Bibliography: Printed works related to the history of the telescope. 2,556 books & papers

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Dollond, John. A Letter from Mr. John Dollond to Mr. James Short, F.R.S. concerning an Improvement of Refracting Telescopes. Philosophical Transactions 48 (1753-1754) 103-107. (achromat)

Dollond, John. Letters Relating to a Theorem of Mr. Euler....Aberrations in the Object-Glasses of refracting Telescopes. Philosophical Transactions 48 (1753-1754) 287-296. (Short, Dollond, Euler, re: achromat)

Dollond, Peter. ....Apparatus applied to the equatorial Instrument for correcting the Errors arising from the Refraction in Altitude. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 69 (1779) 332-336. (doublet, sliding elements)

Dollond, Peter. ....Improvement Made by Mr. Peter Dollond in His New Telescopes. Philosophical Transactions 55 (1765) 54-56. (with letter from James Short). (triplet achromat)

Dollond, Peter. Some Account of the Discovery made by the late Mr. John Dollond, F.R.S., which led to the grand improvement of Refracting Telescopes. London: J. Johnson, 1789. 15pp. (achromat)

(Dollond) Ariail, Robert B.. The Dollond vs. Dolland Controversy. Journal of the Antique Telescope Society #8 (1995) 4-5.

(Dollond) Clifton, Gloria. Dollond family (per. 1750-1871). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2004. Nov. 2004.

(Dollond) Rudd, M. Eugene. The Dollond Family: Five Generations of Opticians. Journal of the Antique Telescope Society #15 (1998) 4-10.

(Dollond) Turner, Gerard. Dollond. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles Gillispie, ed. New York: Scribner, 1970--.

(Dollond) Wollaston, William. On the concentric adjustment of a triple Object-glass. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 112 (1822) 32-37.

(Dollond) Woodhouse, Robert. Some Account of the Transit Instrument Made by Mr. Dollond, and Lately Put up at the Cambridge Observatory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 115 (1825) 418-428.

Donnelly, M.C. Astronomical Observatories in the 17th and 18th Centuries. Bruxelles: Palais des Academies, 1964. 37pp.

Donnelly, Marian. A Short History of Observatories. Eugene: U. Oregon, 1973.

Doorman, Gerard. Patents for Inventions in the Netherlands During the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries. (Abridged English Version, translated by Joh. Meijer). The Hague: Nijhoff, 1942. (5p)

Douglass, A. E. A Combination Telescope and Dome. Astrophysical Journal 1 (May 1895) 401-410. (spherical shell)

Draper, Henry. On the Construction of a Silvered Glass Telescope, Fifteen and a Half Inches in Aperture, and its Use in Celestial Photography. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge 14 (1864). Review: T.W. Webb, Intellectual Observer 7 (1865) 368-373.

(Draper) Dugan, Raymond. Draper, Henry. Dictionary of American Biography, Dumas Malone, editor. N.Y.: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936.

(Draper) Plotkin, Howard. Draper, Henry. American National Biography Online Feb. 2000. Oxford University Press.

(Draper) Whitney, Charles. Draper, Henry. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles Gillispie, ed. New York: Scribner, 1970--.

(Draper) Young, Charles A. The Late Dr. Henry Draper. Science 1:2 (Feb. 16, 1883) 29-34. (images Draper, observatory, telescope)

Dretske, Diana. William Buffham's Telescope and Microscope. Rittenhouse 12:3 (1998) 94-96.

Dreyer, J.L.E. Descriptive Catalog of a Collection of William Herschel Papers presented to the Royal Astronomical Society by the late Sir W.J. Herschel, Bart. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 78 (1918) 547-554.

Duerbeck, H.W., D.E. Osterbrock, L.H. Barrera S., R. Leiva G. Halfway from La Silla to Paranal - in 1909. ESO Messenger 95 (March 1999) 34-37. (Chilean National Observatory & Lick Observatory).

Dunn, R.B. High Resolution Solar Telescopes. Solar Physics 100 (1985) 1-20.

Duval, H.J. The Greatest Telescope in the World. Metropolitan Magazine 3:1 (January, 1896) 11-16. (Clark)

Dyson, Frank. Large Telescopes. Transactions of the Optical Society 24:2 (January 1923) 61-68.

Eddy, John. The Schaeberle 40-ft Eclipse Camera of Lick Observatory. Journal for the History of Astronomy 2:1 (1971) 1-22.

Edgecomb, D.W. Notes on the Invention of the Telescope. Popular Astronomy 7 (1899) 184-193.

Edgecomb, D.W. On the Performance of a 6 1/4 inch Binocular Telescope. Popular Astronomy 10 (1902) 523-31.

Edgecomb, D.W. Reflectors. Popular Astronomy, #18 (April 1895) 366-370.

(Edgecomb) Ashbrook, Joseph. Something about a Connecticut Amateur. Sky & Telescope 47 (Jan. 1974) 26-27.

(Edgecomb) Description of display at Boston Mechanic's Fair. (Boston Commonwealth, October 19, 1895, 'Science' column by John Ritchie.)

Edwards, John. 1. Directions for Making the Best Composition for the Metals of Reflecting Telescopes. 2. An Account of the Cause and Cure of the Tremors particularly affecting Reflecting Telescopes more than Refracting Ones. Selections from the Nautical Almanac. London: Commissioners of Longitude, 1813. pp207-226. (1, republished in Journal of the Franklin Institute 5, 1828).

Eggen, Olin. The Australian Commonwealth Observatory. Sky & Telescope 15:8 (June 1956) 340-343. (Mt. Stromlo, shops, Askania 7 inch vertical circle)

(Ekstrom) Amelin, Olav. Daniel Ekstrom: Maker of Scientific Instruments in 18th Century Sweden. From: Giorgio Dragoni, Anita McConnell and Gerard L’E. Turner; ed. Proceedings of the eleventh International Scientific Instrument Symposium, Bologna U., Italy, Sept. 9-14, 1991. Bologna: Grafis edizioni, 1994.

Elkin, William. Researches with the Heliometer. Transactions of the Astronomical Observatory of Yale University. Vol. 1, Part 1 (1887-1904) pp. v-10. (Repsold Heliometer)

Ellerman, Ferdinand. Silvering the 100-inch Hooker Telescope. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflet 52 (May 1933) 5-8.

Ellery, R.L.J. Account of the Building in Progress of Erection at Melbourne for the Great Telescope. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 17 (1868-1869) 328-329.

Ellery, Robert L.J. History of the Williamstown Observatory. pp.i-x; Astronomical Observations Made at the Williamstown Observatory, Melbourne, 1869. (ADS WOP v1 pp8-17) Diagrams of meridian circle; observatory plan (ADS WOP v1 pp228-233). (Troughton & Simms transit; T&S transit circle; T&S altazimuth; Airy's zenith sector; 4 1/2 inch T&S equatorial; 1864, equipment moved to Melbourne Observatory)

(Elliott) Bristow, H.R. Elliott, Instrument Makers of London: Products, Customers, and Development in the 19th Century. Bulletin of the Scientific Instrument Society 36 (1993) 8-11. (12 inch to 45 inch astronomical telescopes, opera glasses)

(Elliott) Clifton, Gloria. An Introduction to the History of Elliott Brothers up to 1900. Bulletin of the Scientific Instrument Society 36 (1993) 2-7.

Ellison, William Frederick Archdall. The Amateur's Telescope. Belfast: Carswell, 1920, 1932. 107pp.

Emerson, Myron. Amateur Telescope Mirror Making. N.Y.: Carlton, 1969. 93pp.

Emerson, William, 1701-1782. The elements of optics,. in four books. London: J. Nourse, 1768. 244pp.,111pp. 28 plates. MicNews Microfilm A7173 reel 7801, no.01. (pp170-223).

Engberts, E. Descriptive Catalogue of Telescopes in the Rijksmuseum voor de Geschiedenis der Natuurwetenschappen (National Museum of the History of Science), Leiden. Leiden: Rijksmuseum, 1970.

Epstein, Lewis. An All-Reflection Schmidt Telescope for Space Research. Sky & Telescope 33 (April 1967) 204-207. (Davidson Optronics)

(The Equatorial of the Paris Observatory). Scientific American 49 (Dec. 15, 1883) f.c.-372.

Erck, W. On a Portable Equatoreal Mounting for Small Telescopes. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 38 (1878) 124.

Erpenstein, O.M. Mountings of Today and Yesterday. Sky & Telescope 12 (Nov. 1952) 6-7.

(Ertel) Lagemann, Robert. The Garland Collection of Classical Physics Apparatus at Vanderbilt University. Nashville: Folio, 1983. pp218-220.

(Ertel) te Pas, J.B. T. Ertel & Sohn G.m.b.H., Mathematical Mechanical Institute for Geodetic Military Scientific Instruments in Munich, Germany. Bulletin of the Scientific Instrument Society 56 (1998) 27-28.

(ESO) Some Snippets of History. The Messenger #109 (Sept. 2002) 12-17.

Evans, David. Astronomical Institutions in the Southern Hemisphere, 1850-1950. pp153-165, Owen Gingerich, ed.; The General History of Astronomy, vol. 4A, Astrophysics & twentieth century astronomy to 1950; Cambridge: C.U.P., 1984.

Evans, David S. and J. Derral Mulholland. Big and Bright: a history of McDonald Observatory. Austin: U. Texas, 1986.

Evans, D.S. The New Cape Reflector. The Observatory 84 (Oct. 1964) 222-224. (Cape of Good Hope, Grubb Parsons 39 inch Cassegrain, prime focus Palmer corrector lens)

Evans, J.W. The Coronagraph. pp635-658. The Sun. Gerard Kuiper, ed. Chicago: U. Chicago Press, 1953.

Evans, John. The Sacramento Peak Observatory. Sky & Telescope 15:10 (Aug. 1956) 436-441. (16 inch singlet coronagraph, J. Baker design. 15 inch singlet objective by James Gagan, Boston ATM. 6 inch coronagraph. 4 inch coronagraph. 2.5 inch flare patrol camera.)

Everett, Harry. Optical Telescopes. Bradford: Bradford Astronomical Society, 1986. (84pp).

Fahy, Thomas P. Richard Scott Perkin and the Perkin Elmer Corporation. n.p., 1987.

Faraday, Michael. On the manufacture of Glass for optical purposes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 120 (1830) 1-57.

Fassero, James. Photographic Giants of Palomar. L.A.: Westernlore Press, 1952. 72pp. (Reprint: Giants of Palomar, drawings prepared by R.W. Porter. n.p.: California Institute of Technology, 1983. 64pp.)

Faulhaber, C. Construction of Large Telescopes. pp163-170, Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1904. Washington: 1905.

(Fauth) Astronomical Instruments in Course of Construction (by Fauth & Co.) Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 3 (March 1891) 113.

(Fauth) Sandhurst, Phillip, et al. The Great Centennial Exhibition, 1876. pp389-391, 481-483.

(Fauth) Schmidt, R. Lists of Equatorial Refractors; of Meridian Circles & Transits, Oct. 1981, NMAH.

(Fauth) Saegmuller, G.N. Astronomical Instruments in Course of Fauth & Co. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 3 (1891) 113.

Fecker, J.W. Requirements in the Design and Construction of the Large Modern Telescope. Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 24 (Sept. 1930) 297-304, plates 10-20.

(Fecker) Fisher, Clyde. James Walter Fecker, Builder of Telescopes. Popular Astronomy 54 (1946) 17-19.

(Fecker) Fried, Bart and John Briggs. Standing in Uncle John's Footsteps: James Walter Fecker and his Legacy of Large Telescopes. Journal of the Antique Telescope Society 16 (Winter 1999) 22-24.

Federer, Charles. The Lick 120-inch Reflector. Sky & Telescope. 14 (March 1955) 176-185.

Federer, C.A. New National Observatory Dedicated at Kitt Peak. Sky & Telescope 19:7 (May, 1960) 392-397. (diagram 36 inch, model 50 inch space telescope)

Fehrenbach, Charles. Des Hommes, Des Telescopes, Des Etoiles. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1990.

Fehrenbach, Charles. Twentieth-century instrumentation. pp166-185, Owen Gingerich, ed.; The General History of Astronomy, vol. 4A, Astrophysics & twentieth century astronomy to 1950; Cambridge: C.U.P., 1984.

Feist, Mike. Astronomy and the Camera Obscura. Journal of the British Astronomical Association 110:1 (2000) 25-28.

(Ferson Optics, Inc.) Optical Spectra, May/June 1968, pp33-34.

(Fifty Years of Purple Mountain Observatory.) 1985.

Fillmore, Warren. Construction of a Maksutov Telescope. Cambridge: Sky Publishing, 1961. 29pp.

Finn, A.N. Making the Glass Disk for a 70-inch Telescope Reflector. Bureau of Standards Journal of Research 3:2 (1929) 315-329. Reprinted with editing, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 21:8 (1929) 744-750.

(The First Application of the Telescope to Astronomical Measurement) The Observatory 44 (Oct. 1921) 312-313. (micrometer)

(The First Telescope: Was it Leonardo's?) Optical Spectra. July / Aug. 1969, pp122-123.

Fischer, Daniel. A Telescope for Tomorrow. Sky & Telescope 78 (Sept. 1989) 248-252. (NTT 3.6m Zeiss)

Fischer, K.A.F. Meridian Instruments with Horizontal Optical Tube. pp155-157, Christine Blondel, et al., ed., Studies in the History of Scientific Instruments: Papers Presented at the 7th Symposium of the Scientific Instruments Commission of the Union Internationale d'Histoire et de Philosophie des Sciences; Paris 15-19 September 1987; London: Rogers Turner, 1989. (transit)

Fitz, H. U.S. Patent 44,483 Sept. 27, 1864 Photographic lens.

(Fitz) Abrahams, Peter. Henry Fitz: 19th Century American Telescope Maker. Journal of the Antique Telescope Society #6 (1994) 6-10.

(Fitz) Bates, Ralph. Henry Fitz-American Telescope Maker. Sky & Telescope, Nov. 1941, p18.

(Fitz) Death of Henry Fitz, the Telescope Maker. Scientific American 9 (1863) 34.

(Fitz) Equatorial Telescope. Transactions of the American Institute (1851) 79-80.

(Fitz) Genzmer, George. Fitz, Henry. Dictionary of American Biography, Allen Johnson & Dumas Malone, editors. N.Y.: Charles Scribner's Sons. Vol. 3, p433. 1930-1959.

(Fitz) Howell, Julia Fitz. Henry Fitz, 1808-1863. From: Holcomb, Fitz, and Peate: Three 19th Century American Telescope Makers. Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology. United States National Museum Bulletin 228. Washington, D.C., 1962. Introduction, Robert Multhauf.

(Fitz) Jones, Timothy. The Fitz / Clark 13-Inch Refractor of Allegheny Observatory. Telescope Making #21 (1983) 10-13.

(Fitz) Lankford, John. In Search of Henry Fitz. Sky & Telescope 68 (Sept. 1984) 214-218.

(Fitz) The Largest Telescope in the Country. Scientific American 4 (1861) 216.

(Fitz) Loomis, Elias. American Telescopes. Journal of the Franklin Institute 14 (1847) 419-421.

(Fitz) Obituary. Henry Fitz. Humphrey's Journal 15 (1863) 217-219.

(Fitz) Pazmino, John and Don Trombino. Henry Fitz: Locksmith, Photographer, and Telescope Maker. Skylines 2:2 (1978) 3ff.

(Fitz) Sperling, Norman. Fair Play for Fitz: Henry Fitz Introduces the All-American Telescope. Rittenhouse 3:2 (Feb. 1989) 49-57.

(Fitz) Sperling, Norman. When Comets Were Discovered From Newark. Sky & Telescope 58 (Aug. 1979) 135-137.

(Fitz) Warner, Deborah Jean. Elisa Robinson and Henry Fitz. Rittenhouse 1:1 (Nov. 1986) 19-21.

(Fitz) Zahner, Donald. Henry Fitz, Telescope Maker. Review of Popular Astronomy 58 (1964) 5-7.

(Fitz) Zuraw, Joseph and Jim Zebrowski. The Enduring Legacy of Henry Fitz. Sky & Telescope, Feb. 1998, pp102-105.

Flamsteed, John. The Preface to John Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica. Allan Chapman, ed. Alison Dione Johnson, translator. Greenwich: National Maritime Museum, 1982. (micrometer, transit)

(Flamsteed) Forbes, Eric, ed. The Gresham Lectures of John Flamsteed. (Introduction, 'A new theory of telescope optics', pp34-45) London: Mansell, 1975.

Fletcher, Karen, ed. Proceeedings of the International Conference 'Titan, from Discovery to Encounter'. Noordwijk: ESA, 2004. ESA SP-1278. Conference 13 - 17 April 2004, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.

Débarbat, Suzanne. Huygens, l’Académie des Sciences et l’Observatoire de Paris. 145-156. (In English.)

Dijksterhuis, Fokko Jan. Huygens and Optics. pp81-89.

Dollfus, Audouin. Christiaan Huygens as telescope maker and planetary observer. pp115-132.

Louwman, Peter. Christiaan Huygens and his telescopes. 103-114.

Molesini, Giuseppe. Testing the lenses of Campani, lens maker for Cassini. pp133-143.

Van Helden, Albert. Huygens, Titan, and Saturn’s ring. pp11-29.

Florence, Ronald. The Perfect Machine: building the Palomar telescope. N.Y.: Harper Collins, 1994.

Fontana, Francesco. New Observations of Heavenly & Earthly Objects, by Francesco Fontana, with the aid of optical instruments devised by him and brought to the highest state of perfection. Naples, 1646. Translated & published by Sally Beaumont & Peter Fay, Reading, U.K., 2001. 130pp.

Foucault, Leon. Description of an Improvement in the making of large Reflecting Telescopes with Silvered Glass Specula. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 19 (March 1859) 186-189.

Foucault, Leon. Description of the Various Processes made use of for Finding out the Configuration of Optical Surfaces. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 19 (1859) 284-287.

Foucault, Leon. Memoire sur la construction des telescopes en verre argente. Annales de l'Observatoire Imperiale de Paris 5 (1859) 197-237, Plate 1. (On the Construction of Telescopes with Silvered Glass. Translated by Guy Brandenburg.)

(Foucault) Ashbrook, Joseph. Leon Foucault's Heritage to Telescope Makers. Sky & Telescope 50 (July 1975) 26-28.

(Foucault) Burstyn, Harold. Foucault. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles Gillispie, ed. New York: Scribner, 1970--.

(Foucault) The Great Foucault Telescope. Intellectual Observer 1 (1862) 380-381.

(Foucault) Tobin, William. Foucault's Invention of the Silvered-Glass Reflecting Telescope and the History of his 80-cm Reflector at the Observatoire de Marseille. Vistas in Astronomy 30:2 (1987) 153-184.

(Foucault) Tobin, William. Leon Foucault. Scientific American, July 1998, pp70-77.

(Foucault) Tobin, William. The Life and Science of Léon Foucault: The Man who Proved that the Earth Rotates. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. 338 pages.

(Foucault) Tobin, William. Perfecting the Modern Reflector. Sky & Telescope 74 (Oct. 1987) 358-359.

Fox, P. An Investigation of the Forty Inch Objective of the Yerkes Observatory. Astrophysical Journal 27 (1908) 237-253.

Franch, John. Storming the Gates of Heaven. Sky & Telescope 90 (Sept. 1995) 26-31; 32-34. (Yerkes)

Frank, Charles & Arthur. Frank's Book of the Telescope. Glasgow: Charles Frank, 1958, 1966.

Fraunhofer, Joseph von. Determination of the Refractive & Dispersive Power of Different Kinds of Glass with Reference to the Perfecting of Achromatic Telescopes. pp1-10. Prismatic and Diffraction Spectra. Translated by J.S. Ames. N.Y.: Harper & Brothers, 1898.

Fraunhofer, Joseph von. Ueber die Construction des so eben vollendeten grossen Refractors. Astronomische Nachrichten #74 (1826) columns 17-24. (Herschel, J.F.W. Reply to letter of Fraunhofer, A.N. #74, column 17. Astronomische Nachrichten #85 (Sept. 1825) columns 231-236.)

(Fraunhofer) Chance, W.H.S. The Optical Glassworks at Benediktbeuern. Proceedings of the Physical Society 49 (1937) 433-443.

(Fraunhofer) Description of Fraunhofer's Large Achromatic Telescopes. Edinburgh Journal of Science 3 (1825) 305-307.

(Fraunhofer) Eelsalu, Heino. Big Fraunhofer's "Short" Story, The 9 1/2 inch Dorpat Refractor. Journal of the Antique Telescope Society #6 (1994) 13-15.

(Fraunhofer) Hofmann, Christian & Joachim Wittig. Joseph v. Fraunhofer and his role in optical precision instrument manufacture. Jena Review 1 (1977) 9ff.

(Fraunhofer) Howard-Duff, Ian. Joseph Fraunhofer (1787-1826). Journal of the British Astronomical Association 97:6 (Oct. 1987) 339-347. (List Fraunhofer telescopes. Erratum, figure 7 is front & rear view of one micrometer.)

(Fraunhofer) Jackson, Myles. Buying the Dark Lines of the Solar Spectrum: Joseph von Fraunhofer's Standard for the Manufacture of Optical Glass. pp1-22. Jed Buchwald, ed. Scientific Credibility and Technical Standards in 19th and early 20th century Germany and Britain. (Archimedes 1996) Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1996.

(Fraunhofer) Jackson, Myles. From Theodolite to Spectral Apparatus: Joseph von Fraunhofer and the Invention of a German Optical Research Technology. pp17-28. B. Joerges & T. Shinn, ed. Instrumentation Between Science, State, & Industry. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2001.

(Fraunhofer) Jackson, Myles. Spectrum of Belief, Joseph Von Fraunhofer and the Craft of Precision Optics. Cambridge: MIT, 2000.

(Fraunhofer) Jenkins, Reese. Fraunhofer. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles Gillispie, ed. New York: Scribner, 1970--.

(Fraunhofer) Joseph von Fraunhofer 1787-1826: Ausstellung zum 150 Todestag; Katalog der Objekte Joseph von Fraunhofers. Munchen: Deutsches Museum, 1976. 94pp.

(Fraunhofer) Memoir of the Life of M. Le Chevalier Fraunhofer. Edinburgh Journal of Science 7 (1827) 1-11.

(Fraunhofer) Plicht, Christof. Joseph von Fraunhofer 1787-1826. Journal of the Antique Telescope Society #15 (1998) 20-21.

(Fraunhofer) Rohr, Moritz von. Fraunhofer's Work and its Present-day Significance. Transactions of the Optical Society 27 (1925) 277-294.

(Fraunhofer) Schirach, W.F.T. Joseph van Fraunhofer. Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of Southern Africa 9 (Aug. 1950) 64ff. S.O. Eklund. Fraunhofer's Telescope. Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of Southern Africa 9 (Sept. 1950) 72ff. W.H. van den Bos. Fraunhofer's Telescope. Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of Southern Africa 9 (Oct. 1950) 80ff. E. Opik. Fraunhofer's Telescope. Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of Southern Africa 10 (Feb. 1951) 5. Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of Southern Africa. Vols. 1 to 15, condensed. Pat Wild, ed. 1980.

(Fraunhofer) Struve. An Account of the arrival and erection of Fraunhofer's large Refracting Telescope at the Observatory of the Imperial University at Dorpat. Memoirs of the Astronomical Society of London 2 (1826) 93-100.

(Fraunhofer) Struve. Farther Account of the large Achromatic Refracting Telescope of Fraunhofer in the Observatory of Dorpat. Edinburgh Journal of Science 5 (1826) 105-110.

Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft. The historic Fraunhofer glass-works in Benediktbeuern. Munich: Haus der Bayerischen Geschichte, 1990. (32p)

Freundlich, Erwin. The Development of the Astronomical Telescope. Journal of Scientific Instruments 27 (1950) 233-237.

Freundlich, Erwin. Die Entwicklung des astronomischen Fernrohrs. Wissenschaftliche Annalen 2 (1953) 657-668. (Reprinted, Contributions of the Observatory of St. Andrews #13.)

Freundlich, Erwin Finlay & Robert L. Waland. A New Telescope in Scotland. Sky & Telescope 12 (May 1953) 176-177.

Freundlich, Erwin Finlay. Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope at Dundee. Nature 165 (May 6, 1950) 703-704.

Fried, Bart. The German-American Connection: Würdemann, Fauth and Saegmuller. Journal of the Antique Telescope Society #7 (1994) 13-15.

Fried, Bart. Joseph P. Wampler, A Country Squire Ignites a Tradition. Journal of the Antique Telescope Society #18 (1999) 18-20.

Fried, Bart. Recently Re-identified: The Telescope of Elihu Thompson. Journal of the Antique Telescope Society #9 (1995) 16.

Frost, Edwin B. The Yerkes Observatory. Science, New Series 6 (Nov. 12, 1897) 721-724. (#150)

Fugate, Robert. The Starfire Optical Range 3.5-m Adaptive Optical Telescope. pp934-943. Proceedings of SPIE 4837. Large Ground-based Telescopes. J. Oschmann & L. Stepp, ed. Bellingham: SPIE, 2003.

Fugate, Robert and Walter Wild. Untwinkling the Stars, Part 1. Sky & Telescope 87 (May 1994) 24-31. Part 2: 87 (June 1994) 20-27.

Fuller, Dudley K.M. A 6" Newtonian Telescope by William Cary. Bulletin of the Scientific Instrument Society 25 (1990) 11-12.

Fuller, Dudley M. The Recovery of a Long Forgotten, Early 18th Century 6 inch Newtonian Reflector (William Cary). Journal of the Antique Telescope Society #11 (1996) 12-13.

(Gaertner) Hale, G.E. A New Firm of Instrument Makers. Astrophysical Journal 4 (June 1896) 83.

(Gaertner) O'Connor, R.T. William Gaertner. Popular Astronomy 57 (1949) 65-8

(Gaertner, William) Encyclopedia of Biography. p362-4. n.d., n.p.

(Galileo) Barr, E. Scott. Men & Milestones in Optics, III: Galileo Galilei. Applied Optics 3:12 (1964) 1321-1328.

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