Bibliography for Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation (nor) Section 1 Books or Chapters on nor



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Bibliography for Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation (NOR)
Section 1

Books or Chapters on NOR
Ciuffreda KJ, Suchoff IB, Kapoor N, et al. Ch. 12-Normal vision function. In: Gonzalez EG, Meyers SJ, Edelstein JE, et al. eds. Downey & Darling's physiological basis of rehabilitation medicine, 3rd ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001:241-61.
Ciuffreda KJ, Tannen B. Eye Movement Basics for the Clinician. St. Louis: Mosby, 1995.
Cohen AH. Ch. 12-Acquired Visual Information-Processing Disorders: Closed Head Injury. In: Press LJ, ed. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis:Mosby, 1997:154-67.
Cohen AH. Ch. 20-Optometric Rehabilitative Therapy. In: Press LJ, ed. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis:Mosby, 1997:278-86.
Hellerstein LF, Scheiman M. Visual problems associated with brain injury. In: Scheiman M, ed. Understanding and Managing Vision Deficits-A Guide for Occupational Therapists 3rd ed. Thorofare:Slack, 2011:189-200.
Hellerstein LF, Scheiman M, Fishman BI, Whitaker SG. Visual rehabilitation for patients with brain injury. In: Scheiman M, ed. Understanding and Managing Vision Deficits-A Guide for Occupational Therapists 3rd ed. Thorofare:Slack, 2011:201-232.
Helvie RE. Ch. 8-Disruptions in Physical Substrates of Vision Following Traumatic Brain Injury. In: Ashley MJ, ed. Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation 3rd Ed., New York: CRC Press, 2010:281-306.
Kapoor N, Ciuffreda KJ. Vision problems. In: Silver JM, McAllister TW, Yudofsky SC, eds. Textbook of traumatic brain injury 2nd Ed., Washington DC: American Psychiatric Publishing:363-74.
Morton RL. Ch. 7-Visual Dysfunction Following Traumatic Brain Injury. In: Ashley MJ, ed. Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation 3rd Ed., New York: CRC Press, 2010 p.255-80.
Padula WV. Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation 3rd Ed. Santa Ana: Optometric Extension Program Foundation Press, 2000.
Padula WV. Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation. In: Zollman F, ed. Manual of Traumatic Brain Injury Management. New York: Demos Medical, 2011:237-41.
Padula WV, Wui L, Vicci V, Thomas J, et al. Ch. 29-Evaluating and Treating Visual Dysfunction. In Zasler ND, Katz DI, Zafonte RD, eds. Brain Injury Medicine: Principles and Practice. New York: Demos Medical Publishing, 2007:511-28.
Scheiman M, Wick B. Binocular and accommodative problems associated with acquired brain injury. In: Clinical Management of Binocular Vision-Heterophoric, Accommodative and Eye Movement Disorders 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2002:573-95.
Suchoff IB, Ciuffreda KJ, Kapoor N eds. Visual and vestibular consequences of acquired brain injury. Santa Ana: Optometric Extension Program Foundation Press, 2001.
Suchoff I, Gianutsos R. Ch. 33-Rehabilitative Optometric Interventions for the Adult with Acquired Brain Injury. In: Grabois M, Garrison SJ, Hart KA and Lehmkuhl LD eds. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: The Complete Approach. Blackwell Science 2000:608-21.
Suchoff IB, Gianutsos R, Ciuffreda K, et al. Ch.27-Vision impairments related to acquired brain injury. In: Silverstone B, Lang MA, Rosenthal BP, et.al. eds. The Lighthouse handbook on vision impairment, Vol. 1. New York: Oxford Univ Press, 2000: 517-39.
Super S, ed. Intention, Attention, Inattention and Neglect. Santa Ana: Optometric Extension Program Foundation Press, 2006.
Suter PS. Ch. 9-Rehabilitation and Management of Visual Dysfunction Following Traumatic Brain Injury. In Ashley MJ, ed. Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation, Treatment and Case Management,3rd ed. New York: CRC Press, 2010:307-54.
Suter PS and Harvey LH eds. Vision rehabilitation-multidisciplinary care of the patient following brain injury. Boca Raton: CRC Press Boca 2011.
Zoltan. B. Visual, visual perceptual and perceptual-motor defects in brain–injured adults. In: Kraft GH, Berrol S, eds. North Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of America. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1992.
Zoltan B. Remediation of visual perceptual and perceptual-motor deficits. In Rosenthal M, et.al Rehabilitation of the adult and child with traumatic brain injury 2nd ed. Philadelphia: FA Davis Company 1990:360-363.
Zost, Michael Chapter 4-Diagnosis and Management of Visual Dysfunction in Cerebral Injury. In Maino D, ed. Diagnosis and Management of Special Populations. St. Louis: CV Mosby, 1995:75-134.



Section 2

Special Interest Journals on NOR-(articles included below)

Brain Injury Professional Fall 2005 2(3) p.4-32.

Journal of the American Optometric Association 1992 63(8) p. 530-46.

Journal of Behavioral Optometry 2007 18(3) p. 60-83.

NeuroRehabilitation June 1996 6(3) p.163-239.

Optometric Vision Development 2009 40(1) p.16-50.
Section 3

Reference Articles-NOR

Overview of Categories

Accommodation and Myopia

Binocularity/Strabismus

Electrodiagnostic Considerations

General Medical Conditions of Acquired Brain Injuries

General Visual Considerations of Acquired Brain Injuries

Ocular Disease in Acquired Brain Injuries

Ocular Motor Considerations

Photosensitivity

Posture and Mobility/Egocentric Localization/Visual Midline Shift Syndrome

Vestibular-Balance-Dizziness-Vertigo

Vision Therapy for ABI-General-also see specific sections

Visual Field Considerations – Blindsight/Hemianopsia/Visual Neglect/USI

Visual Information Processing – Visual Perception – Neuropsychological
Accommodation and Myopia
Andrzejewska, W and Baranowska-George T. Accommodation disorders after head injuries and cerebral concussion. Klin Oczna 1969;39(3):431–5.
Ciuffreda KJ. The efficacy of and scientific basis for vision therapy in non-strabismic accommodative and convergence disorders. Optometry 2002;73(12):735-762.
Fox, RS. The Rehabilitation of Vergence and Accommodative Dysfunctions in Traumatic Brain Injury. Brain Inj Prof 2005;2(3):9-14.
Leslie S. Myopia and accommodative insufficiency associated with moderate head trauma. Optom Vis Dev 2009;40(1):25-31.
London R, Wick B and Kirschen D. Post-traumatic pseudomyopia. Optometry 2003;74(2):111-20.
Mazow ML, Finkleman S, Frank J, Jenkins P. Acute accommodative and convergence insufficiency. Tr Am Opthalmol Soc 1989;137:158-73.
Binocularity/Strabismus
Alvarez RL, Vicci VR, Alkan Y, Kim EH, et.al. Vision therapy in adults with convergence insufficiency: clinical and functional magnetic resonance imaging measures. Optom Vis Science 2010;87(12):985-1002.
Avilla CW, VonNoorden GK. Post-traumatic fusion deficiency. Transactions 5th International Orthoptic Congress. Ravault A, Lenk M Editors, 1983:143-7.
Baxstrom C. Nonsurgical treatment for esotropia secondary to Arnold-Chiari I malfomration: a case report. Optometry 2009;80(9):472-78.
Beck RW. Ocular convergence and accommodation following head injury. Binocular Vision 1987;2(2):93-100.
Beck RW. Ocular deviations after head injury. Am Orthop J 1985;35(103-7.
Birnbaum MH. Noncomitant strabismus: evaluation and management. J Am Opt Assoc 1984;55(10):758-64.
Carroll R and Seaber JR. Acute loss of fusional convergence following head trauma. Am Orthop J 1974;24:57–59.
Cohen AH. Optometric Management Binocular Dysfunctions Secondary to Head Trauma: Case Reports. J Am Opt Assoc 1992:63(8);569-75.
Cohen M, Cros Wasswe Z, Banchadske R and Appel A. Convergence insufficiency in brain-injured patients. Brain Injury 1989;3(2):187–191.
Cook DL. Optometric management of patients with incomitant strabismus. J Behav Optom 2004;15(1):10-16.



Cooper J, Ciuffreda KJ, Carniglia PE, Zinn KM and Tannen B. Orthoptic treatment and eye movement recordings in Guillain-Barre syndrome. Neuro-ophthalmology 1995;15(5);249-56.
Doble JE, Feinberg DL, Rosner MS, Rosner AJ. Identification of binocular vision dysfunction in traumatic brain injury patients and effects of individualized prismatic spectacle lenses in the treatment of postconcussion symptoms: a retrospective analysis. Arch Am Acad Phys Med Rehab 2010;2(4):244-53.
Harrison RJ. Loss of fusional vergence with partial loss of accommodative convergence and accommodation following head injury. Binoc Vision 1987;2(2):93-100.
Hart, CT. Disturbance of fusion following head injury. Proc R Soc Med 1969;62(7):704–06.
Heinz J. Cranial nerve avulsion and other neural injuries in road accidents. Med J Aust 1969;2(25):1246-9.
Kerkoff G, Stogerer E. Treatment of fusional disorders in patients with brain damage. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1994;205(2):70-5.
Krasnow DJ. Fusional convergence loss following head trauma: a case report. Optom Monthly 1982;73:18-19.
Krohel GB, Kristan JW, Simon JW and Barrows NA. Post-traumatic convergence insufficiency. Ann Ophthalmol 1986;18(3):101–4.
London R, Scott SH. Sensory fusion disruption syndrome. J Am Optom Assoc 1987;58:544-6.
MacLellan AV. A case of recovery from traumatic loss of fusion. Brit Orthoptic J 1974;31:102-106.
Mazow ML, Tang R. Strabismus associated with head and facial trauma. Am Orthoptic J 1982;32:31-35.
Neger RE. The evaluation of diplopia in head trauma. J Head Trauma Rehab 1989;4(2):27-34.
Pratt-Johnson JA. Central disruption of fusional amplitude. Br J Ophthalmol 1973;57:347-50.
Pratt-Johnson JA. Acquired central disruption of fusional amplitude. Ophthalmology 1979;86(12):2140-2142.
Pratt-Johnson JA, Tillson G. The loss of fusion in adults with intractable diplopia. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol 1988;16(2);81-85.
Roy RR. The role of binocular stress in the post-whiplash syndrome. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1961;38(11):625-36.
Rutkowski PC, Burian HM. Divergence paralysis following head trauma. 1972;73(5);660-2.
Schneider RC, Johnson FD. Bilateral traumatic abducens palsy. J Neurosurgery 1971;34:33-37.
Soden R and Cohen AH. An optometric approach to the treatment of non-commitant deviation. J Am Optom Assoc 1983;54(5):451-4.
Stanworth A. Defects of ocular movement and fusion after head injury. Br J Ophthalmol 1974;58(3):266–71.
Sydnor CF, Seaber JH, Buckley EG. Traumatic superior oblique palsies. Ophthalmology 1982;89(2):134-8.
Tassinari J. Vision therapy for sensory fusion disruption syndrome-two case reports. Optom Vis Dev 2010;41(4):215-21.
Electrodiagnostic Considerations
Curry SH. Event-related potentials as indicants of structural and functional damage in closed head injury. Prog Brain Res 1980;54:507-15.
Du T, Ciuffreda KJ and Kapoor N. Elevated dark adaptation thresholds in traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2005;19(13):1125-38.
Freed S and Hellerstein L. Visual Electrodiagnostic Findings in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.  Brain Injury 1977;11(1):25-36. 
Padula WV, et.al. Visual evoked potentials (VEP) evaluating treatment for post-trauma vision syndrome (PTVS) in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Brain Inj 1994;8:125-33. Erratum in: Brain Inj 1994:8(4):393.
Rappaport M, Herrero-Backe C, Winterfield K, Rappaport ML, Hemmerle AV. Visual evoked potential pattern abnormalities and disability in severe traumatically brain-injured patients. J Head Trauma Rehab 1989;4(2):45-52.
Sarno S, Erasmus LP, Lippert G, Frey M, et al. Electrophysiological correlates of visual impairments after traumatic brain injury. Vis Research 2000;40:3029-3038.
General Medical Conditions of Acquired Brain Injury
Bennett T. Neuropsychological aspects of complex partial seizures: diagnostic and treatment issues. Int J Clin Neuropsych 1987;10:41-44.
Bennett T. Post-traumatic epilepsy: its nature and implications for head injury recovery. 1987;Cogn Rehab 1987;5(5):14-18.
Bergsneider M, Hovda DA, Shalmon E, Kelly DF. Cerebral hyperglycolysis following severe traumatic brain injury in humans: a positron emission tomography study. J Neurosurg 1997;86:241-51.
Bougduk N. Post whiplash syndrome. Austr Family Physician 1994;23:2303-7.
Brault JR, Wheeler Jb, Siegmund GP, Brault EJ. Clinical response of human subjects to rear-end automobile collisions. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1998;79:72-80.
Burke JP, Orton HP, West J, Strachan IM. Whiplash and its effect on the visual system. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1992;230(4):335-9.
Collins M. In the midst of a paradigm shift-data based management of sports related concussions. Brain Inj Prof 2007;4(4):8-13.
Dixon CE, Taft WC, Hayes RL. Mechanisms of mild traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehab 1993;8(1):1-12.
Evans RW. The postconcussion syndrome and sequelae of mild head injury. Neurol Clin 1992;10(4):815-47.
Evans RW, Evans RI, Sharp MJ. The physician survey on the post concussion and whiplash syndromes. Headache 1994;34(5):268-74.
Ford NL, Rosenfeld JV. Mild traumatic brain injury and bomb blast: stress, injury or both? ADF Health 2008;9:18-23.



Gaetz M. The neurophysiology of brain injury. Clin Neurophysiol 2004;115(1):4-18.
Gennarelli TA, Segawa H, Wald U, Czernicki Z. Physiological response to angular acceleration of the head. In: Head Injury: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Raven Press New York 1982 :129-140.
Gurdjian ES, Gurdjian E. Reevaluation of the biomechanics of blunt impact injury of the head. Surg Gyn Obstetrics 1975;140:845-50.
Hagstrom Y and Carlsson J. Prolonged functional impairments after whiplash injury. Scand J Rehab Med 1996;28(3):139-46.
Harch PG and Neubauer RA. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in global cerebral ischemia/anoxia and coma. In: Textbook of Hyperbaric Medicine, Jain KK 1999.
Karni A. Adult cortical plasticity and reorganization. Science Med 1997;4(1):24-33.
Ommaya AK, Faas F, Yarnell P. Whiplash injury and brain damage. JAMA 1968;204(4):285-9.
Park E, Bell JD, Baker AJ. Traumatic brain injury; can the consequences be stopped ? Canadian Med Assoc J 2008;178(9):1163-70.
Pfenninger EG, Reith A, Breitig, D, Grunert A, Ahnefeld FW. Early changes of intracranial pressure, perfusion pressure and blood flow after acute head injury. J Neurosurg 1989;70:774-779.
Povlishock JT, Erb DE, Astruc J. Axonal response to traumatic brain injury: reactive axonal change, deafferentiation and neuroplasticity. J Neurotrauma 1992;9(1):S189-S200.
Rubin AM, et al. Postural stability following mild head or whiplash injuries. Am J Otol 1995;16(2):216-21.
Swenson RS. Minor head injury. J Neuromusculoskeletal System 1997;4:133-43.
Yarnell PR, Rossie GV. Minor whiplash head injury with major debilitation. Brain Inj 1988;2(3):255-258.
Zasler ND. Mild traumatic brin injury: medical assessment and intervention. J Head Trauma Rehab 1993;8(3):13-29.



General Vision Considerations of Acquired Brain Injury



Alexander PK. The effects of brain damage on visual functioning in children. J of Vis Impair Blind 1990;84(7):372-6.
Anderson DP and Ford RM. Visual abnormalities after severe head injuries. Can J Surg 1980;23(2):163-5.



Ciuffreda KJ and Ludlam DP. Conceptual model of optometric vision care in mild traumatic brain injury. J Behav Optom 2011;22(1);10-12.
Cohen AH. Optometry: The invisible Member of the Rehabilitation Team J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63(8):529-536.
Cohen AH, Rein LD. The effect of head trauma on the visual system: the doctor of optometry as a member of the rehabilitation team. J Am Optom Assoc 1992:63(8);530-6.
Cohen AH, Soden R. An optometric approach to the rehabilitation of the stroke patient. J Am Optom Assoc 1981;52(10):795-800.
Craig S, Kapoor N, et.al. Profile of selected aspects of visually symptomatic individuals with acquired brain injury: a retrospective study. J Behav Optom 2008;19:1-10.
Elisevich KV, Ford RM, Anderson DP, Stratford JG. Visual abnormalities with multiple trauma. Surg Neurol 1984;22:565-75.
Falk, Naomi S. and Aksionoff, Elizabeth B. The Primary Care Optometric Evaluation of the Traumatic Brain Injury Patient. J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63(8):547-53.
Freeman PB and Jose RT. Enhancing decreased sight of patients with traumatic brain injury. J Opt Vis Dev1996;6(3):203-12.
Gianutsos R, Perlin R, Mazerolle KA and Trem N. Rehabilitative Optometric Services for Persons Emerging from Coma. J Head Trauma Rehab 1989:4(2):17-25.
Gianutsos R and Ramsey G. Enabling Rehabilitation Optometrists to Help Survivors of Acquired Brain Injury. Journal Vision Rehabilitation 1988;2(1):37-58.
Gianutsos R, Ramsey G and Perlin RR. Rehabilitative optometric services for survivors of acquired brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1988;69(8):573-8.
Goddard S. The role of primitive survival reflexes in the development of the visual system  J Behav Optom 1995;6(2):31-35.
Goodrich L, Kirby J, et al. Vsiual function in patients of a polytrauma rehabilitation center: a descriptive study. J Rehab Research Develop 2007;44;929-36.
Gutting A. The role of occupational therapy in rehabilitating stroke patients. J Am Opt Assoc 1992;63(8):595-8.
Hellerstein LF, Freed S and Maples WC. Vision profile of patients with mild brain injury J Am Optom Assoc 1995;66:634-639.
Hellerstein L and Freed S. Rehabilitative Optometric Management of Traumatic Brain Injury Patient. J Behav Optom 1994;5(6):143-8.
Horwich H, Kasner D. The effect of whiplash injuries on ocular functions. South Med J 1962;55:69-71.
Huang JC. Neuroplasticity as a proposed mechanism for the efficacy of optometric vision therapy and rehabilitation  J Behav Optom 2009;20(4):95-100.
Iskander D, Cohen AH, Kapoor N. Optometric management of a patient with parietal lobe injury. J Behav Optom 2010;21(6):143-9.
Kapoor N and Ciuffreda KJ. Vision Disturbances Following Traumatic Brain Injury.
Curr Treat Options Neurol 2002;4(4):271-280.

Kadet TS and Bodkin RE. Neuro-Optometry and the United States Legal System. Optom Vis Dev 2009;40(1):32-36.
Kerkhoff, G. Neurovisual rehabilitation: recent developments and future directions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;68:691-706.
Kowal L. Ophthalmic manifestations of head injury. Aust NZ J Ophthalmol, 1992, 20:35-40.
Krantz JL. Psychosocial aspects of vision loss associated with head trauma. J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63(8):589-91.
Lorenzana IJ and Frantz K. Optometric Co-management of a traumatic brain injury patient. J Optom Vis Devel 2003;34(3):151-155.
Lowell L, Cohen AH, Kapoor N. Optometric management of visual sequelae of frontal lobe-related traumatic brain injuries. J Behav Optom 2010;21(1):3-11.
Mandese M. Oculo-visual evaluation of the patient with traumatic brain injury. Optom Vis Dev 2009;40(1);37-44.
Maino D.  Neuroplasticity:  Teaching an old brain new tricks.  Rev Optom 2009;46(1):62-64,66-70.
McVeigh, FL. Traumatic brain injury- what is the optometrist’s role? Rev Optom 2008;145(4):73-77.
Nelms AC. New visions-collaboration between OTs and optometrists can make a difference in treating brain injury. OT Practice 2000;31:15-8.
Padula WV. Neuro-optometric rehabilitation for persons with a TBI or CVA. J Optom Vis Devel 1992;23:4-8.



Padula WV, Shapiro JB, Jasin B. Head injury causing post trauma vision syndrome. NE J Optom 1988;41(2):16-21.
Richman J, Baglieri AM, Cho O. Tinted lenses in the treatment of visual stress in a patient with traumatic brain injury- a case report. J Behav Optom 2007;18(6):149-53.
Sabates NR, Gonce MA, Farris BK. Neuro-ophthalmological findings in closed head injury. J Clin Neuro-Ophthalmol 1991;11(4):273-7.
Schlageter K, Gray B, Hall K, Shaw R, Sammet R. Incidence of treatment of visual dysfunction in traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 1993;7(5):439-448.
Shute RH, Woodhouse JM. Visual fitness to drive after stroke or head injury. Ophthal Physiol Opt 1990;10(4):327-32.
Steinman SB, Steinman BA. Applications of visual attention to vision therapy and rehabilitation. J Behav Optom 2007;18(5):121-6.
Stelmack J. Measuring outcomes of neuro-optometric care in traumatic brain injury. J Behav Optom 2007;18(3):67-71.
Strano CM. Effects of visual deficits on the ability to drive in traumatically brain-injured population. J Head Trauma Rehab 1989;4(2):35-43.
Suchoff IB, Kapoor N, Waxman R, Ference W. The occurrence of ocular and visual dysfunctions in an acquired brain-injured patient sample. J Am Optom Assoc. 1999;70(5):301-8.
Suter PS. A quick start in post-acute vision rehabilitation in brain injury. J Optom Vis Dev 1999;30:73-82.
Tierney, DW. Visual Dysfunction in Closed Head Injury. J Am Optom Assoc 1988;59(8):614-22.
Townsend, JC. Traumatic brain injury a new challenge for optometry, neuro-optometric rehabilitation and our nation. J Behav Optom 2007;18(3):63-66.
Trachtman JN. Post-traumatic stress disorder and vision. Optometry 2010;81(5):240-52.
VanRoekel RC. Military optometry in the care of traumatic brain injury patients. J Behav Optom 2007;18(3):60-61.
Vogel, Mark S. An Overview of Head Trauma for the Primary Care Practitioner-Part I-Etiology, Diagnosis, and Consequences of Head Trauma. J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63(8):537-41.
Vogel, Mark S. An Overview of Head Trauma for the Primary Care Practitioner-Part II-Ocular Damage Associated with Head Trauma. J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63(8):542-6.
Wainapel SF. Vision rehabilitation: an overlooked subject in physiatric training and practice. Am J Phys Med Rehab 1995;74:313-314.
Weiss B and Soden R. Head trauma and low vision: clinical modifications for diagnosis and prescription. J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63(8):559-63.
Wenberg S, Thomas JA. The role of vision in the rehabilitation of the musculoskeletal system: part 1. J Bodywork Movement Therapies 2000;4(4):242-5.
Wenberg S, Thomas JA. Post traumatic vision syndrome and the locomotor system: part 2: screening and collaborative care. J Bodywork Movement Therapies 2001;5(1):2-10.
Zelinsky DG. Neuro-optometric diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation following traumatic brain injuries: a brief overview. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2007;18(1):87-107.
Zelinsky DG. Brain injury rehabilitation: cortical and subcortical interfacing via retinal pathways. Physical Med Rehab 2010;2(9):852-57.
Zost M. Diagnosis and management of visual dysfunction in cerebral injury. In: Maino D ed. Diagnosis and management of special populations. St Louis: CV Mosby, 1995 p. 75-134.
Ocular Disease in Acquired Brain Injuries
Beckingsale AB, Rosenthal AR. Early fundus fluorescein angiographic findings and sequelae in traumatic retinopathy-case report. Br J Ophthalmol 1983;67(2):119-23.
Frenkel RE, Spoor TC. Diagnosis and management of traumatic optic neuropathies. Adv Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 1987;6:71-90.
Garfinkle AM, Danys IR, Nicolle DA, Austin RT. Terson’s syndrome: a reversible cause of blindness following subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 1992;76(5):766-71.
Haslett RS, Duvall-Young J, McGalliard JN. Traumatic retinal angiopathy and seat belts: pathogenesis of whiplash injury. Eye 1994;8:615-7.
Hau S, Ehrlich, Binstead K, et.al.. An evaluation of optometrist’s ability to correctly identify and manage patients with ocular disease in the accident and emergency department of an eye hospital. Br J Ophthalmol 2007;91:437-440.
Kelley JS, Hoover RE. Whiplash maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1978;96:834-5.
Rutner D, Kapoor N, Ciuffreda KJ, Craig S, et al. Occurrence of ocular disease in traumatic brain injury in a selected sample: a retrospective analysis. Brain Inj 2006;20(10):1079-86.
Rutner D, Kapoor N, Ciuffreda KJ, Suchoff IB, et al. Frequency of occurrence of ocular disease in symptomatic individuals with acquired brain injury. J Behav Optom 2007;18(2):31-36.
Sastry SM, Copeland RA, Mezghebe H, Siram SM. Retinal hemorrhage secondary to airbag-related ocular trauma. J Trauma 1995;38(4):582.
Wolin MJ, Lavin P Spontaneous visual recovery from traumatic optic neuropathy after blunt head injury. Am J Ophthalmol 1990;109:430-435.
Yamamoto LG, Bard RD. Transient blindness following mild head trauma. Criteria for a benign outcome. J Clin Pediatrics 1988;27(10):479-83.
Ocular Motor Considerations
Baker RS, Epstein AV. Ocular motor abnormalities from head trauma. Surv Ophthalmol 1991; 35:245-267.
Beck RW, Meckler RJ. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia after head injury. Ann Ophthalmol 1981;13(6):671-5.
Bodack MI. Evaluation of abduction deficits in pediatric patients-a case report and review of differentials. J Behav Optom 2002;13(6):143-8.
Burde RM, Henkind P. Delayed ophthalmolplegia following head trauma. Surv Ophthalmol 1982;27(2):126-32.
Ciuffreda KJ, Han Y, Kapoor N. Oculomotor fixation and its rehabilitation in acquired brain injury. Invest Ophthal Vis Sci 2004;45(5):2325.
Ciuffreda KJ, Han Y, Kapoor N, Ficarra AP. Oculomotor rehabilitation for reading in acquired brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation. 2006;21(1):9-21.

Ciuffreda KJ and Kapoor N. Oculomotor dysfunctions, their remediation. and reading-related problems in mild traumatic brain injury. J Behav Optom 2007:18(3):72-77.

Ciuffreda KJ, Kapoor N and Han Y. Reading-related ocular motor deficits in traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj Prof 2005;2:16-20.


Ciuffreda KJ, Kapoor N, Rutner D, Suchoff LB, Han ME and Craig S Occurrence of oculomotor dysfunction in aquired brain injury: A retrospective analysis. Optometry 2007;78(4);155-61.
Ciuffreda KJ, Ludlam, and Kapoor N. Clinical oculomotor training in traumatic brain injury. Optom Vis Dev 2009;40(1):16-23.

Ciuffreda KJ, Rutner R, Kapoor N, Suchoff IB, Craig S, Han ME. Vision therapy for oculomotor dysfunctions in acquired brain injury: a retrospective analysis. Optometry 2008;79(1):18-22.


Ciuffreda KJ, Suchoff IB, Marrone M, et al. Oculomotor rehabilitation in traumatic brain-injured patients. J Behav Optom 1996; 7(2): 31-8.
Fells P. Management of paralytic strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol 1974;58:255-65.
Galetta KM, Barrett J, Allen M, et.al. The King-Devick test as a determinant of head trauma concussion in boxers and MMA fighters. Neurology 2011 76(17):1456-62.
Gimse R, Tjell C, Bjorgen IA, Saunte C. Disturbed eye movements after whiplash due to injuries to the posture control system. J Clin Exp Neuropsych 1996;18(2):178-86.
Han Y, Ciuffreda KJ and Kapoor N. Reading-related oculomotor testing and training protocols for acquired brain injury in humans. Brain Res Protoc 2004;14(1):1-12.
Heitger MH et al. Eye movement and visuomotor arm movement deficits following mild closed head injury. Brain 2004, 127(3):575-590
Kapoor N, Ciuffreda KJ, Han Y. Oculomotor rehabilitation in acquired brain injury: a case series. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85(10):1667-1678.
Klingele TG, Schultz R, Murphy MG. Pontine gaze paresis due to traumatic craniocervical hyperextension. J Neurosurg 1980;53:249-51.
Mosimann UP, Muri RM, Felblinger J, Radanov BP. Saccadic eye movement disturbances in whiplash patients with persistent complaints. Brain 2000, 123(4):828-835.
Simkovich D, Ciuffreda KJ, Tannen B. Successful oculomotor auditory feedback therapy in an exotrope with acquired brain injury. J Behav Optom 2006;17(4):93-6.
Photosensitivity
Bohnen S, Twijnstra A, Wijnen G, et al. Tolerance for light and sound of patients with persistent post-concussional symptoms 6 months after mild head injury. Neurology 1991,238: 443-446.
Du T, Ciuffreda Kj, Kapoor N. Elevated dark adaptation in traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 2005;19(13):1125-38.
Jackowski MM et.al. Photophobia in patients with traumatic brain injury: use of light filtering lenses to enhance contrast sensitivity and reading rate. NeuroRehab 1996;6(3):193-201.



Posture and Mobility/Egocentric Localization/Visual Midline Shift Syndrome
Agostini V, Chiaramello E, et.al. Postural control after traumatic brain injury in patients with neuro-ophthalmic deficits. Gait Posture 2011;34(2):248-53.
Georgis JF. Treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with yoked prism lenses. In: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. Penney DG ed. Informa Healthcare, 2007:619-41.
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Vestibular–Balance-Dizziness-Vertigo
Anderson DC et al. The dizzy patient: a review of etiology, differential diagnosis, and management. J Am Optom Assoc 1995;66:545-558.

Cohen AH. The role of optometry in management of vestibular disorders. Brain Injury Prof 2005:2(3):8-10.

Farber SD, Zoltan B. Visual-vestibular systems interaction: therapeutic implications. J Head Trauma Rehab 1989;4(2):9-16.

Fife TD, Tusa RJ, Furman JM, et al. Assessment: vestibular testing techniques in adults and children. Neurology 2000;55:1431-41.

Herdman SJ. Role of vestibular adaptation in vestibular rehabilitation. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998;119:49-54.

Mejia GA. Vision & balance: the optometrist’s role in managing patients with dizziness & vestibular dysfunction. J Behav Optom 2008;19(4):97-102.



Shumway-Cook A, Horak FB. Rehabilitation strategies for patients with vestibular deficits. Neurol Clin 1990;8(2):441-57.

Shumway-Cook A, Horak FB. Vestibular rehabilitation: an exercise approach to managing symptoms of vestibular dysfunction. Seminars Hearing 1989;10(2):196-209.



Solan HA, Shelley-Tremblay J and Larson S. Vestibular function, sensory integration and balance anomalies: a brief review. Optom Vis Dev 2007;38(1);13-17.

Suchoff IB, Ciuffreda KJ, and Kapoor N (editors) Visual and vestibular consequences of acquired brain injury. Optometric Extension Program Foundation Press, Santa Ana, CA. 2001

Weiss LM. Visual-Vestibular Interaction in the Acquired Brain Injured Patient. J Optom Vis Dev 2002;33:33-41.

Winkler PA, Ciuffreda KJ. Ocular fixation, vestibular dysfunction and visual motion hypersensitivity. Optometry 2009;80(9);502-12.
Vision Therapy for ABI-General-also see specific section
Aksionoff, Elizabeth B. and Falk, Naomi S. Optometric Therapy for the Left Brain Injured Patient. J. Am Optom Assn 1992;63:564-8.
Agarwal NK, Nadeem B, Shah SB, Hung GK, Ciuffreda KJ. Effects of video based training on traumatic brain injury patients. J Behav Optom 2010;21(5):125-9.
Berne SA. Visual therapy for the traumatic brain injured. J Optom Vis Dev 1990;21:13-16.
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Cohen AH. Optometric rehabilitative therapy. In: Press LJ, ed. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St.Louis:Mosby 1997:278-86.
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Gottlieb R. Functional visual fields following brain injury. J Optom Phototherapy March 2005:37-45.
Gottlieb R and Wallace L. Syntonic Phototherapy. J Behav Optom 2001;12(2):31-38.
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Hillier CG. Vision rehabilitation following acquired brain injury: a case series. Brain Inj Professional 2005;2(3):29-31.
Hinrichs C. Vision rehabilitation for the multiply challenged child. J Optom Vis Dev 1992;23(2):30-32.



Ludlam WM. Rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury with associated visual dysfunction – a case report. Neurorehab 1996;6(3):183-92.
Nixon A. Shedding light on stroke treatment. J Optom Phototherapy March 2009:23-26.

Politzer TA. Case studies of a new approach using partial and selective occlusion for the clinical treatment of diplopia. Neurorehab 1996;6(3):213-7.

Proctor A. Traumatic brain injury and binasal occlusion. Optom Vis Dev 2009;40(1):45-50.


Richman JE, Baglieri AM, Cho O. Tinted lenses in the treatment of visual stress in a patient with a traumatic brain injury. J Behav Optom 2007;18(6):149-53.
Suchoff IB, Gianutsos R. Rehabilitative optometric interventions for the adult with acquired brain injury. In: Grabois M, Garrison SJ, Hart KA, et al., eds. Physical medicine and rehabilitation: the complete approach. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, 2000:608-21.
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Wallace L. Syntonics: optometric color therapy for the treatment of acquired brain injury. J Optom Phototherapy December 2006:20-24.
Visual Field Considerations – Blindsight/Hemianiopsia/ Visual Neglect/Unilateral Spatial Inattention
Alesterlund L, Maino D. That the blind may see: A review: Blindsight and its implications for optometrists. J Optom Vis Dev 1999;30(2):86-93
Bolognini N, Rasi F, Coccia M, Ladavas E. Visual search improvement in hemianopic patients after audio-visual stimulation. Brain 2005 128(12):2830-2842
Burke RM and Henkind P. Homonymous hemianopsia and disc pallor after severe head injury. Surv Ophthalmol 1984;289(4):333-338.
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Driver J and Pouget A. Object-Centered Visual Neglect, or Relative Egocentric Neglect? J Cogn Neuroscience 2000;12(3):542-545.
Elden SB, Barron CL. Trauma-induced altitudinal hemianopsia. J Am Opt Assoc 1987;58(6):510-3.
Gianutsos R: Visual field deficits after brain injury: computerized screening. J Behav Optom 1991, 2:143-150.
Gittinger JW. Occipital infraction following chiropractic cervical manipulation. J Clin Neuroophthalmol 1986;6(1):11-13.
Gottlieb DD, Freeman P, Williams M. Clinical research and statistical analysis of a visual field awareness system. J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63:581-8.
Gottlieb DD, Fuhr A, Hatch WV, et al. Neuro-optometric facilitation of vision recovery after acquired brain injury. NeuroRehab 1998;11:175-99.
Ishiai S, Sugishita M, Watabiki S, Nakayama T, et al. Improvement of left unilateral spatial neglect line extension task. Neurology 1994;44(2):294-8.
Jackowski MM, Sturr JF, Turk MA, Friedman DI. Clinical indications of altered peripheral field function in patients with traumatic brain injury. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Soc 1999;40(4):32 (supplement).
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Kasten E, Wust S, Behrens-Baumann W and Sabel BA. Computer-based training for the treatment of partial blindness. Nature Medicine 1998;4(9):1083-87.



Kerkhoff G, et al.: Rehabilitation of homonymous scotomata in patients with postgeniculate damage of the visual system: saccadic compensation training. Restorative Neurol Neurosci 1992, 4:245-254.
Ladavas E, Zeloni G, Zaccara G and Gangeni P. Eye movements and orienting of attention in patients with visual neglect. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9(1):67-75, 1997.
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Margolis NW, Suter PS. Visual field defects and unilateral spatial inattention. J Behav Optom 2006;17(2):31-37.
Mark VW, Looistra CA, Heilman KM. Hemispatial neglect affected by non-neglected stimuli. Neurology 1988;38(8):1207-11.
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Pambakian ALM, Kennard C. Can visual function be restored in patients with homonymous hemianopia? Br J Ophthalmol 1997 81:324-328.
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Snyder LH, Grieve KL, et.al. Separate body-and world-referenced representations of visual space in parietal cortex. Nature 1998, 394:887-890.
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Stoerig P, Cowy A. Blindsight. Current Biology 2007;17(19):R822-4.



Streff JW. Visual rehabilitation of hemianoptic head trauma patients emphasizing ambient pathways. NeuroRehab 1996;6(3):173-81.
Suchoff IB. The diagnosis of visual unilateral spatial inattention. Brain Inj Prof 2005;2(3):21-24.
Suchoff IB, Ciuffreda KJ. A primer for the optometric management of unilateral spatial inattention. Optometry. 2004 May;75(5):305-18.
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Suter PS. Peripheral visual field loss and visual neglect-diagnosis and treatment. J Behav Optom 2007;18(3):78-83.
Suter PS and Margolis N. Managing visual field defects following acquired brain injury. Brain Inj Prof 2005;2(3):25-28.
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Weinberg J, et al. Training sensory awareness and spatial organization in people with right brain damage. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1979;60(11):491-496.
Visual Information Processing / Visual Perception / Neuropsychological
Aksionoff EB, Falk NS. The differential diagnosis of perceptual deficits in traumatic brain injury patients. J Am Optom Assoc 1992, 63:554-8.
Bauer RM, Trobe JD. Visual memory and perceptual impairments in prosopagnosia. J Clin Neuroophthalmol 1984;4:39-46.
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Bennett T. Neuropsychological rehabilitation in the private practice setting. Cog Rehab 1988;6(1):12-15.
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Gianutsos R, Suchoff IB. Neuropsychological consequences of mild brain injury and optometric implications. J Behav Optom 1998;9(1):3-6.
Gianutsos R, Grynbaum BB. Helping brain-injured people to contend with hidden cognitive deficits. Int Rehabil Med 1983;5(1):37-40
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Hannay HJ, Levin HS and Kay M. Tachistoscopic visual perception after closed head injury. J Clin Neuropsych 1982;4(2):117-29.



Lachapelle J, Bolduc-Teasdale J, Ptito A, McKerral M. Deficits in complex visual information processing after mild TBI: electrophysiological markers and vocational outcome prognosis. Brain Inj 2008;22(3):265-74.
Levin HS, Eisenberg HM. Neuropsychological outcome of closed head injury in children and adolescents. Child’s Brain 1979;5:281-92.
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Parente R, Anderson-Parente JK, Shaw B. Retraining the mind’s eye. J Head Trauma Rehab 1989;4(2):53-62.
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Warren M. A hierarchical model for evaluation and treatment of visual perceptual dysfunction in adult acquired brain injury, part 1. Am J Occup Ther 1993;47(1):42-54.
Warren M. A hierarchical model for evaluation and treatment of visual perceptual dysfunction in adult acquired brain injury, part 2. Am J Occup Ther 1993;47(1):55-66.
Weissman, Woldorff MG. Hemispheric Asymmetries for Different Components of Global/Local Attention Occur in Distinct Temporo-parietal Loci. Cereb Cortex 2005;15(6): 870 - 876.
Zoltan. B. Visual, visual perceptual and perceptual-motor defects in brain – injured adults. In Kraft GH, Berrol S (eds). North Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of America. Philadelphia WB Saunders: 1992
Compiled by Curtis Baxstrom,OD,FNORA

I’d like to acknowledge this project has been supplemented by the previous work of Lynn Hellerstein,OD and John Thomas,OD

Last updated October 12, 2011


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