Ballston spa high school advanced Placement United States History spring semester january 2012



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Chapter #24: Industry Comes of Age – Big Picture Themes


1. Before the Civil War, railroads had become important. After the war, railroads boomed and were critical to the nation. Railroads, along with steel, were to be the skeleton on which the nation’s economy would be built.

2. A class of millionaires emerged for the first time ever. Tycoons like Carnegie and Rockefeller made fortunes. This type of wealth was championed by “Social Darwinism” where the strong win in business.

3. Unfortunately, many of the mega-industries, like railroads, grew at the expense of the “little man’s” interest. As businesses, they were out to make money, and they did. But the working man cried foul.

4. To right these wrongs, the beginnings of anti-trusts began (to bust the monopolies) and organized labor got a jumpstart (although they were still rather ineffective).



Chapter #24: Identifications

Government Subsidies
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Transcontinental Railroad
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Cornelius Vanderbilt
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Jay Gould
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Interstate Commerce Commission
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Vertical Integration
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Horizontal Integration
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Trusts
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J.P. Morgan
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Sherman Anti-Trust Act
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Yellow Dog Contracts
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Blacklists
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Haymarket Square incident
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Chapter #24 Guided Reading Questions
The Iron Colt Becomes an Iron Horse

Know: Land grants

1. What were the advantages and disadvantages of government subsidies for the railroads?
Spanning the Continent with Rails

Know: Union Pacific, Central Pacific, Paddies, Leland Stanford

2. Describe how the first transcontinental railroad was built.
Binding the Country with Railroad Ties

Know: The Great Northern, James J. Hill

3. Explain how the railroads could help or hurt Americans.
Railroad Consolidation and Mechanization

Know: Cornelius Vanderbilt, Pullman Cars

4. What technological improvements helped railroads?
Revolution by Railways

Know: Time Zones

5. What effects did the railroads have on America as a whole?
Wrongdoing in Railroading

Know: Jay Gould, Stock Watering, Pools

6. What wrongdoing were railroads guilty of?
Government Bridles the Iron Horse

Know: Wabash, Interstate Commerce Commission

7. Was the Interstate Commerce Act an important piece of legislation?

Miracles of Mechanization

Know: Mesabi Range, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison

8. What factors made industrial expansion possible?

The Trust Titan Emerges

Know: Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, Vertical Integration, Horizontal Integration, Trust, Interlocking Directorate



  1. How did businesses organize to try to maximize profits?


The Supremacy of Steel

Know: Heavy Industry, Capital Goods, Consumer Goods, Bessemer Process

10. Why was steel so important for industrialization?

Carnegie and Other Sultans of Steel

Know: Andrew Carnegie, J.P. Morgan

11. Briefly describe the careers of Andrew Carnegie and J.P. Morgan.


Rockefeller Grows an American Beauty Rose

Know: Kerosene

12. How was John D. Rockefeller able to become so wealthy?

The Gospel of Wealth

Know: Social Darwinism

13. How did the wealthy justify their wealth?
Government Tackles the Trust Evil

Know: Sherman Anti-Trust Act

14. What two methods were tried by those who opposed the trusts?

The South in the Age of Industry

15. How successful were Southerners at industrializing?



The Impact of the New Industrial Revolution on America

16. Describe the positive and negative effects of the industrial revolution on working Americans.



In Unions There is Strength

Know: Scabs, Lock-out, Yellow-dog Contract, Black List, Company Town

17. What conditions existed in America that led Jay Gould to say, "I can hire one half of the working class to kill the other half"?

Labor Limps Along

Know: National Labor Union, Knights of Labor

18. Explain the similarities and differences between the National Labor Union and the Knights of Labor.

Unhorsing the Knights of Labor

Know: Haymarket Square

19. What factors led to the decline of the Knights of Labor?

The AF of L to the Fore

Know: American Federation of Labor, Samuel Gompers, Closed Shop

20. How was the AFL different from previous unions?

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