Bushong: Radiologic Science for Technologists: 8th Edition Chapter 40: Radiation Protection Procedures q &A



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Bushong: Radiologic Science for Technologists: 8th Edition

Chapter 40: Radiation Protection Procedures Q &A


1. Exposure to technologists and radiologists is measured in ______.

a.

rems

b.

rads

c.

Roentgens

d.

curies

ANS: A - Exposure to technologists and radiologists is measured in rems.


2. Exposure (R) refers to radiation intensity in _____.

a.

water

b.

skin

c.

air

d.

gonads

ANS: C - Exposure in R or grays refers to radiation intensity in air.

3. Dose in _______ is used to identify irradiation of patients.

a.

rems

b.

rads

c.

R

d.

Sv

ANS: B - Dose in rads is used to identify irradiation of patients.

4. Patient dose can be reported as entrance skin exposure, ____ dose,&_____ dose.

a.

hand and arm, exit skin

b.

eye, gonadal

c.

mean marrow, gonadal

d.

mean marrow, GSD

ANS: C


Patient dose can be reported as entrance skin exposure, mean marrow dose, and gonadal dose.

5. For nursing personnel present during mobile x-ray imaging, a personnel monitoring

device is

a.

required at all times.

b.

not required at all.

c.

required during exposures.

d.

required only for c-arms.

ANS: B


For nursing personnel present during mobile x-ray imaging, a personnel monitoring device is not required at all.

6. The highest occupational exposure of diagnostic x-ray personnel occurs during _____.



a.

fluoroscopy

b.

mobile radiography

c.

CT

d.

Both a and b.

ANS: D - The highest occupational exposure of diagnostic x-ray personnel occurs during fluoroscopy and mobile radiography.

7. Exposure to the technologist is lowest during mobile C-arm fluoroscopy if the x-ray

tube is placed



a.

under the patient.

b.

over the patient.

c.

facing the wall.

d.

facing the technologist.

ANS: A - Exposure to the technologist is lowest during mobile C-arm fluoroscopy if the x-ray tube is placed under the patient.

8. The best way for technologists to reduce occupational exposure is to follow the principles of



a.

ALARA.

b.

time and distance.

c.

shielding.

d.

All of the above.

ANS: D

The best way for technologists to reduce occupational exposure is to follow the principles of time, distance, shielding, and ALARA.

9. Technologists working in ________________ receive higher occupational exposure

than those working in other areas of radiology.



a.

mammography

b.

CT

c.

interventional radiology

d.

surgery

ANS: C

Technologists working in interventional radiology receive higher occupational exposure than those working in other areas of radiology.


10. A technologist can reduce his or her exposure during fluoroscopy by stepping

a.

back from the patient.

b.

behind the radiologist.

c.

close to the patient’s head.

d.

Both a and b.

ANS: D - A technologist can reduce his or her exposure during fluoroscopy by stepping back from the patient and behind the radiologist.

11. The data on the personnel radiation monitoring report must always include the

a.

current exposure.

b.

cumulative annual exposure.

c.

skin dose.

d.

Both a and b.

ANS: D


The data on the personnel radiation monitoring report must always include the current exposure and the cumulative annual exposure.
12. The minimum allowable thickness for protective aprons is ______ Pb equivalent.

a.

0.25 mm

b.

0.3 mm

c.

0.5 mm

d.

1.0 mm

ANS: A


The minimum allowable thickness for protective aprons is 0.25 mm Pb equivalent.

13 A 1.0 mm lead equivalent apron is _____________ for technologists during

fluoroscopy.

a.

ideal

b.

too heavy

c.

required

d.

unavailable

ANS: B


A 1.0 mm lead equivalent apron is too heavy for technologists during fluoroscopy.

(but WOULD PROVIDE the BEST Protection)

14. The best way to hold patients who are unable to support themselves is to use

a.

restraining devices.

b.

family members.

c.

other hospital staff.

d.

technologists.

ANS: A


The best way to hold patients who are unable to support themselves is to use restraining devices.

.

15. Technologists can reduce patient radiation doses by reducing the



a.

number of repeat exams.

b.

kVp used.

c.

distance from the tube.

d.

unnecessary doctor orders.

ANS: A - Technologists can reduce patient radiation doses by reducing the number of repeat exams.

16 . Gonadal shielding should be used

a.

on sinus studies and skull x-rays.

b.

when the gonads lie in or near the useful beam.

c.

on all patients who are over the age of 40.

d.

for all of the above.

ANS: B


Gonadal shielding should be used when the gonads lie in or near the useful beam.
EXCERTS FROM CH. 36 – 39 RELATING TO RADIATION EFFECTS / FLUORO & PT DOSE
17. Humans are most radiosensitive during

a.

fetal stages.

b.

infancy.

c.

adulthood.

d.

old age.

ANS: A - Humans are most radiosensitive during fetal stages.


18. A __________ response to radiation is directly proportional to the dose received.

a.

linear

b.

nonlinear

c.

curvilinear

d.

nonthreshold

ANS: A - A linear response to radiation is directly proportional to the dose received


19. A local dose of ______ rad(s) or more can cause gonadal dysfunction.

a.

1

b.

5

c.

10

d.

100

ANS: C - A local dose of 10 rads or more can cause gonadal dysfunction.


20. Ovaries are most radiosensitive during _______________.

a.

fetal growth

b.

early childhood

c.

early adulthood

d.

Both a and b.

ANS: D - Ovaries are most radiosensitive during fetal growth and early childhood.


21. Gonadal responses to radiation have been observed at doses as low as _____ rads.

a.

100

b.

50

c.

20

d.

10

ANS: D -Gonadal responses to radiation have been observed at doses as low as 10 rads.


22. The three cardinal principles of radiation protection involve



a.

dose, shielding, and exposure.

b.

exposure, shielding, and ALAR.

c.

time, distance, and shielding.

d.

ALARA, time, and distance.

ANS: C


The three cardinal principles of radiation protection involve time, distance, and shielding.

23. Exposure is measured by multiplying _________ by _______.



a.

shielding thickness, exposure time

b.

exposure rate, exposure time

c.

exposure rate, shielding thickness

d.

exposure time, distance

ANS: B


Exposure is measured by multiplying exposure rate by exposure time.
24. If a technologist is exposed to 4 mR/hr for 45 minutes during a fluoroscopy exam,

what will be her total exposure?



a.

1 mR

b.

2 mR

c.

3 mR

d.

4 mR

ANS: C


Exposure = exposure rate × exposure time; therefore, her total exposure is 4 mR/hr × ¾ hr, which equals 3 mR.

25. When using the inverse square law during fluoroscopy, the patient should be

considered a(n) _________ source of radiation.

a.

area

b.

linear

c.

round

d.

point

ANS: D


When using the inverse square law during fluoroscopy, the patient should be considered a point source of radiation.



  1. If a technologist is receiving 200 mR/hr standing 1 foot from the patient during fluoroscopy,

what is his rate of exposure when he steps back to a distance of 2 feet from the patient?

a.

50 mR/hr

b.

74 mR/hr

c.

100 mR/hr

d.

175 mR/hr

ANS: A


Using the inverse square law, doubling the distance will reduce the dose rate to one fourth of what it was. His exposure rate at a distance of 2 feet will be 50 mR/hr.
27. The NCRP publishes annual dose limits for ___________ exposure.

a.

public

b.

occupational

c.

prenatal

d.

All of the above.

ANS: D - The NCRP publishes annual dose limits for public, occupational, and prenatal exposure


28. Dose limits are based on a ________dose-response relationship to radiation.

a.

nonlinear, nonthreshold

b.

linear, nonthreshold

c.

linear, threshold

d.

nonlinear, threshold

ANS: B


Dose limits are based on a linear, nonthreshold dose-response relationship to radiation
29. The dose limit for the general public is ____ the dose limit for occupational exposure.

a.

1/10

b.

1/5

c.

1/2

d.

3/4

ANS: A

The dose limit for the general public is 1/10 the dose limit for occupational exposure.


30. What is the annual effective dose limit recommended for occupational exposure?

a.

0.5 rem

b.

1 rem

c.

5 rem

d.

50 rem

ANS: C -The annual effective DL recommended for occupational exposure is 5 rem.
31. The recommended cumulative lifetime exposure for technologists is ___________.

a.

0.1 rem × age in years

b.

1 rem × age in years

c.

10 rem

d.

100 rem

ANS: B

The recommended cumulative lifetime exposure for technologists is 1 rem × age in years.


32. What is the total dose limit for the embryo and fetus?

a.

0.01 rem

b.

0.05 rem

c.

0.1 rem

d.

0.5 rem

ANS: D


The total dose limit for the embryo and fetus is 0.5 rem.

33. It is most critical to avoid radiation exposure to a fetus during the _____ of the pregnancy.



a.

third to tenth week

b.

second trimester

c.

third trimester

d.

first 2 weeks

ANS: A


It is most critical to avoid radiation exposure to a fetus during the third to tenth week of the pregnancy.

34. When a technologist becomes pregnant she should



a.

quit her job or take a leave of absence.

b.

be issued a second personnel monitoring device.

c.

be given only administrative duties.

d.

begin wearing two lead aprons.

ANS: B


When a technologist becomes pregnant she should be issued a second personnel monitoring device.

35. The recommended dose limit for the pregnant technologist is _____mrem/month.



a.

0.5

b.

5

c.

50

d.

500

ANS: C


The recommended dose limit for the pregnant technologist is 50 mrem/month.
36. What is the best approach to occupational radiation exposure?

a.

Maintain the annual dose limits.

b.

Follow the concept of ALARA.

c.

Reduce your exposure to half the NCRP dose limits.

d.

Wear protective apparel at all times.

ANS: B


The best approach to occupational radiation exposure is to follow the concept of ALARA.


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