UCLA collection on loan to the San Diego Museum of Man
These are the remains of a male aged 33 to 44 years (code 24). The skeleton is represented by portions of the cranium and a nearly complete mandible, partial and nearly complete long bones, partial clavicles, a partial right scapula, a partial right innominate, and several hand and foot bones. All of the bones display postmortem damage and some reconstruction was done previously at UCLA. Dirt adheres to several bones. The bones are heavy from mineralization. Most of the bones have been treated previously with preservative. However, several metacarpals, phalanges, metatarsals and portions of the mandible have not been treated. Bone collagen from this burial was initially dated to 8350 +/- 90 BP (Kennedy, 1976).
This male has been reported to be a teenager (Kennedy, 1976) and the cranial sutures do appear to be open. However, the extreme dental wear indicates a more advanced age. This assessment is supported by a small piece of auricular surface pieced together from bone fragments. The auricular surface displays no billowing and shows densification without porosity. The auricular border is sharp with no lipping.
The postcranial skeleton is notably small in size, and the bones fall easily into the modern female range. However, the large cranium and the narrow greater sciatic notch indicate a sex of male.
The cranium is compressed laterally and, at the time of recovery, contained a large quantity of dirt inside the vault which held the cranial bones in place. The cranial form includes a long, relatively narrow vault with moderate height. The brow ridges show moderate development, especially at glabella and above the medial thirds of the orbits. The mastoid processes are small. The midfacial height is short (69 mm) with a relatively narrow interorbital width. The facial width is narrow and the nasal bones have moderate relief. The nasal form is concavo-convex. The inferior nasal border is defined, but the nasal aperture width is medium (with a height of 47 mm and a breadth of 24 mm), and lacks the distinctive heart-shape form seen in Native American crania. The malars are small and receding. The zygomaxillary sutures show slight recurvature. The chin is prominent with a broad, squared-off shape.
The cranium is in multiple pieces and reconstruction would not allow accurate measurement.
All of the represented teeth, except the left maxillary second premolar and second molar, show complete destruction of their crowns with open pulp chambers from extreme dental attrition. The left maxillary second premolar crown is equally worn, but secondary dentin is present in the pulp chamber. Many teeth have periapical abscessing evident in the buccal aspect of the maxillae and mandible. In the case of the maxillary first molars, the roots have begun to drift lingually such that functional occlusion was occurring on the buccal surfaces of the roots. Dental attrition was rapid.
The maxillary right first premolar is double-rooted on the buccal side. The facial surface of the root has a distinct crease in it and the apical thirds are enveloped by hypercementosis. The left first premolar also displays hypercementosis of its buccal root.
The proximal phalanges have slight development of the palmar ridges.
The right humerus has moderate development of the deltoid tuberosity and the ridge for pectoralis major. This bone is small in circumference and length and the distal joint surface is missing; however, it is possible to tell that the actual joint surface was moderately large relative to the length of the long bones. The left distal humerus is present and has a maximum epicondylar breadth of 56 mm. The ridge for pronator quadratus on the right ulna shows moderate development on the distal diaphysis.
The proximal femora do not exhibit platymeria. The anterior surface of the left femur head and neck are represented and has a small Poirier=s facet. Bone below the lesser trochanter is missing. The right linea aspera shows slight development and it measures 7 mm at the midshaft with a height of 2.5 mm. The proximal posterior surface has a raised gluteal attachment.
The distal tibiae have small squatting facets.
In general, the muscle attachment sites of this individual are moderately defined but do not suggest extreme muscle development.
The initial report by Kennedy notes that bones of the hands (right first proximal phalanx, left third proximal phalanx and right first metacarpal) were found in the mouth, suggesting that these digits were intentionally severed and placed there. The left third metacarpal was found in the matrix adhering to the anterior mental symphysis. These bones were examined for cuts and none were detected.
Despite the poor condition of the cranium, some pathological conditions are observable. The superior, left frontal has a shallow, healed depression fracture located 20 mm anterior to the coronal suture. It measures 11 mm by 9 mm. A small, ill-defined button “osteoma” is present above the left supraorbital brow ridge near the midline. The superior frontal and the left parietal have slight, healed, localized ectocranial porosis. The right external auditory meatus has a small exostosis, but not the left side.
Antemortem trauma is also noted on the postcranial skeleton. The proximal joint surface of the right ulna has a disruption that likely represents a healed, incomplete fracture. The joint surface is also enlarged. The corresponding distal humerus and proximal radius are missing.
Several postcranial bones exhibit abnormal bone formation indicative of a widespread, blood-borne infection. The distal diaphyses of the left and right radii and the entire diaphysis of the ulnae show subperiosteal apposition. The distal thirds of the radii were scored for moderate, active periostitis. On the distal radii, apposition is located on the dorsal surfaces. The bone apposition on the right ulna encircles the distal shaft, but the entire posterior medial diaphyseal surface is affected.
The right femur exhibits periostitis on the ventral surface of the diaphysis, although most of the apposition is localized on the distal third of the bone. These changes are largely healed and were slight in severity.
Both tibiae show moderate periostitis. The entire circumferences and lengths of the diaphyses are affected. On the right tibia, the medial surface of the diaphysis is characterized by plaque-like, sub-periosteal bone formation with linear striae, and slight thickening. Similar changes are evident on the medial surface of the left tibia, but the superior half of the lateral surface and the distal lateral surface are also affected. These changes are scored as active periostitis but the plaque-like smooth quality of the surface and striae indicate that remodeling had occurred.
The left fibula has slight subperiosteal apposition on both the proximal and distal ends of the bone. The right fibula also exhibits periostitis on its distal third. The diaphysis of the right fibula is missing its proximal third.
Both calcanei have a ridge of roughened bone on their medial surfaces. The ridge is porous and is scored as slight periostitis.
The widespread nature of periostitis indicates a systemic infection. A possible source for the infection was the dentition. Several teeth were actively abscessing due to open pulp exposure from heavy wear.
Frontal and left lateral views of the skull
Left and right tibiae showing widespread periostitis, especially the medial surface of the left tibia diaphysis.
W12/76, Burial 2
UCLA collection on loan to the San Diego Museum of Man
Present are the remains of a female aged 40 to 54 years (code 26). The cranium and larger elements had been treated at UCLA with preservative and glue, which has yellowed. A number of small bone fragments and metatarsals are untreated. The poorly preserved bones are mineralized and impregnated with fine sand, making them heavy.
A sex of female is based on features of the skull and postcranial skeleton. This female has small postcrania. However, the cranium is relatively large. The cranium lacks development of the supraorbital ridges. The forehead is moderately high with only trace development of the glabellar region. The supraorbital margins are relatively sharp. The mastoid processes are small. The supramastoid crests are slightly raised elevations on the bone surface. The superior and inferior nuchal ridges are separated by a raised, slightly protruding section of the occipital squamous. The location of the protuberance is very slightly raised and roughened. The mandible has a slightly pointed mental eminence relative to the very square chin of the male. However, because of moderately defined mandibular tubercles, the chin has a slightly square or blunt appearance even with this projecting eminence. In the right innominate, the greater sciatic notch is wide and the preauricular sulcus is deep and large which supports a sex of female. The preauricular sulcus on the visceral surface below the auricular face continues onto the external surface producing an unusual morphology.
Age is based on tooth loss and wear, joint degeneration, and auricular surface changes. Several teeth have been lost antemortem and the represented teeth exhibit marked wear (stages 6-8). Most of the joints have been severely damaged postmortem. Portions of the joints comprising the left elbow are present and display erosion, porosity, and eburnation. The right auricular surface has uniform density, trace transverse striae, and no porosity. The auricular margin is only partially represented and no lipping is evident. The cranial sutures are completely closed endocranially and the ectocranial surface displays advanced suture closure.
The cranium is long, relatively narrow, and large with facial forwardness. The vault height would have been relatively high. The frontal bone has a vertical orientation with little development of the supraorbital ridges. The frontal bone and facial widths are narrow. The greatest width in the cranium is located in the posterior parietals, which show bossing. The posterior cranial form is pentagonal in shape. The posterior parietals show slight inward curvature similar to, but less pronounced, than that seen in Kennewick Man.
The nasal bones have fairly low relief and the nasal width is somewhat narrow. There is no development of a nasal sill. The inferior border has a slight trough with a small nasal spine. The malars lack lateral flare and the left zygomaxillary suture shows some recurvature. Although not measurable, the bizygomatic breadth was only moderate and the mid-facial height was relatively short. The mid-face lacks the characteristics and “fullness” seen in Native American crania. The superior and posterior cranial vault outline resembles Kennewick Man.
Several maxillary teeth have been lost antemortem and the sockets are resorbed. Postmortem loss has occurred for the remainder of the maxillary teeth, so no maxillary teeth are present. The right maxillary canine is unerupted and its crown is partially visible and protruding from the facial surface of the maxilla. A small socket is present below the canine suggesting that a deciduous tooth was present.
The facial surfaces of both maxillary bones show deep concave incurvature and remodeling as a sequel to severe maxillary sinus infections, which likely resulted from abscessing that involved spread of apical infections into the sinuses.
Teeth are present in the mandible. The mandibular dentition shows heavy wear (stage 7-8). Although wear is extreme, the teeth remain vertically implanted with no “rollover” (extension) of the chewing surface onto the facial surface of the roots. The right mandibular canine has noticeable striations in the occlusal surface dentin. The wear pattern of the represented mandibular teeth has a buccal orientation for the posterior teeth. The three anterior teeth in the right mandible show mesial and distal wear. No carious lesions are noted and no pulp exposure has occurred. Secondary dentin is visible in the pulp chambers. The left mandibular first molar was abscessing with small apical drainage sinuses evident on the facial surface of the bone. The adjacent alveolar bone shows slight subperiosteal bone formation with microporosity.
Like other individuals from this site, this person was small in size and stature, but the muscle attachments are well-defined.
The humeri exhibit pronounced development of the deltoid tuberosities and moderately raised ridges for pectoralis major. This development is greater than that exhibited in the male (Burial 1) humerus. The left ulna and radius have well-defined, sharp, interosseous crests.
The femora show slight development of the lineae aspera. The right femur midshaft width of the linea aspera is 6.5 mm with a height of 1.0 mm. The posterior gluteal regions are roughened. The proximal femoral shape reflects some platymeria.
The posterior parietals and the occipital squamous show slight, healed, ectocranial porosis.
The mid-left parietal has a shallow, healed depression fracture. This narrow defect measures 42 mm anterior-posterior by 8 mm across. This depression may actually represent two defects, but due to continuity they were measured as a single linear depression.
A fragment of the distal left humerus joint surface has slight marginal lipping of the trochlea and slight porosity and eburnation of its surface. The proximal ulna also has lipping, porosity and eburnation.
Both first metatarsals have slight marginal ridging and thickening of the superior margin of the distal joint surface.
Frontal, left lateral and posterior views of the skull
Occlusal view of the mandible
This pair of crania and mandibles show similar features that differ only with regard to sexual dimorphism. The cranial form shows some features characteristic of circumpacific populations including Polynesians and some Paleoamericans. There is no evidence for a genetic relationship to any modern Indian tribal groups.
Chancellor’s Site crania vaults are large relative to body size with long lengths, narrow widths, and facial forwardness. Midfacial heights are relatively short and facial widths are only moderately robust. The observed morphological pattern differs markedly from later Native Americans, which characteristically have short, broad cranial vaults, little facial forwardness, and long facial heights with wide facial widths.
The female in this pair has long bones with smaller circumferences and cross-sectional diameters. If representative, the individuals in this group were short with small postcranial bones.