portion and an
2. The axial portion includes head, neck, and trunk.
3. The appendicular portion includes the upper and lower limbs.
4. Within the axial portion, the two major cavities are a dorsal cavity and a ventral cavity.
5. Viscera are organs within body cavities.
6. The two parts of the dorsal cavity are the cranial cavity and the vertebral canal.
7. The cranial cavity houses the brain.
8. The vertebral canal houses the spinal cord.
9. The two divisions of the ventral cavity are the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity.
10. The thoracic cavity is divided from the abdominopelvic cavity by the diaphragm.
11. The thoracic cavity contains the following organs: lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland.
12. The region between the lungs is the mediastinum.
13. Organs located in the mediastinum are the heart, esophagus, trachea and thymus gland.
14. The two portions of the abdominopelvic cavity are the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity.
15. The organs of the abdominal cavity are the stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, and the small and large intestines.
16. Organs of the pelvic cavity are the terminal end of the large intestine, the urinary bladder, and the internal reproductive organs.
17. The four types of smaller cavities in the head are the oral cavity, the nasal cavity, the orbital cavities, and the middle ear cavities.
B. Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Membranes
1. Serous membranes are located lining the walls of the thoracic and abdominal cavities and fold back over to cover the organs within these cavities.
2. The serous membrane that lines the thoracic cavity is the parietal pleura.
3. The serous membrane that covers the lungs is the visceral pleura.
4. The pleural cavity is the potential space between the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura.
5. The serous membrane that covers the heart’s surface is the visceral pericardium.
6. The visceral pericardium is separated by serous fluid from the parietal pericardium.
7. The space between the pericardial membranes is the pericardial cavity.
8. The serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic wall is the parietal peritoneum.
9. The serous membrane that covers each abdominal organ is the visceral peritoneum.
10. The peritoneal cavity is the potential space between the visceral peritoneum and parietal peritoneum.
C. Organ Systems
a. The eleven organ systems of the human body are the integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, digestive system, respiratory system, urinary system, and reproductive systems.
b. Each organ system includes a set of interrelated organs that work together to provide specialized functions.
2. Body Covering
a. The organs of the integumentary system are skin,hair, nails, sweat glands and sebaceous glands.
b. The major functions of the integumentary system are to protect underlying tissues, regulate body temperature, house sensory receptors, and synthesize various substances.
3. Support and Movement
a. The organs of the skeletal system are bones, ligaments, and cartilage.
b. The major functions of the skeletal system are to provide framework, protect organs, provide attachments for muscles, to produce blood cells, and store inorganic salts.
c. The organs of the muscular system are the muscles of the body.
d. The major functions of the muscular system are to move body parts, maintain posture, and produce body heat.
4. Integration and Coordination
a. The organs of the nervous system are the brain, spinal cord, nerves and sense organs.
b. The major functions of the nervous system are to receive impulses from sensory parts, interpret sensory impulses, and act on sensory impulses by activating muscles or glands.
c. The organs of the endocrine system are the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, and thymus gland.
d. The major functions of the endocrine system are to produce hormones that regulate metabolism by stimulating target tissues.
a. The organs of the cardiovascular system are the heart and blood vessels.
b. The major functions of the cardiovascular system are to pump blood and to carry blood to and from body parts. Blood transports oxygen, nutrients, hormones and wastes.
c. The organs of the lymphatic system are lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen.
d. The major functions of the lymphatic system are to transport lymph from tissue spaces to the bloodstream and to carry certain fatty substances away from digestive organs. Lymphocytes defend the body against disease-causing agents.
6. Absorption and Excretion
a. The organs of the digestive system are the mouth, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine and large intestine.
b. The major functions of the digestive system are to receive food, break down nutrients into forms that can pass through cell membranes, and eliminate materials that are not absorbed.
c. The organs of the respiratory system are the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
d. The major functions of the respiratory system are to take in and release air, and to exchange gases between the blood and the air.
e. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
f. The major functions of the urinary system are to filter wastes from the blood and maintain fluid and electrolyte balance.
a. The organs of the female reproductive system are the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva.
b. The organs of the male reproductive system are scrotum, testes, epididymides, vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urethra, and penis.
c. The major functions of the reproductive system are to produce, maintain, and transport sex cells. The female system also houses developing offspring.
VII. Life Span Changes
A. In the thirties, signs of aging include a few gray hairs, faint facial lines, minor joint stiffness, and a decrease in female fertility.
B. In the forties and fifties, signs of aging include fading of hair color, wrinkles, increased blood pressure, and elevated blood glucose levels.
C. In the sixties, signs of aging include deepening wrinkles and a waning immune system.
D. Wrinkles are produced because of decreased amounts of collagen, elastin, and subcutaneous fats in skin.
E. Elderly people metabolize drugs at different rates than younger people because the proportions of fat to water in tissues change as a person ages.
F. Alzheimer disease may be caused by a build up of beta amyloid in the brain.
VIII. Anatomical Terminology
A. Relative Position
1. The position of the body in the anatomical position is standing erect, with face forward, upper limbs at the sides, and palms facing forward.
2. The anatomical term meaning above another body part is superior.
3. The anatomical term meaning below another body part is inferior.
4. The two anatomical terms meaning toward the front are anterior and ventral.
5. The two anatomical terms meaning toward the back are posterior and dorsal.
6. The anatomical term meaning closer to the midline of the body is medial.
7. The anatomical term meaning closer to the sides of the body is lateral.
8. The anatomical term for the same side is ipsilateral.
9. The anatomical term for the opposite side is contralateral.
10. The anatomical term meaning closer to a specific point is proximal.
11. The anatomical term meaning farther away from a specific point is distal.
12. The two anatomical terms meaning closer to the surface of the body are superficial and peripheral.
13. The anatomical term meaning more internal is deep.
B. Body Sections
1. A lengthwise cut that divides the body into left and right portions is called sagittal.
2. A cut that divides the body into superior and inferior portions is called transverse.
3. A section that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions is called coronal or frontal.
4. A cut across a cylindrical organ is called a cross section.
5. An angular cut of a cylindrical organ is called an oblique section.
6. A lengthwise cut of a cylindrical organ is called a longitudinal section.
C. Body Regions
1. Label the nine abdominal regions on the diagram below:
2. Label the four quadrants of the abdomen on the diagram below:
Right upper quadrant
Right lower quadrant
Left upper quadrant
Left lower quadrant
3. Give the correct anatomical term for the following body regions:
region between thorax and pelvis - abdominal
point of the shoulder - acromial
forearm - antebrachial
space in front of the elbow – antecubital
armpit - axillary
arm - brachial
cheek - buccal
wrist - carpal
abdomen - celiac
head - cephalic
neck - cervical
ribs - costal
hip - coxal
leg - crural
elbow - cubital
finger - digital
back - dorsum
thigh - femoral
forehead – frontal
reproductive organs - genital
buttocks - gluteal
depressed area of the abdominal wall near the thigh - inguinal
lower back between ribs and pelvis - lumbar
breast - mammary
chin - mental
nose - nasal
lower posterior region of head - occipital
mouth - oral
eye cavity - orbital
ear - otic
palm of hand - palmar
front of knee - patellar
chest - pectoral
foot - pedal
pelvis - pelvic
region between anus and external reproductive organs - perineal
sole of the foot- plantar
area behind the knee - popliteal
posterior region between the hipbones - sacral
middle and anterior region of thorax - sternal
instep of foot - tarsal
navel - umbilical
spinal column - vertebral