Bone fracture

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Bone fracture

A fracture is a broken bone. It can range from a thin crack to a complete break. A bone can fracture crosswise, lengthwise, in several places, or into many pieces. Typically, a bone becomes fractured when it is impacted by more force or pressure than it can support. If you suspect a fracture, seek medical help immediately.

There are two types of fractures: open and closed.

In an open fracture, the ends of the broken bone tear the skin. When the bone and skin are exposed, they are at risk of infection. This type of fracture is also called a compound fracture.

In a closed fracture, the broken bone does not break the skin. This type of fracture is also called a simple fracture. But these fractures can be just as dangerous as open fractures. Both types require medical attention.

A fracture is a possible result of an impact of greater pressure or force than a bone can support. Typically, the force occurs suddenly or is very intense. The force weakens the bone and breaks it. The strength of the force determines the severity of the break. Some common causes of fractures are:

  • falls

  • direct strikes to the body

  • traumatic events such as auto accidents or gunshots

  • injuries during sports

  • overuse, particularly in sports

Most fractures are accompanied by intense pain when the injury occurs. This discomfort can become worse when the injured area is moved or touched. Some people may pass out from the initial pain of a fracture. Others may feel dizzy or chilled from shock. Common symptoms that accompany a fracture also include:

  • the sound of a snap or grinding when the injury occurs

  • swelling, redness, and bruising in the injured area

  • an injured area that appears deformed or has a portion of the bone pushing through the skin

Treatment for a fracture depends on its location and type.

Most fractures can be treated with a cast. Casts are typically made of plaster or fiberglass. A cast will prevent the bone pieces from moving while they heal.

In some cases, traction may be necessary. Traction stretches the muscles and tendons around the broken bone. It is administered with a system of pulleys and weights. The system produces a gentle, pulling motion. The mechanism is positioned in a metal frame over your bed.

For more complex or compound fractures, surgery may be necessary. A surgical procedure called open reduction and internal fixation may be used.

You can’t prevent all fractures, but you can work to keep your bones strong so they will be less susceptible to damage. To maintain bone strength, consume a healthy diet and exercise regularly. Foods rich in calcium and vitamin D can promote strong bones. Weight-bearing exercises, in particular, can also be effective.

  1. What is a fracture?

  2. What types of fractures are there?

  3. What is the difference between open and closed fracture?

  4. What are the main causes of fractures?

  5. What are the symptoms of a fracture ?

  6. How is a fracture treated?

Найдите английские эквиваленты в тексте:

Открытый перелом, разрывать кожу, риск инфекции, кровоподтеки в травмированной области, лечение перелома, ослабить кость, первичная боль от перелома, гипс, вытяжение, сухожилие, серьезность перелома.

Назовите одним словом

  1. An injury appearing as an area of discoloured skin on the body, caused by a blow or impact rupturing underlying blood vessels.

  2. An injury caused by exposure to heat or flame

  3. Temporary unconsciousness or confusion and other symptoms caused by a blow on the head

  4. A person injured, or killed as a result of a crime, accident, or other event or action

  5. Help given to a sick or injured person until full medical treatment is available

  6. An injury to living tissue caused by a cut, blow, or other impact, typically one in which the skin is cut or broken

Переведите на английский язык

  1. Перелом кости требует длительного медицинского лечения, чаще всего это наложение гипса, но при серьезных переломах требуется хирургическое вмешательство.

  2. При открытых переломах повреждаются не только кости, но и сухожилия и кровеносные сосуды.

  3. При первых симптомах перелома необходимо обездвижить поврежденную конечность.

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