Calliope Come Lately: The Continuing Relevance of Poetic Form from the Renaissance to Present Day Stella Pye a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the University of Bolton for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy



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[Λs] & [Uz]: What’s Heppened to the B.B.C.?
l
Perhaps Lord Reith was even-handed; no

one region disadvantaged, upper/low-


er status. But what’s happened to the B.

B. C. These days, aren’t they supposed to be

the bastion of R.P.? Some people see
declining standards down to letting new

145
announcer, Wilfred Pickles, read the news –

they thought his Northern accent would confuse

the enemy in W.W. 2. And now:


defeated by the glott’l stop. That’s how

in trad. R.P. a ‘hendle’s’ ‘hen’dl’, mod

R.P. a ‘handle’s’ ‘hend’l’. Northern bod

goes ‘an’dl’, mod bod ‘an’duh’ (must be Manc –

short Manchestuh) as thick as 2 short planks,

‘sounds less intelligent, less well-received’

received speak speaks, but is it so perceived?
ll
The horizontal gradient pressure front,

a baroclinic rising-motion zone,

though isotropic lifting bears the brunt,

a Beaufort scale with wind speeds clearly shown


Well-windy wevver in the east n’ west,

is bubblin’-up in spits n’ spots off rain,

well-cloudy wevver gettin’ a bit less.

Well-broken skies is wiv uz once again.


What’s heppened to Etlentic fronts, and charts

with universal symbols, Arctic highs

and lows, and troughs and ridges, isobars

and cirriform and cirrostratus skies?


Why bovver? Just let grafficks do the cues:

the sun is yellow, make it yeller, roar

and make the grey more greyer, bluer blue,

we don’t do stick-on fluffy clouds no more.

I say ‘seemingly light-hearted’, because although I enjoyed writing these poems, there is a serious agenda. I wanted the couplet to simultaneously convey, and cast doubt upon, Reith’s possible motivation, and, like Harrison I utilize the tercet for the bbc rhyme scheme to enact the subject matter. Wilfred Pickles will be unknown to readers younger than my generation, but thinking his Yorkshire accent would confuse the enemy, equates with Harrison’s similar accent being relegated to the Porter’s speech. I am, however, indebted to the B.B.C. Home Page for outlining the differences between traditional and modern R.P., on which the septet is based.

146


For Part ll, the four-quatrain format seemed the ideal vehicle for comparing and contrasting former and present standards of weather forecasting. This might be disingenuous: having a broad Northern accent, yet deploring sloppy grammar, particularly the apparent inability of weather girls to distinguish between ‘of’ and ‘off’.
This chapter, and this thesis, closes with sonnets surrounding a visit to the Brotherton Library Special Collections archive at the University of Leeds, where I was privileged to see Harrison’s workbooks for The School of Eloquence. To convey the spirituality of this experience, I quote the sentiments expressed by my fellow–student, on seeing his chosen-poet, Keith Douglas’s, workbooks. Owen Lowery writes of ‘the thrill of having been so close to manuscripts that the man who has been so important to my work for so long has held in his own hands’.204
On Reading Harrison’s Workbooks
l
The archivist has laid the workbook ‘School

of Eloquence: Book 3’ (small, green) upon

the book-rest placed before me (standard rules

and regulations). Was I an icon-

oclast without a pair of cotton gloves

to turn the pages of the ‘Holy Grail’?

Analogies I know he’d disapprove

of. Nonetheless, a pilgrimage. He rails,

and yet, it seems, is ‘torn between’ (first cut-

ting – Levitas) ‘lost tongue’ and academe.

The author’s name, in his own hand abuts

the text in pin-thin anguine script. Between

the next piece, ‘Small is Beautiful’, I find

compactly written – compact wit, to boot –

re those ‘minorities’, (linguistic kind),

Aye, on that day those pollards sent forth shoots!


147

ll
They’re ‘very layered things’, he says, the books.

‘Correct the typescript, stick it in and stick

another one on top’. And so, the look

of layers replicate his voices – brick

on bricolage. Just one typescript for ‘On

Not Being Milton’. Underlined, to stress

the links between Colonial/working class ‘Cahir ... natal’ with Tidd’s ‘at righting’, non-

italicized, as yet, no Roman chime -

Roman à clef - no poet-self. Footnote

defines Césaire as Martinique,denotes

the Cato Street assignation time. No sign of memo to ‘Explain Enoch’ (appears in publication), says instead

‘explain the branks’ – a gobbet forged from lead.

Judicious switch, the silence says enough.


lll
Originally titled ‘Them and Us’.

No ampersand. No brackets. And no ‘uz’.

Αϊ, ay, the hemi-stichomythic phrase

emerged in version 2. The Grecian αϊ’s

alongside music-hall; his margin note,

The Cheeky Chappie, illustrates the quote,

and sets the tone for upper/lower class


divisions: R.P. ‘us’ becomes Greek [Λs]

(that’s bracketed in type and typescript, too)

and local ‘us’, now [uz] , for speakers who

produce a flatter vowel sound, and sound

like erstwhile Harrison (and me). I found

his note: the voice I had ... the poetry



one could identify [with me] might be,

say, Billy Bennett’s monologues. The ‘one’

speaks volumes, Tony. Aye! We’ve both ‘come on’.


148


Conclusion
With hindsight, my M.A. Dissertation was embryonic of this thesis. The double sonnet sequence, Talking Pictures, imaginary conversation pieces between female sitter and artist, interrogated perceptions of female identity from the Renaissance to the present day. I wanted to ‘book-end’ the sequence with female sonneteers, and began with Gaspara Stampa. However, her portrait bore no resemblance to her poetry. The Introduction to this Creative PhD has outlined the outspoken nature of Stampa’s sonnets, but her mouth was tightly closed. The artist, like Petrarch, had silenced his muse. When I wrote as a male artist, I noted that I used more complex sestets than when writing as a female sitter or artist. Thus, this thesis, comparing ways in which male and female writers have used poetic form from the Renaissance to the present day, emerged. The commentary and sonnets were separate entities, but for this lengthier project, embedding the poems in the academic text seemed more pragmatic for writer and reader alike.
The original intention had been to approach the thesis from a purely formalist perspective. However, when I read Greenblatt’s article on Wyatt’s self-fashioning, I realized that Stampa had utilized the sonnet for self-promotional purposes, fashioning herself as a poet of equal standing with her male ancestors. Thus, placing the formalist discussion into the wider historical context illuminated notions of self-fashioning in each era, or ‘movement’, explored. There were, of course, underlying issues of gender, class and race, with their inherent connotations of ‘owned language’ and elitism, insider and outsider status.
Because the present writer’s poetry has been in response to that of her chosen male and female poets from the Renaissance to now, she has had their help and guidance from the distance of half a millennium and across continents. By extension, the same issues underlying their self-fashioning have also informed her own. This working-class woman with scant literary education until retirement age, with outsider status as such, has gained insider status from the level of formality flowing from the pen nib, or in the twenty-first century, the computer keyboard. Poetic form has simultaneously informed
149

and deformed her natural speech and permitted entry into an élite culture at odds with her natural speaking voice.


Engaging with the work of my chosen poets in this unusual way, i.e. ‘putting myself through the same mill’, has given me a greater insight into their possible reasoning. Hopefully, a reader will be encouraged to evaluate an unfamiliar poem, or see a familiar poem in a new light. For example, a reader might wonder why Winchilsea, an accomplished heroic couplet exponent, used a ballad variant in response to Pope’s ‘Impromptu’, or see Jennings’s ‘brushwork’ revealing an essential truth in ‘Rembrandt’s Late Self-Portraits’.
Formalism was the bridge that was to transport the present poet from the Renaissance to present day. Formalism meant both security and freedom. ‘Security’, because the writer is on solid ground, which leaves her free to play around with words. By the mid-point of the thesis, and Imagism, however, the bridge had morphed into a trapeze with the writer precariously balanced. I have certainly felt that bridges, or trapezes of form that I have seen others use, and now use myself, are more than metaphorical tropes. They have been personally both liberating and frightening. The radical aesthetics of Imagism provided an opportunity for experimenting with pared-down poetry, and Imagism led organically to Larkin and Jennings’s ekphrastic poetry and safer ground. Unlike the famous male poets engaged in the discussion chaired by Michael Schmidt, the female American New Formalists were concerned with neither right nor entitlement to use the patriarchal forms so coveted by Tony Harrison.
The final poem in this thesis has brought the present writer’s creative odyssey full-circle: from reading Harrison’s sonnets at the Open University to writing her own sonnets on reading his writing practices. Paradoxically, despite her inspiration being derived initially from female sonneteers, she realizes that Harrison has been the ‘Presiding Genius’ of her thesis. This is because, like her poet-hero, she ‘makes things that were classically formed, but in [her] own voice’.205 This HAS been a journey, the
150

‘research process’ has involved discoveries and changes. Thus, the implicit self-fashioning at the start of this Creative Writing thesis is not the same as the explicit self-fashioning at journey’s end.

151

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1 Stephen Greenblatt, Renaissance Self-fashioning from More to Shakespeare (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1980)

2 Virginia Woolf, ‘The Leaning Tower’, A Twentieth-Century Literature Reader, ed. Suman Gupta and David Johnson (Oxford: Routledge in association with the Open University Press, 2005) p.80

3The invention of the sonnet form is attributed to Lentini by several literary critics including John Fuller, The Critical Idiom: The Sonnet (London, Methuen and Co) 1966 and Paul Oppenheimer, ‘The Origin of the Sonnet’, Comparative Literature, Volume 43, Autumn 1982, p.289

4 John Fuller, The Critical Idiom: The Sonnet, p.1

5 Fuller, ibid. p2

6 Fuller, ibid. p.3

7 The autobiographical view is held by several biographers including Fiora Bassanese, ‘Gaspara Stampa’, Italian Women Writers; A Sourcebook ed. Rinaldina Russell (Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1994) p.404

8 Ellan D. Otero, ‘The Fiction of the Rime: Poetic Misprision of Giovanni Boccaccio’s The Elegy of Fiammetta’ (Tampa: South Florida University 2010) p.15

9 Plutarch (c.46-120 B.C.) wrote the historical biography Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romanes translated into French by Jacques Amyot in 1559, translated into English by Sir Thomas North in 1579.

10 Thomas Hood, The Poetical Works of Thomas Hood (London: C. Courtier and Sons) no publication date, but inscription by Hood 1890, p.393

11 Thomas Wentworth Higginson (c.1891) translations from Sonnets from Europe, Available at http://www.sonnets.org/petrarch.htm.p2

Justin Vitiello translation in Book of Women Poets: From Antiquity to Now ed. Aliki Barnstone, Willis Barnstone (N.Y.C: Schocken, 1992) p.307



12 Euripides, Medea, [531B.C.]Trans. Philip Vellacott (London: Penguin Classics, 1963) p.24

13  Russell, op. cit. p.404

14 Mary B. Moore ‘Body of Light, Body of Matter: Self-Referencing as Self-Modeling in Gaspara Stampa’, Desiring Voices: Women Sonneteers and Petrarchanism (Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, 1980, p.58

15 Plato, ‘The Simile of the Cave’ , The Republic, Book Vll 514-521, Trans. H.D.P. Lee, (Middlesex: Penguin Books Ltd) 1955 pp.278-286

16 Philip Sidney, An Apology for Poetry [c 1578] (Manchester: Manchester University Press) 1973,p.101

17 ‘Decorous’ derived from George Puttenham’s ‘decorum’ as ‘a good liking and contentment with their proper objects.’ The Arte of English Poesie (London: Richard Field [1589]) p.261

18 Puttenham, p.3

19 Carol Rumens, ‘Poem of the Week’ The Guardian, August 10th. 2009

20 Thomas Wyatt The Collected Poems of Thomas Wyatt ed. Kenneth Muir (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd, 1949) p.7

21 Songes and Sonnettes Written By the Ryght Honorable Lord Henry Howard, late Earle of Surry, Thomas Wyatt the Elder and Others (London: Richard Tottel [1557])

22 Muir, p.28

23 Barbara L. Estrin, Rethinking the Henrician Era: 219 Essays on Early Tudor Texts and Contexts ed. Peter Herman (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1994) pp.219-221

24 Cecile Williamson Cary, Assays: Critical Approaches to Medieval and Renaissance Texts, IV ed. Peggy Knapp, (Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1987) pp.85-96

25 Stephen Greenblatt, Renaissance Self-fashioning from More to Shakespeare (Chicago: University of Chicago Press) 1980 p.156

26 Wendy Wall ‘Isabella Whitney and The Female Legacy’, E.L.H. Vol. 58, no 1, (Baltimore: John Hopkins 1991) p.35

27 Wall, p. 36

28 Paul A. Marquis ‘Oppositional Ideologies of Gender in Isabella Whitney’s Copy of a Letter, Modern Language Review, Vol. 90 no. 2, (Nova Scotia: 1995) p.315

29 Marquis, p.318

30 John Vive, The Instructions of a Christian Woman, c.1529

31 Isabella Whitney, The Penguin Book of Renaissance Verse 1509-1659 ed. H.R. Woudhuysen (London: Penguin 1992) p. 187

32 Wall (ibid)

33 Whitney p.188

34 Whitney,p.189

35 From Richard Panofsky’s facsimile of The Copy of a Letter (1567)

36 Walter Cohen, ‘The Sonnets and A Lover’s Complaint’ in The Norton Shakespeare, ed. Stephen Greenblatt (London and N.Y.C: 1997) p.1919

37 Peter Jones, Introduction to Shakespeare: The Sonnets A Casebook (London: Macmillan Press, 1977) p.19

38 Richard Danson Brown, Shakespeare 1609: Cymbeline and the Sonnets (Basingstoke: Macmillan Press Ltd., in association with the Open University, 2000) p.64.

39 Shakespeare’s sonnets cited are found in The Norton Shakespeare

40 Helen Vendler, The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997) p.128

41 Martin Friedman, ‘Shakespeare’s ‘Master Mistris’: Image and Tone in Sonnet 20’ Shakespeare Quarterly Vol. 22, no 2 Spring 1971, available at www.jstor.org/stable2868818

42 Sir Sidney Lee, ‘The Conceits of the Sonnets’(1916) in Jones, pp. 55-56

43 Bruce R. Smith, Homosexual Desire in Shakespeare’s England: A Cultural Politics, (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1994) p.248

44 G.R Wilson Knight ‘Symbolism’ (1955), Jones, p.135

45 Rosamond Tuve, Elizabethan and Metaphysical Imagery: Renaissance Poetic and Twentieth-Century Critics (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1947) p.294

46 Greenblatt, Norton, p.1915

47 John Donne John Donne: The Complete English Poems ed. A.J. Smith (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1996) p. 89

48 Brita Strand Ragnes, ‘John Donne : A Valediction: of Weeping’ www.hum.no/nordlit/6ragnes,html

49 Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination, (New Haven: Yale University Press) 1979, p.68

50 John Donne, in Smith, pp. 314-315

51 Cleanth Brooks, The Well Wrought Urn: Studies in the Structure of Poetry ( New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc) 1947, p.1

52 R.E. Pritchard, Mary Sidney, Countess of Pembroke (1561-1621) and Sir Philip Sidney: The Sidney Psalms (Manchester: Fyfield Books, Carcanet Press, 1992)

53 Carolyn Campbell, ‘Lady Mary Wroth: An Overdetermined Self Manifested in Writing’ (Washington:

Washington and Lee University, 2002)



54 Mary Wroth, Pamphilia to Amphilanthus, Folger Shakespeare Library copy 1621 manuscript.


55 Geoffrey Hill, Emmanuel College, May, 2012

56 Mary B. Moore, ‘The Labyrinth as Style in Pamphilia to Amphilanthus’, Studies in English Literature (1590-1900) Vol.38 No. 1 ‘The English Renaissance’, Houston: Rice University, 1998, pp.109-21

57 ‘On Myselfe’, The Poems of Anne, Countess of Winchilsea: From the original edition of 1713 and from unpublished manuscripts, ed. Myra Reynolds (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1903) pp. 14-15

58 Alexander Pope, as discussed below.

59 Germaine Greer, Slip-Shod Sibyls: Recognition, Rejection and the Woman Poet (London: Penguin) 1995 pp.247-8.

60 Lauren Marie Assaf, ‘Meet Me in the Middle: Inverse Patterns of Stress and the Honest Self in the Poetry of Anne Finch’ available: departments.knox.edu/engdept/commonroom/Lauren-Assaf

61 These include Barbara McGovern, who says Winchilsea ‘was a devout Anglican whose religious sensibilities formed the bedrock of her more feminist views,’ Anne Finch and Her Poetry: A Critical Biography (Georgia: Georgia University Press) 1992 p.6

62 McGovern (ibid)

63 Alexander Pope, The Dunciad, Book lll Pope’s Poetical Works Ed. Sir Adolphus William Ward [1869] (London: MacMillan & Co.) 196) p. 391

64 Reynolds, p.4

65 I.A. Richards, ‘Figurative Language’, Practical Criticism (London: Routledge, [1929] 1976) p.182

66 Alexander Pope, ‘An Essay on Criticism’ , Ward, p.52

67 Alexander Pope ‘The Rape of the Lock’, Canto IV, Ward p.83

68 Alexander Pope ‘IMPROMPTU TO LADY WINCHILSEA’, Ward (above), p. 467

69 Ward (ibid)

70 Reynolds, p.103

71 McGovern, p. 160

72 William Wordsworth, Wordsworth’s Poetical Works ed. Thomas Hutchinson, revised Ernest de Selincourt (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 1952 pp. 419-20

73 McGovern, p.78

74 Reynolds, p.70

75 Lawrence W. Hyman, ‘Marvell’s Garden’, E.L.H. john Hopkins University Press, 1958, p.13 Available at: http://jstor.org/stable/1871893

76 Reynolds, p.69

77 Jenny Joseph Warning (London: Souvenir Press, 1996)

78 William Wordsworth, Poems and Extracts chosen by William Wordsworth for an Album Presented to Lady Mary Lowther, Christmas, 1819, Preface Harold Littledale ( London: Henry Frowde, 1905)

79 Greer, p.251

80 ‘In such a night’, Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, V:l Greenblatt, p. 1138

81 Reynolds, pp.268-9

82 Shakespeare (ibid) p.1138

83 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, ‘Frost at Midnight’ (ll. 2 and 6) in Romantic Writings: An Anthology, ed. W.R. Owens and H. Johnson (Amersham: Open University Press) 1998, p. 181

Sir Geoffrey Hill’s inaugural Oxford Professor of Poetry lecture , 30th November, 2010



84 John Fuller, Critical Idiom: The Sonnet (London: Methuen & Co Ltd, 1972) p.3

85 William Wordsworth, Preface to the Lyrical Ballads (1802) Romantic Writings: An Anthology ed. W.R. Owens and Hamish Johnson (Amersham: The Open University) 2001 p.84

86 Isobel Armstrong’s Introduction to Nineteenth Century Woman Poets: An Oxford Anthology, ed. Isobel Armstrong and Joseph Bristow with Cath Sharrock (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 1996, p. xxiv

87 Caroline Levine, ‘Rhythms Poetic and Political: The Case of Barrett Browning’, Victorian Poetry, Volume 49, Number 2, West Virginia: West Virginia University Press, 2011, pp. 235-236


88 Geoffrey N. Leech, ‘Varieties of Poetic Licence’, A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry (Harlow: Longman Group Limited) 1969, p.49

89 Edward Kamau Brathwaite’s presented his essay Harvard University, 1979. This transcript in Using English: From Conversation to Canon, ed. Maybin, J. and Mercer N. (Oxford: Open University and Routledge, 1996) pp. 268-9

90 Peter Simonsen quotes Hood’s letter to a German friend. ‘I have to write till I am sick of the sight of pen, ink, paper … for half-a-month, I hardly have time to eat, drink or sleep.’ ‘Would that its Tone Would Reach the Rich: Thomas Hood’s Periodical Poetry Bridging Romantic and Victorian’ www.romtext.org/uk.articles


91 Thomas Hood, The Poetical Works of Thomas Hood ( London: C. Courtier and Sons) pp. 514-516

92 Robert D. Butterworth, ‘THOMAS HOOD, EARLY VICTORIAN SOCIAL CRITICISM AND THE HOODIAN HERO, Victorian Literature and Culture, 39, Issue 2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) 2011, pp.427-441


93 Simonsen, op. cit. p.63

94 Percy Bysshe Shelley ‘Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world’, A Defence of Poetry [1840] in Owens and Johnson, p.366

95 Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Aurora Leigh and Other Poems, eds. John Robert Glorney and Julia Bolton Holloway (London: Penguin, 1995) pp. 315-319

96 Brendan Riley ‘Characteristics of Victorianism and the Departing Thereof’, Universal Journal, Available: http: ayjw.org/articles /id=725681

97 F. J. Kenyon (ed.) The Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, (London: Smith, Elder & Co [1896] Available at; E-books, University of Adelaide, Gutenberg, 1941 Volume 1, p. 62

98 Herbert Tucker in Levine, p.236

99 Marjorie Stone, ‘Browning, Elizabeth Barrett (1806-1861), The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography ( Oxford: Oxford University Press) 2004, Online version, 2008


100 Simonsen, p.63

101 Cora Kaplan Salt and Bitter and Good: Three Centuries of English and American Women Poets, (London: Paddington Press) 1975 p. 166

102 Aurora Leigh, Literature and Gender ed. Lizbeth Goodman (London: Routledge and The Open University) 1996, p.268

103 Goodman, p.269

104 Stella Pye Poet and Geek, Issue 3, 2012, Available: www.poetandgeek.com/issue3/03pye.html

105 Goodman, p.52

106 Christina Rossetti ‘In An Artist’s Studio’ in Goodman, p.271


107 Angus Calder in Goodman, p.53

108 Alfred Lord Tennyson, Selected Poems, ed. Aiden Day (London: Penguin) 1991, pp. 26-31

109 Peter Jones, Imagist Poetry, (Middlesex: Penguin, 1972) p.13

110 Thomas Ernest Hughes, in Jones, p.13

111 Ezra Pound, in Jones, p.13

112 Frank Stewart Flint, The Fourth Imagist: Selected Poems of F.S. Flint, ed. Michael Copp (Madison: Farleigh and Dickinson University Press, 2007) Copp publishes Flint’s note: ‘[The Imagists] had a few rules, drawn up for their satisfaction only, and had not published them.’ (p.135) Flint’s perceptions of the Americans’ rules quoted also in Jones p.40

113 Ezra Pound ‘Some Do’s and Don’ts by an Imagiste’ Poetry Magazine March, 1913, Jones,p.200

114 Pound ‘In a Station of the Metro’, Jones, p.95

115 Peter Jones, p.40

116 Thomas Ernest Hulme, ‘Romanticism and Classicism’, Speculations: Essays on Humanism and the Philosophy of Art (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1923) p.117

117 Tom Lowenstein, Classic Haiku (London: Duncan Baird, 2007) p.16

118 Dinh, Minh Hang, ‘From Japanese Haiku Poetry to Ezra Pound’s Poems in Haiku Form’ (Bolton: University of Bolton) p.21 Work-in-progress, 2014

119 Hilda Doolittle’s ‘Oread’ appeared in Some Imagist Poets, compiled mostly by Doolittle and Aldington. Above text in Imagist Poetry, ed. Peter Jones ( Middlesex: Penguin) 1972, p.62

120 Gary Dean Burnett, ‘The Identity of ‘H’: Imagism in H.D.’s Sea Garden’, Sagetrieb, 8.3. Maine: 1989 p.55

121 Doolittle’s ‘Sea Rose’ in Jones, p.67

122 Doolittle’s correspondence with George Plank, Yale Archive

123 Janette Jenkins short story Grace, Daily Mail ‘You’ Supplement (London: 22.09.2009) p.89

124 Dinh, op. cit. p.19

125 Doolittle, Gutenberg EBook of Sea Garden, by H.D. www.gutenberg.org/files/28665-h/28665-h.htm pp.12, 25,20,40

126 William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18, ‘Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines’, Greenblatt, p.1929

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, ‘silent icicles’ from ‘Frost at Midnight’, Owens and Johnson, p.181



127 John Keats, ‘To Autumn’. Owens and Johnson, p.397

128 Pound in Jones pp.95-96.

129 Translation from http://poesiefrancais/weblog/classique/poems

130 ‘The meek shall inherit the earth’ St. Matthew 5:5 King James Bible

131 Jimmy Webb , ‘MacArthur Park’ (1968)

132 Doolittle ‘Garden’ in Jones, p.66

133 Doolittle’s letter in Julie Bremick Minchew, ‘The Wind Had Ruffled Her Petal: H.D.’s Floral Identity’ (Georgia: University of Georgia, 2004) p.33

134 Minchew, ibid, p.27

135 Minchew, p.27

136 Malcolm Bradbury in Blake Morrison, The Movement: English Poetry and Fiction of the 1950s (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 1980, p.1

137 Morrison, p.2

138 Morrison, p.3

139 Morrison, p.4

140 Morrison p.29

141Maurice Lindsay ed., Poetry Scotland Second Collection, (Glasgow: McLellan 1945) p.44

142 Donald Davie Introduction to Purity of Diction in English Verse (London: Chatto and Windus 1954) p.1

Available: www.onlinearchive.co



143 Philip Larkin, Collected Poems, ed. Anthony Thwaite (London: The Marvell Press and Faber and Faber Limited) 1988, p.149

144 William May ‘Verbal and visual art in twentieth-century British women’s poetry’ The Cambridge Companion to Twentieth-Century British and Irish Women’s Poetry, ed. Jane Dowson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2011) p.43


145 Edward Reiss ‘Poetry and Prejudice: Sexual Politics in Sunny Prestatyn’ About Larkin 1999, p.2

www.philiplarkin.com/pdf/essays/poetry



146 Larkin, p.71

147 Larkin, pp. 89-90

148 This huge theory has the basic tenet ‘If our conceptual system is largely metaphorical … what we do every day is largely a matter of metaphor’ George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, Metaphors We Live By (Chicago: Chicago University Press 1980) p.3

149 Larkin, p.49

150 Graham Chesters, ‘Tireless play: Speculations on Larkin’s “Absences”’, Available: philiplarkin.com/pdfs/essays/absences/-gchesters.pdf

151 John Donne, Smith pp.47-38

152 Elizabeth Jennings: Collected Poems (1953-1985) (Manchester: Carcanet 1987) p.33

153 Louis MacNeice ‘Meeting Point’, Poetry of the Thirties ed. Robin Skelton (London: Penguin 1964) p.192


154 Jennings, p. 122

155 Transcript of ‘An Interview with Elizabeth Jennings’ with Sinead Garrigan available at www.Oxfordpoetry.co.uk/interviews

156 May, op. cit. p.43

157 Carol Ann Duffy, Standing Female Nude ( London: Anvil Press ,1985)

Wendy Cope, ‘The Sitter’, Writing on the Wall: Women Writers on Women Artists ed. Judith Collins and Elsbeth Lindner (London: Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1993) p.55



Sujata Bhatt ,A Colour for Solitude, (Manchester: Carcanet, 2002)


158 Jennings, p.93

159 Jennings from Consequently I Rejoice (1977) Collected Poems, p. 160

160 Garrigan, op. cit. p.105

161 May, op. cit. p.57

162 Jennings, pp 59, 89 and 81

163 James E. Bayer’s article ‘Incompletedness’ available at http;//jaybe.com/collection/incompletedness

164 Jennings, ‘For Philip Larkin’, in Tributes, (Manchester: Carcanet, 1989) p.13

165 Carly Simon, songwriter and performer of ‘You’re so vain’ from the No Secrets album )London: Trident Studios) 1971

166 Christopher Beach, ed., The Cambridge Introduction to Twentieth-Century American Poetry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2003) p.151

167 Annie Finch ed., A Formal Feeling Comes: Poems in Form by Contemporary Women (Brownsville: Story line Press 1994)

168 Mark Jarman, Rebel Angels: 25 Poets of the New Formalism (Brownsville: Story Line Press 1996)

169 Julia Alvarez, Finch p.16.

170 Transcript of ‘A Poet’s Round Table’ discussion, recorded for the BBC Kaleidoscope programme, appeared in P. N. Review 66, Volume 15, Number 4, March -April 1989.

171 Edward K. Brathwaite’s ‘English in the Caribbean: Notes on Nation Language in Poetry’ , Chapter 3 of this thesis in the context of the sonnet form.

172 Finch, p. 188

173 Burroughs’s image available at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: www.metmuseum.org/

174 Transcript of David Whitford’s interview with Charles Burroughs ‘The Most Famous Story We Never Told’, Fortune, New York: Time Inc., September 19th, 2005



175 Jane Greer, in Finch, P.79

176 Kelly Cherry, Finch, p.39

177 Cherry , Finch, pp.41-43

178 Angus Calder, Goodman, p.49

179 Marilyn Hacker, Finch, p.87

180 English translation Hermann Hesse ‘September’ by James McColley Eilers

William Shakespeare, ‘Sonnet 116’ Greenblatt, p. 1962



181 Judith Barrington, Finch, p.25

182 Julia Alvarez , Finch, p,16

183 Alvarez (ibid.) p.18

184 Examples of stichomythic dialogue include Medea’s exchange with Creon, Euripides: Medea and Other Plays, trans. Philip Vellacott (London: Penguin Classics) 1963, p.27

185 Tony Harrison ‘On Not Being Milton’ and ‘Them and [uz]’, From “The School of Eloquence”, and Other Poems, (London: Rex Collings 1978)

Tony Harrison, Continuous: 50 Sonnets from The School of Eloquence (London: Rex Collings 1981)

Tony Harrison, Selected Poems , (London: Penguin 1984)


186 Edward Palmer Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (London: Gollancz 1963)

187 Tony Harrison ‘On Not Being Milton’, Selected Poems, p.112


188John Haffenden, ‘Interview with Tony Harrison’, Bloodaxe Critical Anthologies: Tony Harrison, ed. Neil Astley ( Newcastle: Bloodaxe Books Ltd. 1991) and reprinted in Poetry Review 73 No.4, 1984

189 Rick Rylance ‘On Not Being Milton’, Astley, p.117

190 Harrison, ‘Classics Society’, p. 120

191 Harrison, ‘Them & [uz], p. 123

Geoffrey Hill, ‘To Tony Harrison XLlV – XLVl’ from Liber Illustrium Virorum, published in Stand Vol. 11, ed. Jon Glover ( Leeds: Leeds University) 2013, pp.28-29



192 Sylvia Plath ‘Lady Lazarus’, Ariel (London: Faber & Faber) 1965, p. 18

193 John Haffenden interview with Harrison, Astley p.234

194 Douglas Dunn, ‘Formal Strategies in Tony Harrison’s Poetry’, Astley, p.130

Stephen Spender, ‘Changeling’, Astley, p. 221



195 Blake Morrison, Astley, p.219

196 Dunn, Astley, p.213

197 Virginia Woolf, ‘... there was no common sentence for her to use’, A Room of One’s Own (London: Penguin Books 1945) p. 76

198 Robyn Lakoff quoted in Maybin and Mercer, p. 19

199 Harrison, in Astley, pp. 122-23

200 Richard Hoggart ‘In Conversation with Tony Harrison’, recorded for ITV, transcript in Astley, p.40

201 Dunn, in Astley, pp. 213 - 214

202 Spender in Astley, p.222

203 Caroline Piercy, ‘A Transatlantic Cross-Dialectal Comparison of the Non-Prevocalic /r/’, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 18, issue 2, 2012

204 Owen W. Lowery, ‘The thrill and utility of Special Collections’ Leeds: Available at: http//: leeds.ac.uk/blog/special-collections

205 Harrison in Astley, op. cit. p.40
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